List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe

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The following is a List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe and the extratropical Northern Atlantic (it does not include localised events, such as those that occur in tornados).

Extreme pressure values in Europe show both seasonal and geographical differentiation. the greatest pressure extremes occur in winter (January) with the deepest lows occurring to the northwest of the continent with a diminishing influence of low pressure to the southeast towards Central Europe and Southeast Europe.[1] This is related to the main cyclonic centre of the Icelandic low, and the North Atlantic extratropical storm track, close to which have been observed some of the lowest atmospheric pressures of the Northern Hemisphere outside the tropics. Extreme high values are favoured over the north east of Europe where intense cold and long winter nights lead to cooling of the air column by radiative cooling causing sinking air reinforcing the development of the highest pressures. Other influences include the semi-permanent Azores high, and Siberian highs.[2]

Contents

Land-based observations in Europe[edit]

Met Office daily weather report supplementary chart of barometer over Europe on 24 January 1907, for 8 am 23 January with a high of 31.5 inches of mercury (1,070 hPa) over Latvia

Land-based records for Europe:

  • Highest observed air pressure record:
  • 22–23 January 1907 in Pärnu, Estonia and Riga, Latvia at 1067.1 mbar reported in peer-reviewed literature.[3]

Other high values have been reported:

  • 23 January 1907 in Riga at 1068.7 hPa, this value is from a student generated report from the Free University of Berlin Adopt a Vortex scheme.[4] (supported with a 1068 hPa pressure reported in a Danish Meteorological Society publication.[5])
  • 17 February 1954 in northern Russia >1060 hPa,[6] This high is claimed to have a pressure over 1070 hPa by a Free University of Berlin student generated report.[7]
  • 16 February 1956, northern Urals 1070 hPa mentioned in student generated reports from FUB.[7] 1067 hPa in another student report from FUB.[4] Others give a figure for this high of 1065 mslp.[8] An isobar of 1072 over Russia features on the Met Office Daily Weather Report 16 February 1956 centred about the town of Vorkuta, Komi Republic.[9]
  • 31 January 2012 Khoseda-Khardsky directly west of Urals a value reported by SMHI of 1068.3 hPa (mslp?),[10] from a high pressure area named "Cooper/Dieter" by the Free University of Berlin in January 2012[7] which brought the Early 2012 European cold wave.

Pressure is thought to have risen above 1060 hPa in Europe on only 12 occasions between 1871–2010, in the years 1893, 1899, 1907, 1915, 1920, 1938, 1944, 1946, 1956, 1972, 1995 and 2008.[11] To this list might also be included high pressure anticyclones in 1954 and 2012 (see above), and 1869.[12] The most notable high in Europe peaked in January 1907. This was an unusual development that brought high pressure to the west,[11] and holds the record across multiple countries in northeast Europe (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Germany, Slovakia).

  • Lowest air pressure:

Another value reported:

  • 6–7 January 1839, recorded at Sumburgh Head, Shetland during the Night of the big wind storm 27.25 inches of mercury (922.8 hPa) this value is from non-standardised equipment, and is not fully supported by values at neighbouring stations (unknown if corrected for MSLP).[14] The conversion to hPa above assumes an Inch of mercury at 0 °F = 3376.85 Pa, if value assumes inHg at 60 °F = 3376.38 Pa the value could be as low as 920.2 hPa.

Northern Europe[edit]

Iceland[edit]

  • Highest air pressure: 3 January 1841, Reykjavik 1058.0 hPa.[15]
  • Lowest air pressure: 2 December 1929 at Stórhöfði peninsula, Heimaey 923.6 hPa.[13]

Iceland monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure in Iceland
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 3 January 1841 Reykjavik 1058.0
February 26 February 1962 Akureyri 1051.7
March 6 March 1883 Stykkishólmur 1050.7
April 14—15 April 1991 Several stations ~1050
October 26 October 2018 Gjögur Airport 1046.0 [16] *Previously 20 October 1885 and 26 October 1919 Akureyri (1885) and Ísafjörður (1919) 1044.5 [17][16][18]
December 16 December 1917 Stykkishólmur 1054.2

Iceland list of atmospheric pressure over 1050 hPa[edit]

High pressure in Iceland has exceeded 1050 hPa 4 times in the twentieth century and five times in the nineteenth century.[15]

Table of atmospheric pressure in Iceland exceeding 1050 hPa.[15]
Date Location pressure hPa
23 December 1836 Reykjavik 1050.9
3 January 1841 Reykjavik 1058.0
11 December 1846 Reykjavik 1051.7
6 March 1883 Stykkishólmur 1050.7
26 February 1890 Stykkishólmur 1050.0
16 December 1917 Stykkishólmur 1054.2
26 February 1962 Akureyri 1051.7
17 January 1977 Galtarviti, Keflavik 1051.1
14—15 April 1991 Several stations 1050

