List of automated train systems

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Singapore has the longest automated metro system in the world with three of its five Mass Rapid Transit lines having 4th grade automation (GoA4). It has had automated lines since 2003 and currently has 82 km (51 mi) of automated tracks with an additional 43 km (27 mi) by 2024 with the completion of the new Thomson-East Coast line.
Metro Vancouver's SkyTrain has been in operation since 1985; it is fully automated on all lines and is the 2nd longest automated metro system in the world with 79.6 km (49.5 mi) of Automated tracks.

The list of automated train systems is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1. These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP.

This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale railways for passengers and freight but does include a few people mover systems.

History of metro train automation[edit]

The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate using an ATO system, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France.

Degrees of automation[edit]

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP.[2]

The Rio Tinto Mining Company in Western Australia runs the world's largest network of driverless trains, with 1,700 km (1,100 mi) of freight railways run by an increasing number of completely unattended trains.

Grade-of-Automation 4 (GoA4)[edit]

Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver (GoA4)

In this system, trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.

Examples include the Barcelona Metro line 9 and the Copenhagen Metro.

Grade-of-Automation 3 (GoA3)[edit]

In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.

Grade-of-Automation 2 (GoA2)[edit]

In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the London Underground Victoria line.

Standard systems for automated operation[edit]

Grade-of-Automation 4 systems[edit]

These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.

GoA4 – Americas[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 4 (Yellow) 25 May 2010 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC First completely driverless metro line in Latin America[3]
Line 2 Bombardier CITYFLO 650[4]
Line 15 (Silver) 30 August 2014 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Canada Canada SkyTrain All Lines 11 December 1985 SelTrac The longest driverless network in the Americas, at 79.6 km.[5]
LINK Train 6 July 2006
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Line 6 2 November 2017 SelTrac
Line 3 22 January 2019
United States United States Airport Transit System VAL system
AirTrain Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Detroit People Mover
Skyway
TPA Monorail and Shuttle Bombardier CITYFLO 550
ExpressTram
AirTrain JFK
AeroTrain
ATL Skytrain Bombardier CITYFLO 550
The Plane Train
Metromover 17 April 1986 Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Morgantown, West Virginia 1975
Las Vegas Monorail 1995
Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit 28 February 1995 Bombardier CITYFLO 550
DFW Skylink 21 May 2005 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Satellite Transit System 1973 Bombardier CITYFLO 650

GoA4 – Asia[edit]

A train on the Rapid KL Line 9 in Malaysia. At 51 km (32 mi), it is one of the longest single lines in Asia
Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
China China Shanghai Metro Line 10 10 April 2010 Alstom Urbalis 400
Pujiang line 31 March 2018 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Beijing Subway Yanfang line 30 December 2017 [6]
Hong Kong Hong Kong MTR Disneyland Resort Line 1 August 2005 Most trains have an attendant on board.
South Island Line (East) 28 December 2016 Alstom Urbalis 400 All trains have an attendant on board.[7]
India India Delhi Metro Pink Line 2018 Bombardier Transportation CITYFLO 650 CBTC 58.59 km (36.41 mi). Initially with an attendant on board.
Magenta Line 25 December 2017 Nippon Signal SPARCS CBTC system Initially with an attendant on board.
Hyderabad Metro Red Line 28 November 2017 [a]
Blue Line 28 November 2017 [a]
Japan Japan Tokyo Yurikamome
Tokyo Nippori-Toneri Liner
Yokohama Kanazawa Seaside Line
Nagoya Linimo 6 March 2005 World's first unmanned maglev
Osaka Nanko Port Town Line
Kobe Kobe New Transit World's first GoA4 line.
Hiroshima Skyrail Midorizaka Line People Mover monorail
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala LumpurRapid KL Kelana Jaya Line 1998 SelTrac CBTC The first GoA4 in Malaysia, at 46.4 km (28.8 mi)
Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 The second GoA4 in Malaysia, at 51 km (32 mi)
Ampang Line & Sri Petaling Line 2017 SelTrac CBTC With train attendants to drive trains in the event of a disruption.
Kuala Lumpur KLIA Aerotrain Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Qatar Qatar Doha Metro all lines 2019 Thales CBTC
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh Metro Blue Line, Red Line 2019 Siemens CBTC
Orange Line Ansaldo STS
Yellow Line, Green Line, Purple Line Alstom Urbalis 400
Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit (Singapore) Bukit Panjang LRT line 6 November 1999 Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Sengkang LRT line 18 January 2003 Kyosan APM
Punggol LRT line 29 January 2005 Kyosan APM
Changi Airport Skytrain 1990 Kyosan APM
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) North East MRT line 20 June 2003 Alstom Urbalis 300 One of the largest fully automated rapid transit network in the world at 82 km (51 mi).[8] Trains may have an attendant on board.
Circle MRT line 28 May 2009 Alstom Urbalis 300
Downtown MRT line 22 December 2013 Siemens Trainguard Sirius CBTC
South Korea South Korea Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
Busan Metro Line 4
Daegu Metro Line 3
Incheon Airport Maglev
Incheon Subway Line 2
Seoul Metropolitan Subway Shinbundang Line
Ui LRT
U Line
Everline Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Taiwan Taiwan Taipei Metro Wenhu Line Bombardier CITYFLO 650 [b]
Turkey Turkey Istanbul Metro M5 15 September 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650[9] On the Asian side of Istanbul.
United Arab Emirates UAE Dubai Metro [c]
Dubai Tram November 2014 Alstom Urbalis 400

