List of astronauts by first flight

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This is a list of astronauts by first flight, in chronological order, according to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale criterion of achieving an altitude higher than 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft), thereby crossing the Kármán line. During the 1960s, the United States Air Force considered an altitude of 50 mi (80 km; 260,000 ft) as the limit of space; United States Air Force and NASA personnel exceeding that altitude at the time could be awarded the astronaut badge. Thirteen X-15 flights travelled higher than 50 miles.

Astronauts[edit]

Table parameters[edit]

Legend
Italic In the 'Name' column, denotes astronauts who have flown to the Moon without landing.
Bold In the 'Name' column, denotes astronauts who have walked on the Moon.
Bold italic In the 'Name' column, denotes astronauts who have walked on the Moon and who have also flown to the Moon without landing.
After the name, denotes those who died during their first spaceflight.[nb 1]
After the name, denotes those who died during a subsequent spaceflight.[nb 1]
Strikethrough Denotes those whose first spaceflight had begun and was intended to cross the Kármán line, but failed to do so.

First 100[edit]

Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space.
Alan Shepard, the first American and the second person in space.
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman and 12th person in space.
Alexey Leonov, joint 17th in space and first to perform an EVA.
John Young, 19th person in space, first to fly solo around the Moon and first to command a Space Shuttle.
Vladimir Komarov, joint 14th person and first to die during spaceflight (during Soyuz 1).
Vladimir Komarov, joint 14th person and first to die during spaceflight (during Soyuz 1).
Neil Armstrong, 26th person in space and first to set foot on the Moon.
Harrison Schmitt, joint 59th person in space. The most recent person and first geologist to have arrived on the Moon.
Vladimír Remek, 88th person in space and the first from a country other than the US or the Soviet Union.
Sigmund Jähn, 91st person in space and the first German.
Phạm Tuân, 97th person in space, and the first from an Asian country (Vietnam).
Number Name Nationality Date Spacecraft Ref.
1 Yuri Gagarin  Soviet Union 12 April 1961 Vostok 1 [1][2]
2 Alan Shepard  United States 5 May 1961 Freedom 7 [3][4][nb 2]
3 Virgil Grissom  United States 21 July 1961 Liberty Bell 7 [5][6][nb 2]
4 Gherman Titov  Soviet Union 6 August 1961 Vostok 2 [7]
5 John Glenn  United States 20 February 1962 Friendship 7 [8][9]
6 Scott Carpenter  United States 24 May 1962 Aurora 7 [10]
7 Andriyan Nikolayev  Soviet Union 11 August 1962 Vostok 3 [11][12]
8 Pavel Popovich  Soviet Union 12 August 1962 Vostok 4 [11][13]
9 Walter Schirra  United States 3 October 1962 Sigma 7 [14]
10 Gordon Cooper  United States 15 May 1963 Faith 7 [15]
11 Valery Bykovsky  Soviet Union 14 June 1963 Vostok 5 [16]
12 Valentina Tereshkova  Soviet Union 16 June 1963 Vostok 6 [17]
13 Joseph Walker  United States 19 July 1963 X-15 Flight 90 [18][nb 2]
14 Konstantin Feoktistov  Soviet Union 12 October 1964 Voskhod 1 [19]
Vladimir Komarov  Soviet Union 12 October 1964 Voskhod 1 [19][nb 3]
Boris Yegorov  Soviet Union 12 October 1964 Voskhod 1 [19]
17 Pavel Belyayev  Soviet Union 18 March 1965 Voskhod 2 [20]
Alexey Leonov  Soviet Union 18 March 1965 Voskhod 2 [20]
19 John Young  United States 23 March 1965 Gemini 3 [21]
20 James McDivitt  United States 3 June 1965 Gemini 4 [22]
Edward White  United States 3 June 1965 Gemini 4 [22]
22 Pete Conrad  United States 21 August 1965 Gemini 5 [23]
23 Frank Borman  United States 4 December 1965 Gemini 7 [24]
James Lovell  United States 4 December 1965 Gemini 7 [24]
25 Thomas Stafford  United States 15 December 1965 Gemini 6A [25]
26 Neil Armstrong  United States 16 March 1966 Gemini 8 [26]
David Scott  United States 16 March 1966 Gemini 8 [26]
28 Eugene Cernan  United States 3 June 1966 Gemini 9A [27]
29 Michael Collins  United States 18 July 1966 Gemini 10 [28]
30 Richard Gordon  United States 12 September 1966 Gemini 11 [29]
31 Edwin Aldrin  United States 11 November 1966 Gemini 12 [30]