Climatic Research Unit Emulate data 1874–2002, also gives values on 10 March 1887 at Stykkishólmur 1052.43 hPa and also 9 January 1977 at the same location 1050.47 hPa.[19]

Iceland monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure in Iceland
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 3 January 1933 Westman Isles 923.9 [20]
June 11 June 1983 Stórhöfði 959.6 [21]
July 22 July 2012 Westman Isles 972.4
September 13 September 1906 SW Iceland ~942 [22] *Possible record
October 19 October 1963 Stórhöfði 938.4 [23]
December 2 December 1929 Stórhöfði 923.6

In July the pressure in Iceland has only dropped below 975 hPa or lower three times over the entire record extending back to the 1820s. These cases were 974.1 hPa in Stykkishólmur on 18 July 1901, 974.3 hPa in Stykkishólmur on 19 July 1923 and 975.0 hPa in Reykjavík 11 July 1912.[24]—to which can be added 22 July 2012, with 972.4 hPa reported on the Westman Isles, becoming the new national record for the month.[25]

A recent low pressure on 30 December 2015 was recorded at Kirkjubaejarklaustur (associated with an area of low pressure known as Eckard/Frank) at 930.2 hPa, the lowest pressure recorded on land in Iceland since 1989.[26]

Faroe Islands[edit]

METEOSAT satellite image of the Braer Storm of January 1993 near peak intensity on January 10, 1993

The Danish Meteorological Institute report record atmospheric pressure for the Faroe Islands (since 1961) as:

  • Highest air pressure: 13 December 1995, Tórshavn 1048.9 hPa.[27]

Climatic Research Unit Emulate data 1874–2002 give 3 dates when pressure exceeded 1050 hPa in Tórshavn.[28]

Table of atmospheric pressure in Tórshavn exceeding 1050 hPa.
Date pressure hPa
8 January 1896 1052.64
1 February 1902 1052.43
21 February 1944 1050.33

Ireland[edit]

Met Éireann list the following national records for atmospheric pressure:

  • Highest air pressure: 28 January 1905, Valentia Island, Co.Kerry 1051.9 hPa.
  • Lowest air pressure: 28 November 1838, Limerick 931.2 hPa.

(§ note the lowest recorded pressure value for the island of Ireland is 8 December 1886, in Belfast 927.2 hPa.)

Ireland monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure in Ireland Met Éireann.[29][30]
Month Date Location pressure hPa
January 28 January 1905 Valentia, Co. Kerry 1051.9
February 7 February 1964 Kilkenny and Mullingar[3] 1049.1
March 13 March 1900 Valentia[30] 1047.1
April 26 April 1948 Shannon Airport 1043.4[30]
May 12 May 2012 Cork Airport 1042.4[30] An alternate value on 12 May 2012 at Valentia observatory of 1043.0 hPa has also been reported.[31]
June 14 June 1959 Clones, Co Monaghan 1043.1
July 1 July 1933 Malin Head 1037.9
August 17 August 1940 Valentia 1036.0[30]
September 10 and 11 September 2009[32] and 24 September 2018 Malin Head (2009),[32] Sherkin Island and Cork Airport (2018)[33] 1041.3
October 22 October 2018 Sherkin Island 1043.8 *Previously 31 October 1959 Malin Head 1043.0
November 10 November 1999 Knock Airport 1046.0[30]
December 24 December 1926 Malin Head[3] 1049.5

Ireland monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure in Ireland Met Éireann.[29][34][30]
Month Date Location pressure hPa
January 26 January 1884 Markree Castle, Sligo 936.6
February 4 February 1951 Midleton, Co. Cork 942.3
March 10 March 2008 Mace Head, Galway 950.0[30] (named Johanna by FUB)[35]
April 1 April 1948 Malin Head, Co. Donegal 952.9
May 10 May 1983 Belmullet, Co. Mayo 970.3
June 8 June 1843 Phoenix Park, Dublin 975.3
July 25 July 1988 Belmullet, Co. Mayo 978.0
August 14 August 1959 Belmullet, Co. Mayo 967.8[30]
September 21 September 1953 Claremorris, Co. Mayo 957.1
October 28 October 2004 Valentia 957.5 (named Carolin by FUB)[36]
November 28 November 1838 Limerick 931.2
December 17 December 1989 Cork Airport[37] 942.8 *8 December 1886, in Belfast 927.2 hPa.

Isle of Man[edit]

1957–2005[3]

  • Highest air pressure: 26 January 1992, Ronaldsway 1047.8 hPa.
  • Lowest air pressure: 1 December 1966, Ronaldsway 946.5 hPa.