GoA4 – Europe[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Metro Line 1 19 October 2002 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 2 19 October 2002 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 9 13 December 2009 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC 47.8 km (29.7 mi)
Line 10 10 April 2010 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Italy Italy Turin Metro Line M1 4 February 2006 VAL system First fully automatic metro in Italy. First section opened for the 2006 Winter Olympics, completed in 2014.
Rome Metro Line C 9 November 2014 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Milan Metro Milan Metro Line 4 2022 (Under construction) Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Milan Metro Line 5 10 February 2013 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Brescia Metro Brescia Metro 2 March 2013 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
France France Paris Metro Line 1 3 November 2011 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC [d]
Line 4 2022 (Under conversion) Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC Currently under conversion from manual to driverless operation
Line 13 2025-2027 (Planned conversion) Conversion from manual to driverless operation planned for 2025-2027.
Line 14 15 October 1998 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line 15 2024-2025 (Under construction)
Line 16 2024-2025 (Under construction)
Line 17 2024-2025 (Under construction)
Line 18 2027 (Planned)
Orlyval 2 October 1991 VAL system
CDGVAL Line 1 3 April 2007 VAL system
Line 2 27 June 2007 VAL system
Rennes Metro Line A 15 March 2002 VAL system
Line B 2020 VAL system
Toulouse Metro Line A 26 June 1993 VAL system
Line B 30 June 2007 VAL system
Toulouse Aerospace Express 2025 (Planned)
Lille Metro Line A 25 April 1983 VAL system First line to use the VAL system.
Line B 1 April 1989 VAL system
Lyon Metro Line D 11 December 1992 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC [d][e]
Germany Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn Line U2 2 January 2010 [d]
Line U3 14 June 2008
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Line 4 28 March 2014 Alstom Metropolis [10]
Switzerland Switzerland Lausanne Metro Line M2 27 October 2008 Alstom Urbalis 300
United Kingdom United Kingdom Gatwick Airport Shuttle Transit 1987 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Stansted Airport Transit System 1991 Bombardier CITYFLO 550
AirRail Link 7 March 2003 People Mover Group, DCC Doppelmayr Cable Car

GoA4 – Oceania[edit]

Sydney Metro Alstom Metropolis
Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Australia Australia Sydney Metro North West Line 26 May 2019 Alstom Urbalis 400 First completely driverless metro line in Australia
Pilbara Pilbara iron ore trains from Roy Hill 28 December 2018 Hitachi's AutoHaul First completely driverless railway in Australia and first full scale fully automated freight railway in the world.

Grade-of-Automation 3 systems[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 1 (Blue) March 1976 ATO With train captains monitoring in cab.
Line 2 (Green) February 2016 Alstom Urbalis 400 With train captains monitoring in cab.
Line 3 (Red) 1979 ATO With train captains monitoring in cab.
Line 5 (Lilac) 12 March 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 With train captains monitoring in cab. To be upgraded to GoA4 in 2019-2020
Salvador Metro 1 and 2 2014 SelTrac[11] With train captains monitoring in cab.
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Metro Line 3 October 2019 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC [12]
China China Beijing Subway Airport Express 19 July 2008 Alstom Urbalis 400
Wuhan Metro Yangluo line 26 December 2017 [13]
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Line 2 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC A supervisor is monitoring the train in the cab.
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) North South MRT Line 2017[14] Thales Seltrac® CBTC[15] With train captains monitoring in cab.