32 Walter Cunningham  United States 11 October 1968 Apollo 7 [31]
Donn Eisele  United States 11 October 1968 Apollo 7 [31]
34 Georgy Beregovoy  Soviet Union 26 October 1968 Soyuz 3 [32]
35 William Anders  United States 21 December 1968 Apollo 8 [33]
36 Vladimir Shatalov  Soviet Union 14 January 1969 Soyuz 4 [34]
37 Yevgeny Khrunov  Soviet Union 15 January 1969 Soyuz 5 [35]
Boris Volynov  Soviet Union 15 January 1969 Soyuz 5 [35]
Aleksei Yeliseyev  Soviet Union 15 January 1969 Soyuz 5 [35]
40 Russell Schweickart  United States 3 March 1969 Apollo 9 [36]
41 Valeri Kubasov  Soviet Union 11 October 1969 Soyuz 6 [37]
Georgy Shonin  Soviet Union 11 October 1969 Soyuz 6 [37]
43 Anatoly Filipchenko  Soviet Union 12 October 1969 Soyuz 7 [38]
Viktor Gorbatko  Soviet Union 12 October 1969 Soyuz 7 [38]
Vladislav Volkov  Soviet Union 12 October 1969 Soyuz 7 [38][nb 4]
46 Alan Bean  United States 14 November 1969 Apollo 12 [39]
47 Fred Haise  United States 11 April 1970 Apollo 13 [40]
Jack Swigert  United States 11 April 1970 Apollo 13 [40]
49 Vitaly Sevastyanov  Soviet Union 1 June 1970 Soyuz 9 [41]
50 Edgar Mitchell  United States 31 January 1971 Apollo 14 [42]
Stuart Roosa  United States 31 January 1971 Apollo 14 [42]
52 Nikolay Rukavishnikov  Soviet Union 22 April 1971 Soyuz 10 [43]
53 Georgy Dobrovolsky  Soviet Union 6 June 1971 Soyuz 11 [44][nb 4]
Viktor Patsayev  Soviet Union 6 June 1971 Soyuz 11 [44][nb 4]
55 James Irwin  United States 26 July 1971 Apollo 15 [45]
Alfred Worden  United States 26 July 1971 Apollo 15 [45]
57 Charles Duke  United States 16 April 1972 Apollo 16 [46]
Ken Mattingly  United States 16 April 1972 Apollo 16 [46]
59 Ronald Evans  United States 7 December 1972 Apollo 17 [47]
Harrison Schmitt  United States 7 December 1972 Apollo 17 [47]
61 Joseph Kerwin  United States 25 May 1973 Skylab 2 [48]
Paul Weitz  United States 25 May 1973 Skylab 2 [48]
63 Owen Garriott  United States 28 July 1973 Skylab 3 [49]
Jack Lousma  United States 28 July 1973 Skylab 3 [49]
65 Vasily Lazarev  Soviet Union 27 September 1973 Soyuz 12 [50]
Oleg Makarov  Soviet Union 27 September 1973 Soyuz 12 [50]
67 Gerald Carr  United States 16 November 1973 Skylab 4 [51]
Edward Gibson  United States 16 November 1973 Skylab 4 [51]
William Pogue  United States 16 November 1973 Skylab 4 [51]
70 Pyotr Klimuk  Soviet Union 18 December 1973 Soyuz 13 [52]
Valentin Lebedev  Soviet Union 18 December 1973 Soyuz 13 [52]
72 Yury Artyukhin  Soviet Union 3 July 1974 Soyuz 14 [53]
73 Lev Dyomin  Soviet Union 26 August 1974 Soyuz 15 [54]
Gennadi Sarafanov  Soviet Union 26 August 1974 Soyuz 15 [54]
75 Georgy Grechko  Soviet Union 10 January 1975 Soyuz 17 [55]
Aleksei Gubarev  Soviet Union 10 January 1975 Soyuz 17 [55]
77 Vance Brand  United States 15 July 1975 ASTP [56]
Donald Slayton  United States 15 July 1975 ASTP [56]
79 Vitaly Zholobov  Soviet Union 6 July 1976 Soyuz 21 [57]
80 Vladimir Aksyonov  Soviet Union 15 September 1976 Soyuz 22 [58]
81 Valery Rozhdestvensky  Soviet Union 14 October 1976 Soyuz 23 [59]
Vyacheslav Zudov  Soviet Union 14 October 1976 Soyuz 23 [59]
83 Yury Glazkov  Soviet Union 7 February 1977 Soyuz 24 [60]
84 Vladimir Kovalyonok  Soviet Union 9 October 1977 Soyuz 25 [61]
Valery Ryumin  Soviet Union 9 October 1977 Soyuz 25 [61]
86 Yury Romanenko  Soviet Union 10 December 1977 Soyuz 26 [62]
87 Vladimir Dzhanibekov  Soviet Union 10 January 1978 Soyuz 27 [63]
88 Vladimír Remek  Czechoslovakia 2 March 1978 Soyuz 28 [64]
89 Aleksandr Ivanchenkov  Soviet Union 15 June 1978 Soyuz 29 [65]
90 Mirosław Hermaszewski  Poland 27 June 1978 Soyuz 30 [66]
91 Sigmund Jähn  East Germany 26 August 1978 Soyuz 31 [67]
92 Vladimir Lyakhov  Soviet Union 25 February 1979 Soyuz 32 [68]
93 Georgi Ivanov  Bulgaria 10 April 1979 Soyuz 33 [69]
94 Leonid Popov  Soviet Union 9 April 1980 Soyuz 35 [70]
95 Bertalan Farkas  Hungary 26 May 1980 Soyuz 36 [71]
96 Yury Malyshev  Soviet Union 5 June 1980 Soyuz T-2 [72]
97 Phạm Tuân  Vietnam 23 July 1980 Soyuz 37 [73]
98 Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez  Cuba 18 September 1980 Soyuz 38 [74]
99 Leonid Kizim  Soviet Union 27 November 1980 Soyuz T-3 [75]
Gennadi Strekalov  Soviet Union 27 November 1980 Soyuz T-3 [75]