An earlier value on 8 December 1886, Cronkbourne 27.555 inches of mercury (933.1 hPa).[38]

United Kingdom and Ireland[edit]

Graph of minimum and maximum monthly air pressure values in the UK.

For the United Kingdom, the Met Office record the record figures for atmospheric pressure (which are nominally since 1870) as:

  • Highest air pressure: 31 January 1902, Aberdeen Scotland 1053.6 hPa.
  • Lowest air pressure: 26 January 1884, Ochtertyre Scotland 925.6 hPa.

Though the lowest pressure may be second to the Night of the big wind low, which saw a value of 27.25 inches of mercury (923 hPa) at Sumburgh Head, Shetland on non-calibrated, non-standard equipment 6–7 January 1839, with the mainland at Cape Wrath reporting an observed pressure of 27.32 inches of mercury (925 hPa).[14]

On 26 January 1884, during the Ochtertyre storm the Ben Nevis summit weather station recorded a low pressure of 784.7 hPa (at high altitude (above 750 m) and not reduced to sea level) this is proposed as being almost certainly the lowest surface pressure ever recorded in the UK,[39] though due to altitude and not being a value reduced to sea level is not considered comparable to the other records presented here.

A low pressure of 914.0mb affected the UK during the Braer Storm on 10 January 1993, however this figure is discounted as this reading was not recorded in the UK.

United Kingdom monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure UK and Ireland Met Office.[40]
Month Date Location pressure hPa Alternative and UK only records
January 31 January 1902 Aberdeen Observatory, Aberdeenshire 1053.6†
February 1 February 1902 Aberdeen Observatory, Aberdeenshire 1052.9
March 9 March 1953 (3 March 1990[41]) St Mary's Airport, Isles of Scilly 1047.9 An alternative value is reported 9 March 1953, Tynemouth 1048.6 hPa.[3][42]
April 11 April 1938 Eskdalemuir, Dumfriesshire 1044.5
May 16 May 1943 Dublin Airport, Ireland 1042.2 UK value: 1881, Aberdeen, Glasgow and Armagh 1042 hPa.[42]
June 14 June 1959 Clones Co. Monaghan 1043.1 UK value: 14 June 1959, "Northern Ireland" 1043 hPa (Irish record is within 1 km of UK border).[42] 15 June 1874 Scotland >1040 hPa.[43]
July 16 July 1996 Aboyne, Aberdeenshire 1039.2
August 25 August 1968 Kirkwall, Orkney 1037.4
September 11 September 2009 Ballykelly, Co. Londonderry 1042.0 *Previously 19 September 1986 Shawbury, Shropshire 1041.2 hPa.[3]
October 31 October 1956 Dyce, Aberdeenshire 1045.6
November 10 November 1999 Aviemore, Invernessshire 1046.7
December 24 December 1926 Wick, Caithness 1051.9

(† note the value of 1054.7 reported in some literature is an incorrect conversion.[44])

United Kingdom list of atmospheric pressure over 1050 hPa[edit]

List of atmospheric pressures over 1050 hPa in UK and Ireland[3] (likely incomplete)
Date Location pressure hPa
24 February 1808 Gordon Castle, Moray Scotland 1050.0
8—9 January 1820 Kinfauns Castle, Perth Scotland 1051.7
9 January 1896 Ochtertyre, Perth Scotland 1053.4
31 January 1902 Aberdeen, Scotland (UK record) 1053.6
28 January 1905 Falmouth, Cornwall 1053.1
23 January 1907 Aberdeen, Scotland 1051.8
24 December 1926 Wick, Scotland 1051.9
26 January 1932 Stonyhurst, Sheffield and Meltham, West Yorkshire 1051.0
16 January 1957 Belmullet, Co Mayo Ireland 1050.9

In the period of instrumental measurement the atmospheric pressure has exceeded 1048 hPa somewhere over the United Kingdom and Ireland on 17 occasions.[3] On nine of these times, the pressure exceeded 1050 hPa—a value not exceeded since 1957 in Ireland, and since 26 January 1932 over the UK.[3] Intense high pressure is usually seen during midwinter with 7 of the 9 occasions where 1050 hPa has been exceeded occurring in January.[3]

Pressure values have been recorded to have exceeded 1050 hPa in all areas of the UK and Ireland except south east England, though values close to this are documented from January 1882 and January 1905.[3]