[f]

East West MRT Line 18 June 2017 (Tuas West extension)

28 May 2018 (whole line)[14]

Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 11 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
United Kingdom United Kingdom Docklands Light Railway 1987 [g]

Grade-of-Automation 2 systems[edit]

GoA2 – Africa[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Algeria Algeria Algiers Metro 1 November 2011 Siemens CBTC

GoA2 – Americas[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Underground Line H 2007
Canada Canada Montreal Metro Line 1 Green
Line 2 Orange
1966 [d]
Line 5 Blue 1986
Toronto subway Scarborough RT March 1985 [h]
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Line 1 Alstom Urbalis 400
Mexico Mexico Mexico City Metro Line 12 Alstom Urbalis 400
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Tren Urbano [i]
United States United States Bay Area Rapid Transit 1972
PATCO Speedline Between Philadelphia and New Jersey
Washington Metro [j]
New York City Subway BMT Canarsie Line (L train) Early 2012 Siemens CBTC [17][18]
IRT Flushing Line (7 and <7>​ trains) 10 May 2019 Thales CBTC [19]
Muni Metro [k]
MARTA rail All lines 1979

GoA2 – Asia[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
South Korea South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation Lines 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 [l]
Korail Bundang Line SelTrac [m]
Busan Metro Lines 1, 2, 3
Daejeon Metro Daejeon Subway Line 1
Incheon Subway Incheon Subway Line 1
Daegu Metropolitan Transit Corporation Lines 1 and 2
Taiwan Taiwan Taipei Metro Tamsui-Xinyi line
Songshan–Xindian line
Bannan line
Zhonghe–Xinlu line
Japan Japan Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line [n]
Namboku Line
Fukutoshin Line
Chiyoda Line (Kita-Ayase branch)
Hibiya Line [o]
Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Ōedo Line
Toei Mita Line
Osaka Metro Nankō Port Town Line
Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line
Tanimachi Line [p]
Fukuoka City Subway Kūkō Line
Hakozaki Line
Nanakuma Line
Saitama Rapid Railway Line [q]
Sendai Subway Nanboku Line [r]
Yokohama Municipal Subway Green Line
Nagoya Municipal Subway Sakura-dōri Line
Okinawa Monorail
Hong Kong Hong Kong MTR Kwun Tong Line SACEM [s]
Tsuen Wan Line
Island Line
Tung Chung Line
Airport Express
Tseung Kwan O Line
East Rail Line
West Rail Line SelTrac
Ma On Shan Line
China China Beijing Subway Lines 4, 8, and 10 SelTrac
Fangshan Line Alstom Urbalis 400
Lines 2, 6, and 9
Wuxi Metro Lines 1 and 2
Ningbo Metro Line 1
Wuhan Metro Line 1 SelTrac
Guangzhou Metro Line 3
Shenyang Metro Line 1 Ansaldo STS CBTC
Shanghai Metro Lines 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 Line 11 from 2012 SelTrac
Line 13 Alstom Urbalis 400
Shenzhen Metro Line 1 Siemens LZB 700M
Line 2, Line 5 Alstom Urbalis 400
Line 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Tianjin Metro Lines 2 and 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
India India Kolkata Metro Line 1
Delhi Metro Red Line, Yellow Line Alstom Urbalis 200 [t]
Blue Line Siemens [u]
Green Line, Violet Line, and Airport Express Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta MRT North-South Line 24 March 2019[20] Nippon Signal SPARCS [21]
Thailand Thailand BTS Skytrain Sukhumvit Line and Silom Line Bombardier CITYFLO 450
MRT (Bangkok) Blue Line Siemens LZB 700M
State Railway of Thailand Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link
Malaysia Malaysia Rapid KL KL Monorail 2003
Express Rail Link KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Turkey Turkey Ankara Metro M1, M4 Ansaldo STS CBTC[22]

Previously Seltrac CBTC on M1.

[v]
İstanbul Metro Line M2 YenikapıHacıosman Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line M3 KirazlıiOlimpiyat / Başakşehir Metrokent Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line M4 KadıköyKartal Seltrac CBTC
Line M6 Levent – Hisarüstü Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC

GoA2 – Europe[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Austria Austria Vienna U-Bahn U1, U2, U3, U4 [w]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Metro A, C [x]
Finland Finland Helsinki Metro [y]
France France Paris Metro Line 2
Line 3 OCTYS System
Line 4 [z]
Line 5 OCTYS System
Line 6
Line 7
Line 8
Line 9 OCTYS System
Line 11
Line 12
Line 13 Planned conversion to GoA4 (expected for 2025-2027)
Paris RER Line A SACEM System
Germany Germay Munich U-Bahn [aa]
Düsseldorf Stadtbahn [ab]
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Line 3 [d]
Italy Italy Milan Metro Line 3
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Metro Route 52 (North-South Line) 30 July 2018 Alstom Urbalis 400 [23]
Romania Romania Bucharest Metro M1, M2, M3, M4 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Russia Russia Kazan Metro System "Dvizhenie"
Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 System "Dvizhenie"
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 1 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 2
Line 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 5
Bilbao Metro Line 1 November 1995 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 2 April 2002 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Madrid Metro Line 1 July 2009 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5
Line 6 July 2008 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Line 7 Invensys CBTC
Line 8
Line 9
Line 10
Line 11
Line 12
Branch line
Málaga Metro Line 1 30 July 2014 Alstom Urbalis 400 [24]
Line 2 30 July 2014 Alstom Urbalis 400 [24]
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Metro Green Line, (Lines T17,
T18 and T19)
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Underground Victoria line 1967
Central line Mid-1990s [d][ac]
Jubilee line 2011 [d][ad]
Northern line 2012 [d][ae]