101–200[edit]

Robert Crippen, 103rd person in space and the first to pilot a Space Shuttle from space.
Story Musgrave, joint 116th person in space and the only person to have flown on all five NASA Space Shuttles.
Sally Ride, joint 120th person and the first American woman in space.
Guion Bluford, joint 125th person and the first African American in space.
Bruce McCandless, joint 133rd person in space and the first to perform an untethered EVA.
Rakesh Sharma, 139th person and the first Indian in space.
Anna Lee Fisher, joint 155th person and the first mother in space.
Sultan bin Salman Al Saud, joint 170th person, first royal, and first Saudi Arabian in space.
Rodolfo Neri Vela, joint 192nd and first Mexican in space.
Number Name Nationality Date Spacecraft Ref.
101 Viktor Savinykh  Soviet Union 12 March 1981 Soyuz T-4 [76]
102 Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa  Mongolia 22 March 1981 Soyuz 39 [77]
103 Robert Crippen  United States 12 April 1981 STS-1 [78][79]
104 Dumitru Prunariu  Romania 14 May 1981 Soyuz 40 [80]
105 Joseph Engle  United States 12 November 1981 STS-2 [81]
Richard Truly  United States 12 November 1981 STS-2 [81]
107 Charles Fullerton  United States 22 March 1982 STS-3 [82]
108 Anatoly Berezovoy  Soviet Union 13 May 1982 Soyuz T-5 [83]
109 Jean-Loup Chrétien  France 24 June 1982 Soyuz T-6 [84]
110 Henry Hartsfield  United States 27 June 1982 STS-4 [85]
111 Svetlana Savitskaya  Soviet Union 19 August 1982 Soyuz T-7 [86]
Aleksandr Serebrov  Soviet Union 19 August 1982 Soyuz T-7 [86]
113 Joseph Allen  United States 11 November 1982 STS-5 [87]
William Lenoir  United States 11 November 1982 STS-5 [87]
Robert Overmyer  United States 11 November 1982 STS-5 [87]
116 Karol Bobko  United States 4 April 1983 STS-6 [88]
Story Musgrave  United States 4 April 1983 STS-6 [88]
Donald Peterson  United States 4 April 1983 STS-6 [88]
119 Vladimir Titov  Soviet Union 20 April 1983 Soyuz T-8 [89]
120 John Fabian  United States 18 June 1983 STS-7 [90]
Frederick Hauck  United States 18 June 1983 STS-7 [90]
Sally Ride  United States 18 June 1983 STS-7 [90]
Norman Thagard  United States 18 June 1983 STS-7 [90]
124 Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov  Soviet Union 27 June 1983 Soyuz T-9 [91]
125 Guion Bluford  United States 30 August 1983 STS-8 [92]
Daniel Brandenstein  United States 30 August 1983 STS-8 [92]
Dale Gardner  United States 30 August 1983 STS-8 [92]
William Thornton  United States 30 August 1983 STS-8 [92]
129 Byron Lichtenberg  United States 28 November 1983 STS-9 [93]
Ulf Merbold  West Germany 28 November 1983 STS-9 [93]
Robert Parker  United States 28 November 1983 STS-9 [93]
Brewster Shaw  United States 28 November 1983 STS-9 [93]
133 Robert Gibson  United States 3 February 1984 STS-41-B [94]
Bruce McCandless  United States 3 February 1984 STS-41-B [94]
Ronald McNair  United States 3 February 1984 STS-41-B [94][nb 5]
Robert Stewart  United States 3 February 1984 STS-41-B [94]
137 Oleg Atkov  Soviet Union 8 February 1984 Soyuz T-10 [95]
Vladimir Solovyov  Soviet Union 8 February 1984 Soyuz T-10 [95]
139 Rakesh Sharma  India 3 April 1984 Soyuz T-11 [96]
140 Terry Hart  United States 6 April 1984 STS-41-C [97]
George Nelson  United States 6 April 1984 STS-41-C [97]
Francis Scobee  United States 6 April 1984 STS-41-C [97][nb 5]
James van Hoften  United States 6 April 1984 STS-41-C [97]
144 Igor Volk  Soviet Union 17 July 1984 Soyuz T-12 [98]
145 Michael Coats  United States 30 August 1984 STS-41-D [99]
Steven Hawley  United States 30 August 1984 STS-41-D [99]
Richard Mullane  United States 30 August 1984 STS-41-D [99]
Judith Resnik  United States 30 August 1984 STS-41-D [99][nb 5]
Charles Walker  United States 30 August 1984 STS-41-D [99]
150 Marc Garneau  Canada 5 October 1984 STS-41-G [100]
David Leestma  United States 5 October 1984 STS-41-G [100]
Jon McBride  United States 5 October 1984 STS-41-G [100]
Paul Scully-Power  United States 5 October 1984 STS-41-G [100]
Kathryn Sullivan  United States 5 October 1984 STS-41-G [100]
155 Anna Fisher  United States 8 November 1984 STS-51-A [101]
David Walker  United States 8 November 1984 STS-51-A [101]
157 James Buchli  United States 24 January 1985 STS-51-C [102]
Ellison Onizuka  United States 24 January 1985 STS-51-C [102][nb 5]
Gary Payton  United States 24 January 1985 STS-51-C [102]
Loren Shriver  United States 24 January 1985 STS-51-C [102]
161 Edwin Garn  United States 12 April 1985 STS-51-D [103]
Stanley Griggs  United States 12 April 1985 STS-51-D [103]
Jeffrey Hoffman  United States 12 April 1985 STS-51-D [103]
Margaret Seddon  United States 12 April 1985 STS-51-D [103]
Donald Williams  United States 12 April 1985 STS-51-D [103]
166 Frederick Gregory  United States 29 April 1985 STS-51-B [104]
Don Lind  United States 29 April 1985 STS-51-B [104]
Lodewijk van den Berg  Netherlands 29 April 1985 STS-51-B [104]
Taylor Wang  United States 29 April 1985 STS-51-B [104]
170 Sultan Al-Saud  Saudi Arabia 17 June 1985 STS-51-G [105]
Patrick Baudry  France 17 June 1985 STS-51-G [105]
John Creighton  United States 17 June 1985 STS-51-G [105]
Shannon Lucid  United States 17 June 1985 STS-51-G [105]
Steven Nagel  United States 17 June 1985 STS-51-G [105]
175 Loren Acton  United States 29 July 1985 STS-51-F [106]
John Bartoe  United States 29 July 1985 STS-51-F [106]
Roy Bridges  United States 29 July 1985 STS-51-F [106]
Anthony England  United States 29 July 1985 STS-51-F [106]
Karl Henize  United States 29 July 1985 STS-51-F [106]
180 Richard Covey  United States 27 August 1985 STS-51-I [107]
William Fisher  United States 27 August 1985 STS-51-I [107]
John Lounge  United States 27 August 1985 STS-51-I [107]
183 Vladimir Vasyutin  Soviet Union 17 September 1985 Soyuz T-14 [108]
Aleksandr Volkov  Soviet Union 17 September 1985 Soyuz T-14 [108]
185 Ronald Grabe  United States 3 October 1985 STS-51-J [109]
David Hilmers  United States 3 October 1985 STS-51-J [109]
William Pailes  United States 3 October 1985 STS-51-J [109]
188 Bonnie Dunbar  United States 30 October 1985 STS-61-A [110]
Reinhard Furrer  West Germany 30 October 1985 STS-61-A [110]
Ernst Messerschmid  West Germany 30 October 1985 STS-61-A [110]
Wubbo Ockels  Netherlands 30 October 1985 STS-61-A [110]
192 Mary Cleave  United States 27 November 1985 STS-61-B [111]
Rodolfo Neri Vela  Mexico 27 November 1985 STS-61-B [111]
Bryan O'Connor  United States 27 November 1985 STS-61-B [111]
Jerry Ross  United States 27 November 1985 STS-61-B [111]
Sherwood Spring  United States 27 November 1985 STS-61-B [111]
197 Charles Bolden  United States 12 January 1986 STS-61-C [112]
Robert Cenker  United States 12 January 1986 STS-61-C [112]
Franklin Chang Díaz  United States 12 January 1986 STS-61-C [112]
Clarence "Bill" Nelson  United States 12 January 1986 STS-61-C [112]

201–301[edit]