United Kingdom monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure UK and Ireland Met Office.[40]
Month Date Location pressure hPa Alternative and UK only records
January 26 January 1884 Ochtertyre, Perthshire 925.6 Alternative: 6–7 January 1839, Sumburgh Head, Shetland during the Night of the big wind storm 27.25 inches of mercury (922.8 hPa), (value from non-standardised equipment).[14]
February 4 February 1951 Midleton, Co. Cork 942.3 UK value: 9 February 1988, Benbecula 944.0 hPa.[42]
March 9 March 1876 Wick, Caithness 946.2
April 1 April 1948 Malin Head, Co. Donegal 952.9 UK value: 1 April 1948, The Hebrides 953 hPa.[42]
May 8 May 1943 Sealand, Flintshire (listed as Cheshire) 968.0
June 28 June 1938 Lerwick, Shetland 968.4
July 8 July 1964 Sule Skerry, Northern Isles 967.9
August 14 August 1954 Belmullet, Co. Mayo 967.7 UK value: 26 August 1912, Great Yarmouth 978 hPa.[42]
September 21 September 1953 Claremorris, Co. Mayo 957.1 UK value: 16–17 September 1935, "Central England" 960 hPa.[42]
October 14 October 1981 Cawdor Castle, Highland (listed as Nairnshire) 946.8 **Cyclone Oratia
November 11 November 1877 Monach Lighthouse, Outer Hebrides 939.7
December 8 December 1866 Belfast, Antrim 927.2 On the morning of 8 December 1886, the barometer may have fallen as low as 924 mbar over northern Ireland, although the lowest authenticated value was 927.2 mbar at Belfast at 1330h, close to the centre of the depression.[45]

Cyclone Oratia is estimated to have reached a low of 941 hPa in peer reviewed literature, though the lowest pressure occurred between Aberdeen and Norway over the North Sea and is not a land-based observation. The lowest land-based reported UK pressure during this storm was recorded from RAF Fylingdales at 951.2 hPa.[46]

On 7 September 1995, Scilly Isles, reported a low pressure of 966 hPa.[47] The lowest minimum recorded values for the months May to August lie within 0.5 of 968 hPa.

The 20th Century low pressure record in the UK occurred on 20 December 1982 at Sule Skerry it may have dropped as low as 936 mbar.[48]

United Kingdom list of atmospheric pressure below 950 hPa (incomplete)[edit]

  • 1821 December 25, London 27.93 inches of mercury (946 hPa).[49]
  • 1839 January 7, Night of the big wind, pressure below 28 inches of mercury (950 hPa) at Inchkeith, Peterhead and Aberdeen.[49]
  • 1865 November 22,
  • 1865 December 31, Butt of Lewis Lighthouse 27.69 inches of mercury (938 hPa), with a report of 27.63 inches of mercury (936 hPa) from Hoy that is not supported by observation from Cantick head lighthouse on South Walls.[49]
  • 1884 January 26, Ochtertyre, record lowest pressure value for the UK.
  • 1886 December 8,
  • 2013 December 24, Cyclone Dirk

Home nation records[edit]

Based on Burt (2007).[3]

Scotland[edit]

Same as UK national records.

  • Highest: 31 January 1902, Aberdeen Observatory 1053.6 hPa.
  • Lowest: 26 January 1884, Ochtertyre Scotland 925.6 hPa.
Northern Ireland[edit]
  • Highest: (16 January 1957, Belmullet, NW Ireland 1050.9 hPa).
  • Lowest: 8 December 1886, in Belfast 927.2 hPa. (A reading of 922.5 mbar (corrected to MSL) was reported from Omagh in Co. Tyrone (Harding 1887) the graduation and calibration of the barometer were not considered satisfactory enough “to quote the reading as trustworthy”, the storm minimum over the north of Ireland was thought to be close to 924 mbar.)
Wales[edit]
  • Highest: 27 January 1992, Sennybridge, Powys 1049.2 hPa.
  • Lowest: 22 November 1865, Dolgellau, North Wales 944.8 hPa.
England[edit]
  • Highest: 28 January 1905, Falmouth, Cornwall 31.097 inches of mercury (1,053.1 hPa).[50]
  • Lowest: 8 December 1886, Stonyhurst in Lancashire, where the barometer fell to 940.4 hPa.

Alt. 8 December 1886, Newton Reigny in Cumbria, 27.556 inches of mercury (933.2 hPa).[38]

Norway[edit]

Yr.no the joint venture between the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute give the national pressure records as:

(formerly listed as 27 January 1907, Bergen 936 hPa.)[53][54]

A value of 702.0 mm Hg at Bergen Lungegård Hospital on January 27, 1884 (935.8 hPa) is also reported,[55][56] which is likely to be from the same low as the UK record from Ochtertyre the previous day. Other sources give a pressure value of 939.8 hPa or 939.7 hPa in Bergen on 27 January 1884.[57][58][59]

Both records in same winter as each other and those of Denmark.