Anatoly Solovyev, joint 206th person in space and the person to have the most time in EVA, as of 2014.
Sergei Krikalev, 210th person and the person to have spent the most total time in space, as of 2014.
William Shepherd, joint 211th person in space and the first commander of the ISS.
Toyohiro Akiyama, joint 239th person, first Japanese in space, and the first commercially organised astronaut of a government space program.
Helen Sharman, joint 249th and first British astronaut.
Dirk Frimout, joint 268th and first Belgian to go into space.
Franco Malerba, joint 277th and first Italian to go into space.
Claude Nicollier, joint 277th and first Swiss to go into space.
Mae Jemison, joint 280th person and first African American woman to go into space.
Susan Helms, joint 286th person in space and first woman to serve on board the ISS.
Number Name Nationality Date Spacecraft Ref.
Michael J. Smith  United States 28 January 1986 STS-51-L [113][nb 5]
Gregory Jarvis  United States 28 January 1986 STS-51-L [114][nb 5]
Christa McAuliffe  United States 28 January 1986 STS-51-L [115][nb 5]
201 Aleksandr Laveykin  Soviet Union 5 February 1987 Soyuz TM-2 [116]
202 Muhammed Faris  Syria 22 July 1987 Soyuz TM-3 [117]
Aleksandr Viktorenko  Soviet Union 22 July 1987 Soyuz TM-3 [117]
204 Anatoly Levchenko  Soviet Union 21 December 1987 Soyuz TM-4 [118]
Musa Manarov  Soviet Union 21 December 1987 Soyuz TM-4 [118]
206 Aleksandr Panayotov Aleksandrov  Bulgaria 7 June 1988 Soyuz TM-5 [119]
Anatoly Solovyev  Soviet Union 7 June 1988 Soyuz TM-5 [119]
208 Abdul Mohmand  Afghanistan 29 August 1988 Soyuz TM-6 [120]
Valeri Polyakov  Soviet Union 29 August 1988 Soyuz TM-6 [120]
210 Sergei Krikalev  Soviet Union 26 November 1988 Soyuz TM-7 [121]
211 Guy Gardner  United States 2 December 1988 STS-27 [122]
William Shepherd  United States 2 December 1988 STS-27 [122]
213 James Bagian  United States 13 March 1989 STS-29 [123]
John Blaha  United States 13 March 1989 STS-29 [123]
Robert Springer  United States 13 March 1989 STS-29 [123]
216 Mark Lee  United States 4 May 1989 STS-30 [124]
217 James Adamson  United States 8 August 1989 STS-28 [125]
Mark Brown  United States 8 August 1989 STS-28 [125]
Richard Richards  United States 8 August 1989 STS-28 [125]
220 Ellen Baker  United States 18 October 1989 STS-34 [126]
Michael McCulley  United States 18 October 1989 STS-34 [126]
222 Manly Carter  United States 23 November 1989 STS-33 [127]
Kathryn Thornton  United States 23 November 1989 STS-33 [127]
224 Marsha Ivins  United States 9 January 1990 STS-32 [128]
George Low  United States 9 January 1990 STS-32 [128]
James Wetherbee  United States 9 January 1990 STS-32 [128]
227 Aleksandr Balandin  Soviet Union 11 February 1990 Soyuz TM-9 [129]
228 John Casper  United States 28 February 1990 STS-36 [130]
Pierre Thuot  United States 28 February 1990 STS-36 [130]
230 Gennadi Manakov  Soviet Union 1 August 1990 Soyuz TM-10 [131]
231 Thomas Akers  United States 6 October 1990 STS-41 [132]
Robert Cabana  United States 6 October 1990 STS-41 [132]
Bruce Melnick  United States 6 October 1990 STS-41 [132]
234 Frank Culbertson  United States 15 November 1990 STS-38 [133]
Charles Gemar  United States 15 November 1990 STS-38 [133]
Carl Meade  United States 15 November 1990 STS-38 [133]
237 Samuel Durrance  United States 2 December 1990 STS-35 [134]
Ronald Parise  United States 2 December 1990 STS-35 [134]
239 Viktor Afanasyev  Soviet Union 2 December 1990 Soyuz TM-11 [135]
Toyohiro Akiyama  Japan 2 December 1990 Soyuz TM-11 [135]
241 Jerome Apt  United States 5 April 1991 STS-37 [136]
Kenneth Cameron  United States 5 April 1991 STS-37 [136]
Linda Godwin  United States 5 April 1991 STS-37 [136]
244 Lloyd Hammond  United States 28 April 1991 STS-39 [137]
Gregory Harbaugh  United States 28 April 1991 STS-39 [137]
Richard Hieb  United States 28 April 1991 STS-39 [137]
Donald McMonagle  United States 28 April 1991 STS-39 [137]
Charles Veach  United States 28 April 1991 STS-39 [137]
249 Anatoly Artsebarsky  Soviet Union 18 May 1991 Soyuz TM-12 [138]
Helen Sharman  United Kingdom 18 May 1991 Soyuz TM-12 [138]
251 Francis Gaffney  United States 5 June 1991 STS-40 [139]
Sidney Gutierrez  United States 5 June 1991 STS-40 [139]
Millie Hughes-Fulford  United States 5 June 1991 STS-40 [139]
Tamara Jernigan  United States 5 June 1991 STS-40 [139]
255 Michael Baker  United States 2 August 1991 STS-43 [140]
256 Kenneth Reightler  United States 12 September 1991 STS-48 [141]
257 Toktar Aubakirov  Soviet Union 2 October 1991 Soyuz TM-13 [142]
Franz Viehböck  Austria 2 October 1991 Soyuz TM-13 [142]
259 Thomas Hennen  United States 25 November 1991 STS-44 [143]
Terence Henricks  United States 25 November 1991 STS-44 [143]
Mario Runco  United States 25 November 1991 STS-44 [143]
James Voss  United States 25 November 1991 STS-44 [143]
263 Roberta Bondar  Canada 22 January 1992 STS-42 [144]
Stephen Oswald  United States 22 January 1992 STS-42 [144]
William Readdy  United States 22 January 1992 STS-42 [144]
266 Klaus-Dietrich Flade  Germany 17 March 1992 Soyuz TM-14 [145]
Aleksandr Kaleri  Russia 17 March 1992 Soyuz TM-14 [145]
268 Brian Duffy  United States 24 March 1992 STS-45 [146]
Michael Foale  United States 24 March 1992 STS-45 [146][nb 6]
Dirk Frimout  Belgium 24 March 1992 STS-45 [146]
271 Kevin Chilton  United States 7 May 1992 STS-49 [146]
272 Kenneth Bowersox  United States 25 June 1992 STS-50 [147]
Lawrence DeLucas  United States 25 June 1992 STS-50 [147]
Eugene Trinh  United States 25 June 1992 STS-50 [147]
275 Sergei Avdeyev  Russia 27 July 1992 Soyuz TM-15 [148]
Michel Tognini  France 27 July 1992 Soyuz TM-15 [148]
277 Andrew Allen  United States 31 July 1992 STS-46 [149]
Franco Malerba  Italy 31 July 1992 STS-46 [149]
Claude Nicollier   Switzerland 31 July 1992 STS-46 [149]
280 Curtis Brown  United States 12 September 1992 STS-47 [150]
Nancy Davis  United States 12 September 1992 STS-47 [150]
Mae Jemison  United States 12 September 1992 STS-47 [150]
Mamoru Mohri  Japan 12 September 1992 STS-47 [150]
284 Steven MacLean  Canada 22 October 1992 STS-52 [151]
285 Michael Clifford  United States 2 December 1992 STS-53 [152]
286 Susan Helms  United States 13 January 1993 STS-54 [153]
287 Aleksandr Poleshchuk  Russia 24 January 1993 Soyuz TM-16 [154]
288 Kenneth Cockrell  United States 8 April 1993 STS-56 [155]
Ellen Ochoa  United States 8 April 1993 STS-56 [155]
290 Bernard Harris  United States 26 April 1993 STS-55 [156]
Charles Precourt  United States 26 April 1993 STS-55 [156]
Hans Schlegel  Germany 26 April 1993 STS-55 [156]
Ulrich Walter  Germany 26 April 1993 STS-55 [156]
294 Nancy Currie  United States 21 June 1993 STS-57 [157]
Janice Voss  United States 21 June 1993 STS-57 [157]
Peter Wisoff  United States 21 June 1993 STS-57 [157]
297 Jean-Pierre Haigneré  France 1 July 1993 Soyuz TM-17 [158]
Vasily Tsibliyev  Russia 1 July 1993 Soyuz TM-17 [158]
299 Daniel Bursch  United States 12 September 1993 STS-51 [159]
James Newman  United States 12 September 1993 STS-51 [159]
Carl Walz  United States 12 September 1993 STS-51 [159]