Average pressure 5 October 2016 from high "Peter"
Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure Norway
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
October 5 October 2016 Otta 1054.3 [60][61] *Previously 14 October 1896, Dalen, Telemark, 1044.0 hPa.[62]

Denmark[edit]

The Danish Meteorological Institute report record barometric pressure for Denmark (since 1874) as:

Danish records both occurred within a month during the same winter, and same winter as Norwegian records.[66]

Denmark monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure Denmark (Italic text based on 1961-1990 data only[67])
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 23 January 1907 Skagen and Copenhagen 1062.2
February 7 February 2012 Thyborøn 1050.3 [68] 2012 value exceeds 1961-1990 maximum.
March 30 March 1977 Bornholm Airport 1047.0
April 16 April 1962 Skagen 1040.6
May 3 May 1990 Christiansø Lighthouse 1041.6
June 7 June 1962 Skagen 1038.8
July 16 July 1972 Christiansø Lighthouse 1031.9
August 18 August 1966 Christiansø Lighthouse 1032.8
September 29 September 2015 Østerbro 1042.2 [69][70] *Previously 18 September 1904, Hammer Odde Lighthouse 1038.8 hPa. (or 29 September 1970, Bornholm Airport 1040.0 hPa)[67]
October 5 October 2016 Skagen 1045.5 [71][72] *Previously 6 October 1877, Hammer Odde Lighthouse 1044.7 hPa.
November 18 November 1985 Skagen 1052.4
December 24 December 1962 Fornæs Lighthouse and Værløse Air Base 1051.6

Denmark list of barometric pressure over 1050 hPa[edit]

Above 1050 hPa[68]
Date Location pressure hPa
7 February 2012 Thyborøn 1050.3 8 February 2012 north jutland >1050 hPa.[73]
18 November 1985[74] Thyborøn 1050.3 or 1052.5 Skagen.[67]
1962 Denmark 1052
23 January 1907 Skagen 1062.5

Denmark monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure Denmark (Italic text based on 1961–1990 data only[67])
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 14 January 1984 Skagen 950.2
February 20 February 1907 Skagen 943.9
March 25 March 1986 Skrydstrup Airport 961.4 18 March 2007 Skagen 958.6 hPa.[75]
April 21 April 1967 Skagen 975.7
May 28 May 1972 Thyborøn 985.1
June 6 June 1977 Skagen 985.1
July 30 July 1965 Skagen 982.5
August 6 August 1985 Thyborøn 980.1
September 22 September 1990 Thyborøn 970.1
October 18 October 1967 Tirstrup 966.7 During the passage of the October storm (Lena)
November 6 November 1985 Aalborg Airport 953.0
December 10 December 1965 Thyborøn 955.2 Cyclone Anatol 3 December 1999 saw a pressure over Denmark of ~951 hPa.[76]

Sweden[edit]

The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute give the nation's barometric records as:

Sweden monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure Sweden[78]
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 23 January 1907 Kalmar and Visby 1063.7 [79]
February 1 February 2012 Haparanda 1058.0 [80][81]
March 1 March 1971 Svartbyn-Överkalix 1055.7 [82]
April 15 April 1860 Uppsala 1047.1 [83]
May 7 May 1893 Umeå 1048.0 [84]
June 3 June 1979 Sveg 1044.8 [85]
July 28 July 1963 Sveg and Särna 1035.6 [86]
August 25 August 1968 Riksgränsen 1038.8 [87]
September 28 September 2017 Åsele and Lycksele 1044.1 [88] *Previously 29 September 2015, Hagshult (Småland) 1042.9 hPa.[89] The prior record being from 16 September 1903, Sveg 1042.0 hPa.[90]
October 4 October 2016 Sveg 1050.7 [91][92] *Previously 14 October 1896, Stockholm 1048.6 hPa.[93]
November 18 November 1985 Malung and Rännberg-Östmark, Värmland. 1056.0 [94]
December 15 December 1946 Sveg 1059.2 [95]

Sweden monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure Sweden[78]
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 30 January 2000 Krångede, Jämtland 946.2 [96]
February 27 February 1990 Understen, Uppland 940.5 [97]
March 8 March 1920 Abisko, Lapland 948.3 [98]
April 6 April 1943 Gäddede, Jämtland 960.3 [99]
May 12 May 1898 Karlstad 971.3 [100]
June 29 June 1938 Storlien 976.2 [101]
July 9 July 1931 Ulricehamn 977.1 [102]
August 6 August 1941 Måseskär 975.7 [103]
September 29 September 1956 Klutmark, Västerbotten 960.9 [104]
October 19 October 1970 Edsbyn 954.1 [105]
November 1 November 1921 Holmögadd, . 948.3 [106]
December 6 December 1895 Härnösand 938.4 [107]

Finland[edit]

Low Vivian approaching Finland 27 February 1990

According to the Finnish Meteorological Institute:

  • Highest air pressure: 22 January 1907, Helsinki 1066 hPa.[108]
  • Lowest air pressure: 27 February 1990 Kuuskajaskari, Rauma 940 hPa.[108][109]

Though a reported low value by Weather Underground weather historian Christopher Burt on 1 March 1990 at an unknown location is reported at 939.7 hPa.[109]

Baltics[edit]

Deutsche Seewarte atmospheric pressure map 23 January 1907

Maximum pressure in Europe 22–23 January 1907 recorded in Pärnu, Estonia and Riga, Latvia at 1067.1 mbar.[3] The Free University of Berlin state the European air pressure record is 23 January 1907 in Riga at 1068.7 hPa.[4]

Estonia[edit]

As reported by the Estonian Weather Service

  • Highest air pressure: 23 January 1907, Tallinn 1060.3 hPa.‡[110]
  • Lowest air pressure: 16 December 1982 Väike-Maarja 936.0 hPa.[110]

‡The Estonian Weather Service report on their website the record maximum observed air pressure in the country as 1060.3 hPa recorded 23 January 1907 in Tallinn.[110] This figure is not supported by NOAA reanalysis charts[111] and the values reported from neighbouring Finland and Latvia probably make this figure an underestimation or error. A possible maximum pressure value for the whole of Europe is thought to have occurred during the 22–23 January 1907 high pressure event with a record set in Pärnu, Estonia and Riga, Latvia at 1067.1 mbar.[3] Though this value is exceeded by the value on 23 January 1907 in Riga reported at 1068.7 hPa by the Free University of Berlin's student generated reports,[4] at which time the pressure is estimated to have reached around 1070 hPa by Yr.no in the Gulf of Riga.[112]

Latvia[edit]

  • Highest air pressure: 22–23 January 1907 Liepāja 1065.9 hPa

In the period 1960 to 2014, 16 December 1997 Daugavpils a value of 1055.8 hPa recorded.[113]

Lithuania[edit]

  • Highest air pressure: December 1889 Vilnius 1058.5 hPa
  • Lowest air pressure: January 1931 Ukmergė and Dotnuva 951.6 hPa.

23 January 1907 1065.1 hPa.[11]

Kaliningrad/Königsberg[edit]

  • Highest air pressure: 23 January 1907 1064.7 hPa[11]

Western Europe[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

Jersey[edit]

1862–2005

  • Highest air pressure: 29 January 1905, Jersey 1051.7 hPa.[3]
  • Lowest air pressure: 25 February 1989, Jersey 953.8 hPa.[37]

Guernsey[edit]

Guernsey Airport 1960–2005.[3]

  • Highest air pressure: 3 March 1990, 1047.7 hPa.
  • Lowest air pressure: 25 February 1989, 952.5 hPa.

France[edit]

Met Office Daily Weather Report pressure map 29 January 1905

Météo-France figures from 1951-2012.[114]

though other listed figures predate Météo-France's records.[citation needed]

On 28 January 1905 values of 31.04 inches of mercury (1,051 hPa) in Biarritz, and 31.01 inches of mercury (1,050 hPa) in Brest are listed in the Met Office Daily Weather Report.[117] On the 29 January 1905, the atmospheric pressure reached a value of 1049.3 hPa in Paris.[118][119]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure France
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
September 25 September 2018 Valenciennes 1040.0 [120] *Previously 19 September 1986 Dunkerque 1038.4 [121]

Belgium[edit]

The Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute gives the national record values as:

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure Belgium (since 20 century)
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 27 January 1932 Uccle 1048 [122]
June 6 June 1962 Uccle 1034.9 [123]
September 27 September 1906 Uccle 1037.9 [123]
October 23 October 1958 Uccle 1039.5 [123]
Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure Belgium (since 20 century)
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
February 25 February 1989 Uccle 956.8 [123] *Alt On 25 February 1989 a value reported at Blankenberge of 954 hPa.[122][123]
August 24 August 1956 Uccle 980 [123]
September 11 September 1903 Uccle 976.8 [123]
October 10 October 1964 Uccle 971.0 [123]
November 29 November 1965 Uccle 967 [123]

Luxembourg[edit]

Synoptic chart 28 December 2016 showing high pressure area Yörn over southern England and near continent.
  • Highest pressure: 27–28 December 2016, MeteoLux recorded the highest atmospheric pressures observed at the Luxembourg Findel Airport weather station since measurement began in 1947, a value of 1047.2 hPa was recorded twice (under the high pressure Yörn) is now the absolute record of atmospheric pressure in the history of the station. The previous record was from February 15–16, 1959 at 1046.6 hPa.[124]
Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure Luxembourg
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
September 25 September 2018 Luxembourg Findel Airport 1039.3 [125]
December 27–28 December 2016 Luxembourg Findel Airport 1047.2