302–401[edit]

Yuri Malenchenko, joint 309th person in space and first to marry in space.
Chiaki Mukai, joint 311th person and first Japanese woman in space.
Yelena Kondakova, 318th person in space and first woman to make a long-duration spaceflight.
Eileen Collins, the 322nd person in space, first female commander and first female pilot of a space shuttle.
Koichi Wakata, joint 339th person in space and first Japanese commander of the ISS.
Kalpana Chawla, joint 366th person, first Indian American astronaut and first Indian woman in space.
Pedro Duque, 384th person in space and first Spanish national.
Ivan Bella, 386th person and first Slovak in space.
Scott Kelly (astronaut), 391st person and first of the first two identical twin brothers to go into space.
Number Name Nationality Date Spacecraft Ref.
302 Martin Fettman  United States 18 October 1993 STS-58 [160]
William McArthur  United States 18 October 1993 STS-58 [160]
Richard Searfoss  United States 18 October 1993 STS-58 [160]
David Wolf  United States 18 October 1993 STS-58 [160]
306 Yury Usachov  Russia 8 January 1994 Soyuz TM-18 [161]
307 Ronald Sega  United States 3 February 1994 STS-60 [162]
308 Thomas Jones  United States 9 April 1994 STS-59 [163]
309 Yuri Malenchenko  Russia 1 July 1994 Soyuz TM-19 [164]
Talgat Musabayev  Russia 1 July 1994 Soyuz TM-19 [164]
311 Leroy Chiao  United States 8 July 1994 STS-65 [165]
James Halsell  United States 8 July 1994 STS-65 [165]
Chiaki Mukai  Japan 8 July 1994 STS-65 [165]
Donald Thomas  United States 8 July 1994 STS-65 [165]
315 Jerry Linenger  United States 9 September 1994 STS-64 [166]
316 Stephen Smith  United States 30 September 1994 STS-68 [167]
Terrence Wilcutt  United States 30 September 1994 STS-68 [167]
318 Yelena Kondakova  Russia 3 October 1994 Soyuz TM-20 [168]
319 Jean-François Clervoy  France 3 November 1994 STS-66 [169]
Scott Parazynski  United States 3 November 1994 STS-66 [169]
Joseph Tanner  United States 3 November 1994 STS-66 [169]
322 Eileen Collins  United States 3 February 1995 STS-63 [170]
323 William Gregory  United States 2 March 1995 STS-67 [171]
John Grunsfeld  United States 2 March 1995 STS-67 [171]
Wendy Lawrence  United States 2 March 1995 STS-67 [171]
326 Vladimir Dezhurov  Russia 14 March 1995 Soyuz TM-21 [172]
327 Nikolai Budarin  Russia 27 June 1995 STS-71 [173]
328 Kevin Kregel  United States 13 July 1995 STS-70 [174]
Mary Weber  United States 13 July 1995 STS-70 [174]
330 Yuri Gidzenko  Russia 3 September 1995 Soyuz TM-22 [175]
Thomas Reiter  Germany 3 September 1995 Soyuz TM-22 [175]
332 Michael Gernhardt  United States 7 September 1995 STS-69 [176]
333 Catherine Coleman  United States 20 October 1995 STS-73 [177]
Frederick Leslie  United States 20 October 1995 STS-73 [177]
Michael López-Alegría  United States 20 October 1995 STS-73 [177]
Kent Rominger  United States 20 October 1995 STS-73 [177]
Albert Sacco  United States 20 October 1995 STS-73 [177]
338 Chris Hadfield  Canada 12 November 1995 STS-74 [178]
339 Daniel Barry  United States 11 January 1996 STS-72 [179]
Brent Jett  United States 11 January 1996 STS-72 [179]
Winston Scott  United States 11 January 1996 STS-72 [179]
Koichi Wakata  Japan 11 January 1996 STS-72 [179]
343 Yury Onufriyenko  Russia 21 February 1996 Soyuz TM-23 [180]
344 Maurizio Cheli  Italy 22 February 1996 STS-75 [181]
Umberto Guidoni  Italy 22 February 1996 STS-75 [181]
Scott Horowitz  United States 22 February 1996 STS-75 [181]
347 Andrew Thomas  United States 19 May 1996 STS-77 [182]
348 Charles Brady  United States 20 June 1996 STS-78 [183]
Jean-Jacques Favier  France 20 June 1996 STS-78 [183]
Richard Linnehan  United States 20 June 1996 STS-78 [183]
Robert Thirsk  Canada 20 June 1996 STS-78 [183]
352 Claudie Haigneré  France 17 August 1996 Soyuz TM-24 [184]
Valery Korzun  Russia 17 August 1996 Soyuz TM-24 [184]
354 Reinhold Ewald  Germany 10 February 1997 Soyuz TM-25 [185]
Aleksandr Lazutkin  Russia 10 February 1997 Soyuz TM-25 [185]
356 Roger Crouch  United States 4 April 1997 STS-83 [186]
Gregory Linteris  United States 4 April 1997 STS-83 [186]
Susan Kilrain  United States 4 April 1997 STS-83 [186]
359 Edward Lu  United States 15 May 1997 STS-84 [187]
Carlos Noriega  United States 15 May 1997 STS-84 [187]
361 Pavel Vinogradov  Russia 5 August 1997 Soyuz TM-26 [188]
362 Robert Curbeam  United States 7 August 1997 STS-85 [189]
Stephen Robinson  United States 7 August 1997 STS-85 [189]
Bjarni Tryggvason  Canada 7 August 1997 STS-85 [189]
365 Michael Bloomfield  United States 26 September 1997 STS-86 [190]
366 Kalpana Chawla  United States 19 November 1997 STS-87 [191][nb 7]
Takao Doi  Japan 19 November 1997 STS-87 [191]
Leonid Kadeniuk  Ukraine 19 November 1997 STS-87 [191]
Steven Lindsey  United States 19 November 1997 STS-87 [191]
370 Michael Anderson  United States 23 January 1998 STS-89 [192][nb 7]
Joe Edwards  United States 23 January 1998 STS-89 [192]
James Reilly  United States 23 January 1998 STS-89 [192]
Salizhan Sharipov  Russia 23 January 1998 STS-89 [192]
374 Léopold Eyharts  France 29 January 1998 Soyuz TM-27 [193]
375 Scott Altman  United States 17 April 1998 STS-90 [194]
Jay Buckey  United States 17 April 1998 STS-90 [194]
Kathryn Hire  United States 17 April 1998 STS-90 [194]
James Pawelczyk  United States 17 April 1998 STS-90 [194]
Dafydd Williams  Canada 17 April 1998 STS-90 [194]
380 Dominic Gorie  United States 2 June 1998 STS-91 [195]
Janet Kavandi  United States 2 June 1998 STS-91 [195]
382 Yuri Baturin  Russia 13 August 1998 Soyuz TM-28 [196]
Gennady Padalka  Russia 13 August 1998 Soyuz TM-28 [196]
384 Pedro Duque  Spain 29 October 1998 STS-95 [197]
385 Frederick Sturckow  United States 4 December 1998 STS-88 [198]
386 Ivan Bella  Slovakia 20 February 1999 Soyuz TM-29 [199]
387 Rick Husband  United States 27 May 1999 STS-96 [200][nb 7]
Julie Payette  Canada 27 May 1999 STS-96 [200]
Valeri Tokarev  Russia 27 May 1999 STS-96 [200]
390 Jeffrey Ashby  United States 23 July 1999 STS-93 [201]
391 Scott Kelly  United States 20 December 1999 STS-103 [202]
392 Gerhard Thiele  Germany 11 February 2000 STS-99 [203]
393 Sergei Zalyotin  Russia 4 April 2000 Soyuz TM-30 [204]
394 Jeffrey Williams  United States 19 May 2000 STS-101 [205]
395 Daniel Burbank  United States 8 September 2000 STS-106 [206]
Richard Mastracchio  United States 8 September 2000 STS-106 [206]
Boris Morukov  Russia 8 September 2000 STS-106 [206]
398 Pamela Melroy  United States 11 October 2000 STS-92 [207]
399 Mark Polansky  United States 7 February 2001 STS-98 [208]
400 James Kelly  United States 8 March 2001 STS-102 [209]
Paul Richards  United States 8 March 2001 STS-102 [209]

402–502[edit]