Netherlands[edit]

The Dutch Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute lists the following as national records:

  • weergegevens.nl give a value on 23 January 1907 at Eelde of 1053.0 hPa.[128]

Netherlands monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly maximum figures for atmospheric pressure Netherlands
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 26 January 1932 De Bilt 1050.0 [129] *Alt: 23 January 1907, Eelde 1053.0 hPa.[128]
February 2 February 1993 De Bilt 1042 [129] *Alt: 16 February 2008, Eelde 1048.1 hPa,[128] 1046.7 hPa.[130]
March 6 March 1852 Utrecht 1046.9 [131]
April 10 April 1938 Vlissingen 1041.6 [128] *Alt: 7 April 2015, 1036.7 hPa.[132]
May 16 May 1943 Eelde, De Bilt and De Kooy 1040.2 [128]
June 7 June 1962 De Bilt? 1036.9 [131] *Alt: 6–7 June 1962, De Kooy 1038.3 hPa.[128]
July 8 July 2013 and 10 July 1911 Hoorn and De Kooy 1034.6 [128]
August 1034 [131] *Alt: 13 August 1949, Maastricht 1034.1 hPa.[128]
September 29 September 2015 Hoorn 1039.8 [128] *Alt: 29 September 2015, 1039.5 hPa.[132]

1040.2 report Maasricht 25 September 2018.[133]

October 22 October 1983 Rotterdam and Soesterberg 1041.7 [128]
November De Bilt 1044.2 [129] *Alt: 20 November 1915, Eelde 1044.7 hPa.[128]
December De Bilt 1047.0 [129] *Alt: 23 December 1962, Eelde 1050.2 hPa.[128]

Netherlands monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure[edit]

Monthly minimum figures for atmospheric pressure Netherlands
Month Date Location pressure hPa ref
January 23 January 2009 Hoek van Holland 961.0 [134]
February 25 February 1989 Vlissingen 954.4 [134]
March 24 March 1986 Leeuwarden 963.5 [128]
April 1 April 1994 De Kooy 972.6 [128] *Alt: 1 April 1994, 978.0 hPa.[132]
May 5 May 2000 De Bilt 983.5 [135] *Alt: 5 May 2004, Vlieland 982.3 hPa.[128]
June 27 June 1958 Vlissingen 988.0 [128]
July 10 July 2000 De Bilt 987.5 [136] *Alt: 10 July 2000, Hoorn (Terschelling) 984.0 hPa.[128]
August 27 August 1912 De Bilt 973.0 [128]
September 24 September 1927 De Kooy 974.8 [128] *Alt: 24 September 2012, 985.6 hPa.[132]
October 27 October 1959 De Kooy 968.8 [128]
November 27 November 1983 Eelde, Drenthe 954.2
December 10 December 1965 Leeuwarden 961.5 [128]

Germany[edit]

The German weather service (DWD) give the

Other record figures and locations are also presented:

  • 23 January 1907 Dahlem (Berlin) 1057.8 hPa.[139][140] It is claimed this is an incorrect correction to mslp and correct value is 1056.7 hPa.[141] (neither figure is higher than the DWD value)
  • 27 November 1983 Bremen 955.4 hPa.[139][140] (which is also not lower than the DWD value).
  • 26 February 1989 in Osnabrück 949.5 hPa.[142][143]

Central Europe[edit]

Poland[edit]

  • In Poland the record high pressure is listed on 16 December 1997 with 1054.4 hPa recorded in Suwalki.

It is likely 23 January 1907 saw a pressure of 1064.8 ± 0.5 mbar over polish territory.[11] Other high pressures are reported as 1051.1 hPa January 22, 2006, 1050 hPa January 3, 1993 and 1048 hPa 10 December 1991.

  • The lowest post WWII value of 965.2 hPa is reported from February 26, 1989 in Szczecin and Lodz.[144]

Reanalysis data show a low record likely occurred on 17 January 1931 when a below 960 hPa low moved over the Baltic skirting the very north of today's Polish territory.[145]

Switzerland[edit]

Pressure over Europe 16 January 1882 (782.3 mmHg ~1043 hPa)
27 December 2016 during the high pressure Yörn Bischofszell reported a QFF value of 1048 hPa.[147] With the weather station at Zürichberg reporting its highest ever value since the station was established in 1949.[148]

Other high pressures in Switzerland are given as 3–4 March 1990 at Zurich Airport of >1047 hPa[149] and 29 January 1989 at Schaffhausen of 1047.2 hPa, which was the highest pressure in the country since the 1950s, when values on 15 February 1959 at Kloten reached 1047.1 hPa.[150][151] A high value of 1050.2 hPa at Bern on 17 January 1882 is proposed as having occurred (on an internet forum).[152][better source needed]

Liechtenstein[edit]

A private weather station in Balzers, southwest Liechtenstein reported on 28 December 2016 a value of 1046.4 hPa under the high named Yörn, described as a record by the Liechtensteiner Vaterland.[153]

Austria[edit]

  • A high pressure on 16 January 1882 Vienna 1050.5 hPa, the highest there since 1775.[3]
  • A low pressure could possibly be 2 or 3 Dec 1976 (Based on HU and CZ records) <970 hPa.

Czechia[edit]

A pressure value above >1050 hPa is also proposed on internet forums on 16 January 1882.[155]

Alternate low records are cited on the internet: 26 February 1989 at Mariánské Lázně 967.3 hPa,[154] also 2 December 1976 Hradec Králové 970.1 hPa.[139]

Hungary[edit]

The Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ) gives the following values:

Romania[edit]

  • A high air pressure on 24 January 1907 is reported at >1060 over Romania.[5]

Iberia[edit]

Synoptic chart of high pressure Iberia 2015

Spain[edit]

Balearic islands[edit]

  • Highest air pressure: 9 January 2015, Ibiza Airport 1041.1 hPa.[162] The 9 January 2015 air pressure was 0.3 hPa more than the previous record from January 1983.[162]

Portugal[edit]

  • Highest air pressure: 9 January 2015 Chaves and Bragança, Portugal 1050.3 hPa.[163][164] The first time values over 1050 hPa had been recorded in continental Portugal.[165]
  • A low air pressure: 15 February 1941 in Évora at 931 hPa is reported by one source, which also reports a minimum value of 937 hPa in Coimbra and 950 hPa in Lisbon during the passage of this low pressure.[166] The Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera give a value of 938.5 hPa at station level for Coimbra (not MSLP).[167] Other sources only give minimum values of around 950 hPa in Lisbon as the minimum during the passage of this low.[168][169]

Notable non-tropical pressures over the North Atlantic[edit]

Deep low SW of Iceland 14 December 1986, which, according to the German Weather Service, possibly reached a nadir of 912–913 hPa over the North Atlantic

Notable atmospheric pressure reports from offshore and in the North Atlantic are:

  • High pressure, 28 January 2003 saw high of 1057 centred at 51° N, 27° W (approx. 1000km north of Azores).[3]

A lower value is reported from 27–28 February 1988 at 1053 hPa centred at approximately 53.5° N, 25.6° W.[3]

  • Low pressure, Two or three (possibly four) non-tropical areas of low pressure with central low pressure over the North Atlantic below 920 hPa have been reported, with a further unverified instance during the Night of the Big Wind (see above), these represent globally the lowest non-tropical large-scale synoptic values.
  • 13 January 1993 Braer Storm dropped 78 hPa in 24 hours,[37][170] to a central pressure out in the Atlantic at 62° N, 15° W of 914.0 hPa, and was likely the deepest cyclone on record for the North Atlantic, and very probably for any temperate latitude.[171]
  • 14–15 1986 December, The British Meteorological Office assessed the centre of a depression at about 916 hPa, the West German Meteorological Service enclosed the depression with a 915 hPa isobar, indicating a pressure possibly as low as 912-913 hPa.[172]

For comparison, the lowest Atlantic basin tropical cyclone low pressure is Hurricane Wilma in 2005, which holds the record at 882 hPa.[173](see list of most intense tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic).

Similarly low extra-tropical values elsewhere have only been documented near Antarctica, with 919 hPa observed at Casey Station on the Windmill Islands (just outside the Antarctic Circle) on August 8–9, 1976 at Vincennes Bay (66°17’S 110°31’E).[174] Though this value is considerably lower than any other on record and could conceivably be a fault with the recording instrument, though values are internally consistent with readings below 940 mb at this time.[109]

The two lowest extra-tropical pressures reported from the Pacific basin are the 8 November 2014 Bering Sea cyclone at 924 hPa (warnings for the low to reach 920 hPa were released by the Japan Meteorological Agency[175]),[176] and the 13 December 2015 North Pacific low at 924 hPa.[177]

North Atlantic low pressures below 940 hPa[edit]

During a typical winter, one or perhaps two low pressure areas in the North Atlantic will deepen below 950 hPa, with pressures only deepening below 940 hPa on average once or twice per decade.[178] Before the satellite and weather model era, records (mostly from shipping) reported barometric pressures over the extratropical North Atlantic as going as low as 925 hPa, with values below 940 hPa being very rare occurrences.[179] The frequency of very deep depressions (central pressure below about 940 hPa) in the North Atlantic is thought to have increased significantly since the winter of 1982/83 to 1993.[171]

See also[edit]

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