Dennis Tito, the 404th person in space and the first space tourist.
Mark Kelly, the 409th person in space, and the second of the first two identical twin brothers to go into space.
Mark Shuttleworth, 416th person in space and the first from an independent African country (South Africa).
Yang Liwei, the 432nd person in space and the first of the Chinese space program.
Mike Melvill, the 435th person in space and the first commercial astronaut of a privately flown and funded spaceflight.
Anousheh Ansari, the 449th person in space, first female space tourist and the first Iranian in space.
Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, joint 464th person and the first person from Malaysia to go into space.
Yi So-yeon, joint 475th person and the first Korean in space.
Richard Garriott, 486th person in space and first second-generation American to go into space.
Number Name Nationality Date Spacecraft Ref.
402 Yury Lonchakov  Russia 19 April 2001 STS-100 [210][211]
John Phillips  United States 19 April 2001 STS-100 [211][212]
404 Dennis Tito  United States 28 April 2001 Soyuz TM-32 [213]
405 Charles Hobaugh  United States 12 July 2001 STS-104 [214]
406 Patrick Forrester  United States 10 August 2001 STS-105 [215]
Mikhail Tyurin  Russia 10 August 2001 STS-105 [215]
408 Konstantin Kozeyev  Russia 21 October 2001 Soyuz TM-33 [216]
409 Mark Kelly  United States 5 December 2001 STS-108 [217]
Daniel Tani  United States 5 December 2001 STS-108 [217]
411 Duane Carey  United States 1 March 2002 STS-109 [218]
Michael Massimino  United States 1 March 2002 STS-109 [218]
413 Stephen Frick  United States 8 April 2002 STS-110 [219]
Lee Morin  United States 8 April 2002 STS-110 [219]
Rex Walheim  United States 8 April 2002 STS-110 [219]
416 Mark Shuttleworth  South Africa 25 April 2002 Soyuz TM-34 [220]
Roberto Vittori  Italy 25 April 2002 Soyuz TM-34 [220]
418 Paul Lockhart  United States 5 June 2002 STS-111 [221]
Philippe Perrin  France 5 June 2002 STS-111 [221]
Sergei Treshchov  Russia 5 June 2002 STS-111 [221]
Peggy Whitson  United States 5 June 2002 STS-111 [221]
422 Sandra Magnus  United States 7 October 2002 STS-112 [222]
Piers Sellers  United States 7 October 2002 STS-112 [222]
Fyodor Yurchikhin  Russia 7 October 2002 STS-112 [222]
425 Frank De Winne  Belgium 30 October 2002 Soyuz TMA-1 [223]
426 John Herrington  United States 24 November 2002 STS-113 [224]
Donald Pettit  United States 24 November 2002 STS-113 [224]
428 David Brown  United States 16 January 2003 STS-107 [225][nb 7]
Laurel Clark  United States 16 January 2003 STS-107 [225][nb 7]
William McCool  United States 16 January 2003 STS-107 [225][nb 7]
Ilan Ramon  Israel 16 January 2003 STS-107 [225][nb 7]
432 Yang Liwei  China 15 October 2003 Shenzhou 5 [226]
433 Edward Fincke  United States 19 April 2004 Soyuz TMA-4 [227]
André Kuipers  Netherlands 19 April 2004 Soyuz TMA-4 [227]
435 Michael Melvill  United States 21 June 2004 SpaceShipOne 15P [228][229][230][nb 2]
436 Brian Binnie  United States 4 October 2004 SpaceShipOne 17P [230][231][232][nb 2]
437 Yuri Shargin  Russia 14 October 2004 Soyuz TMA-5 [233]
438 Charles Camarda  United States 26 July 2005 STS-114 [234]
Soichi Noguchi  Japan 26 July 2005 STS-114 [234]
440 Gregory Olsen  United States 1 October 2005 Soyuz TMA-7 [235]
441 Fei Junlong  China 12 October 2005 Shenzhou 6 [236]
Nie Haisheng  China 12 October 2005 Shenzhou 6 [236]
443 Marcos Pontes  Brazil 30 March 2006 Soyuz TMA-8 [237]
444 Michael Fossum  United States 4 July 2006 STS-121 [238]
Lisa Nowak  United States 4 July 2006 STS-121 [238]
Stephanie Wilson  United States 4 July 2006 STS-121 [238]
447 Christopher Ferguson  United States 9 September 2006 STS-115 [239]
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper  United States 9 September 2006 STS-115 [239]
449 Anousheh Ansari  United States 18 September 2006 Soyuz TMA-9 [240][nb 8]
450 Christer Fuglesang  Sweden 10 December 2006 STS-116 [241]
Joan Higginbotham  United States 10 December 2006 STS-116 [241]
William Oefelein  United States 10 December 2006 STS-116 [241]
Nicholas Patrick  United States 10 December 2006 STS-116 [241]
Sunita Williams  United States 10 December 2006 STS-116 [241]
455 Oleg Kotov  Russia 7 April 2007 Soyuz TMA-10 [242]
Charles Simonyi  United States 7 April 2007 Soyuz TMA-10 [242]
457 Clayton Anderson  United States 8 June 2007 STS-117 [243]
Lee Archambault  United States 8 June 2007 STS-117 [243]
John Olivas  United States 8 June 2007 STS-117 [243]
Steven Swanson  United States 8 June 2007 STS-117 [243]
461 Tracy Caldwell Dyson  United States 8 August 2007 STS-118 [244]
Benjamin Drew  United States 8 August 2007 STS-118 [244]
Barbara Morgan  United States 8 August 2007 STS-118 [244]
464 Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor  Malaysia 10 October 2007 Soyuz TMA-11 [245]
465 Paolo Nespoli  Italy 23 October 2007 STS-120 [246]
Douglas Wheelock  United States 23 October 2007 STS-120 [246]
George Zamka  United States 23 October 2007 STS-120 [246]
468 Stanley Love  United States 7 February 2008 STS-122 [247]
Leland Melvin  United States 7 February 2008 STS-122 [247]
Alan Poindexter  United States 7 February 2008 STS-122 [247]
471 Robert Behnken  United States 11 March 2008 STS-123 [248]
Michael Foreman  United States 11 March 2008 STS-123 [248]
Gregory Johnson  United States 11 March 2008 STS-123 [248]
Garrett Reisman  United States 11 March 2008 STS-123 [248]
475 Oleg Kononenko  Russia 8 April 2008 Soyuz TMA-12 [249]
Sergey Volkov  Russia 8 April 2008 Soyuz TMA-12 [249]
Yi So-Yeon  South Korea 8 April 2008 Soyuz TMA-12 [249]
478 Gregory Chamitoff  United States 31 May 2008 STS-124 [250]
Ronald Garan  United States 31 May 2008 STS-124 [250]
Kenneth Ham  United States 31 May 2008 STS-124 [250]
Akihiko Hoshide  Japan 31 May 2008 STS-124 [250]
Karen Nyberg  United States 31 May 2008 STS-124 [250]
483 Jing Haipeng  China 25 September 2008 Shenzhou 7 [251]
Liu Boming  China 25 September 2008 Shenzhou 7 [251]
Zhai Zhigang  China 25 September 2008 Shenzhou 7 [251]
486 Richard Garriott  United States 12 October 2008 Soyuz TMA-13 [252]
487 Eric Boe  United States 15 November 2008 STS-126 [253]
Stephen Bowen  United States 15 November 2008 STS-126 [253]
Robert Kimbrough  United States 15 November 2008 STS-126 [253]
490 Joseph Acaba  United States 15 March 2009 STS-119 [254]
Dominic Antonelli  United States 15 March 2009 STS-119 [254]
Richard Arnold  United States 15 March 2009 STS-119 [254]
493 Michael Barratt  United States 26 March 2009 Soyuz TMA-14 [255]
494 Andrew Feustel  United States 11 May 2009 STS-125 [256]
Michael Good  United States 11 May 2009 STS-125 [256]
Gregory Johnson  United States 11 May 2009 STS-125 [256]
Megan McArthur  United States 11 May 2009 STS-125 [256]
498 Roman Romanenko  Russia 27 May 2009 Soyuz TMA-15 [257]
499 Christopher Cassidy  United States 15 July 2009 STS-127 [258]
Douglas Hurley  United States 15 July 2009 STS-127 [258]
Timothy Kopra  United States 15 July 2009 STS-127 [258]
Thomas Marshburn  United States 15 July 2009 STS-127 [258]

503–600[edit]

Nicole Stott, joint 503rd person in space and the first to use Twitter live from orbit.
Guy Laliberté, joint 506th person in space and the first Canadian space tourist.
Robert Satcher, joint 508th person and the first orthopedic surgeon in space.
Samantha Cristoforetti, 541st person in space, who has performed the longest single spaceflight by a woman, as of 2015.
Andreas Mogensen, joint 544th person and the first Dane in space.
Number Name Nationality Date Spacecraft Ref.
503 Kevin Ford  United States 29 August 2009 STS-128 [259]
José M. Hernández  United States 29 August 2009 STS-128 [259]
Nicole Stott  United States 29 August 2009 STS-128 [259]
506 Guy Laliberté  Canada 30 September 2009 Soyuz TMA-16 [260]
Maksim Surayev  Russia 30 September 2009 Soyuz TMA-16 [260]
508 Randolph Bresnik  United States 12 November 2009 STS-129 [261]
Robert Satcher  United States 12 November 2009 STS-129 [261]
Barry Wilmore  United States 12 November 2009 STS-129 [261]
511 Timothy Creamer  United States 20 December 2009 Soyuz TMA-17 [262]
512 Terry Virts  United States 8 February 2010 STS-130 [263]
513 Mikhail Korniyenko  Russia 2 April 2010 Soyuz TMA-18 [264]
Aleksandr Skvortsov  Russia 2 April 2010 Soyuz TMA-18 [264]
515 James Dutton  United States 5 April 2010 STS-131 [265]
Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger  United States 5 April 2010 STS-131 [265]
Naoko Yamazaki  Japan 5 April 2010 STS-131 [265]
518 Shannon Walker  United States 15 June 2010 Soyuz TMA-19 [266]
519 Oleg Skripochka  Russia 7 October 2010 Soyuz TMA-01M [267]
520 Dmitri Kondratyev  Russia 15 December 2010 Soyuz TMA-20 [268]
521 Andrei Borisenko  Russia 4 April 2011 Soyuz TMA-21 [269]
Aleksandr Samokutyayev  Russia 4 April 2011 Soyuz TMA-21 [269]
523 Satoshi Furukawa  Japan 7 June 2011 Soyuz TMA-02M [270]
524 Anatoli Ivanishin  Russia 14 November 2011 Soyuz TMA-22 [271]
Anton Shkaplerov  Russia 14 November 2011 Soyuz TMA-22 [271]
526 Sergei Revin  Russia 15 May 2012 Soyuz TMA-04M [272]
527 Liu Wang  China 16 June 2012 Shenzhou 9 [273]
Liu Yang  China 16 June 2012 Shenzhou 9 [273]
529 Oleg Novitskiy  Russia 23 October 2012 Soyuz TMA-06M [274]
Evgeny Tarelkin  Russia 23 October 2012 Soyuz TMA-06M [274]
531 Alexander Misurkin  Russia 28 March 2013 Soyuz TMA-08M [275]
532 Luca Parmitano  Italy 28 May 2013 Soyuz TMA-09M [276]
533 Zhang Xiaoguang  China 11 June 2013 Shenzhou 10 [277]
Wang Yaping  China 11 June 2013 Shenzhou 10 [277]
535 Michael Hopkins  United States 25 September 2013 Soyuz TMA-10M [278]
Sergey Ryazansky  Russia 25 September 2013 Soyuz TMA-10M [278]
537 Oleg Artemyev  Russia 25 March 2014 Soyuz TMA-12M [279]
538 Reid Wiseman  United States 28 May 2014 Soyuz TMA-13M [280]
Alexander Gerst  Germany 28 May 2014 Soyuz TMA-13M [280]
540 Yelena Serova  Russia 25 September 2014 Soyuz TMA-14M [281]
541 Samantha Cristoforetti  Italy 23 November 2014 Soyuz TMA-15M [282]
542 Kimiya Yui  Japan 22 July 2015 Soyuz TMA-17M [283]
Kjell N. Lindgren  United States 22 July 2015 Soyuz TMA-17M [283]
544 Andreas Mogensen  Denmark 2 September 2015 Soyuz TMA-18M [284]
Aidyn Aimbetov  Kazakhstan 2 September 2015 Soyuz TMA-18M [284]
546 Tim Peake  United Kingdom 15 December 2015 Soyuz TMA-19M [285][286]
547 Aleksey Ovchinin  Russia 18 March 2016 Soyuz TMA-20M [287]
548 Takuya Onishi  Japan 7 July 2016 Soyuz MS-01 [288]
Kathleen Rubins  United States 7 July 2016 Soyuz MS-01 [288]
550 Chen Dong  China 17 October 2016 Shenzhou 11 [289]
551 Sergey Nikolayevich Ryzhikov  Russia 19 October 2016 Soyuz MS-02 [290]
552 Thomas Pesquet  France 17 November 2016 Soyuz MS-03 [291]
553 Jack Fischer  United States 20 April 2017 Soyuz MS-04 [292]
554 Mark Vande Hei  United States 12 September 2017 Soyuz MS-06 [293]
555 Norishige Kanai  Japan 17 December 2017 Soyuz MS-07 [294][295]
Scott D. Tingle  United States 17 December 2017 Soyuz MS-07 [294][295]
557 Sergey Prokopyev  Russia 6 June 2018 Soyuz MS-09 [296][297]
Serena Auñón-Chancellor  United States 6 June 2018 Soyuz MS-09 [296][297]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fatalities which occurred during training or testing are not included in this list, but can be found in the list of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents.
  2. ^ a b c d e Sub-orbital spaceflight
  3. ^ Vladimir Komarov died during Soyuz 1.
  4. ^ a b c Soyuz 11 capsule depressurised in orbit.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g See the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
  6. ^ Michael Foale is a dual national of the United States and the United Kingdom, but flew under the United States flag.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g See the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
  8. ^ Anousheh Ansari is a dual national of the United States and Iran, but flew under the United States flag.

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