Future systems[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Underground Line F 2022–2024
Line D 2019
Belarus Belarus Minsk Metro Line 3 2021 Stadler
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 6 2021 Nippon Signal SPARCS [af][26]
Line 1 and Line 3 2021 Alstom Urbalis 400 [ag]
Line 17 2021[27] SelTrac[28]
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Line 7 2026 SelTrac
Peru Peru Lima Metro Line 2 2022 AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 4 2025
Canada Canada Réseau express métropolitain
Toronto subway Yonge–University–Spadina Line 2020-2021[29] [ah]
Bloor–Danforth Line 2030
Turkey Turkey Istanbul Metro M7, M8, M12 BombardierCityflo 650 CBTC [ai]
Taiwan Taiwan Taichung Subway Green line 2020 Alstom Urbalis 400 [31]
Taipei Metro Taipei Circular Line AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
China China Beijing Subway New Airport line September 2019
Line 3, Line 12, Line 17, and Line 19 2021 [32]
Shanghai Metro Line 14, Line 15 and Line 18 2020 Thales, Shanghai Electric [aj][34]
Wuhan Metro Line 5 [13]
Chengdu Metro Line 9 2020 Alstom Urbalis CBTC System [ai][35]
Shenzhen Metro Line 14 2022 [36]
Line 16 2023 [37]
Nanning Rail Transit Line 5 2021 [38]
India India Hyderabad Metro Green Line December 2019[39] SelTrac[40]
Kolkata Metro Line 2 July 2019[41]
Macau Macau Macau Light Rapid Transit Taipa Line 2019 [42]
Malaysia Malaysia Rapid KL Bandar Utama–Klang line 2020 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Sungai Buloh–Serdang–Putrajaya line 2021 Cityflo 650 CBTC
MRT Circle Line
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) Thomson-East Coast Line 2019-2024 Alstom Urbalis 400 CBTC [43]
Jurong Region Line 2026-2028 [44]
Cross Island Line 2029-2031 [45]
Thailand Thailand MRT (Bangkok) MRT Purple Line Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Metro Line D
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Metro Line 3 and Line 4 by Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Greece Greece Thessaloniki Metro Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Athens Metro Line 4
Republic of Ireland Ireland MetroLink (Dublin) 2027
Italy Italy Milan Metro Milan Metro Line 4 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Metro 5 lines 2019 Alstom Urbalis 400 [ak]
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 2 Siemens CBTC
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Underground Circle, Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City, Piccadilly, and District lines
National Rail Crossrail

Defunct systems[edit]

Country/region Name of system Line Date System Notes
United Kingdom United Kingdom Post Office Railway 1927–2003 [al]
Germany Germany Berlin M-Bahn 1989–1991 [am]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Line partially opened
  2. ^ System started with an attendant on board each train full-time. Gradually over time, the presence of attendants decreased. By September 2017, trains have attendants only while in long tunnel sections.
  3. ^ Red Line at 52.1 km (32.4 mi). The longest driverless network in the Middle East.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Converted from manual to automated operation
  5. ^ Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise).
  6. ^ Converted from a lower GoA to a higher GoA
  7. ^ To be converted from a lower GoA to a higher GoA
  8. ^ Uses the same trains as the Vancouver SkyTrain and the Detroit People Mover, already runs on an ATC/ATO system with an attendant on board.
  9. ^ Entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.
  10. ^ Has an automated mode, where the driver is responsible for opening and closing of doors and of overriding the system. However, the system has been operating in manual mode since the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and plans are to operate in manual mode until newer railcars are delivered.[16]
  11. ^ Switch to automatic control while operating in the Market Street Subway and in the Twin Peaks Tunnel. The operator manages the doors in-station and pilots the vehicle when running aboveground.
  12. ^ Driver on standby and will drive the train when ATO malfunctions or is not available.
  13. ^ Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies.
  14. ^ Main line converted to ATO in 2010, but Hōnanchō branch continues to use ATC/TASC
  15. ^ ATO trialled during the 1960s. Trains now operated in manual mode.
  16. ^ ATO trialled from October 1967 until February 1968; trains now operated in manual mode.
  17. ^ A continuation of the Tokyo Metro Namboku Line.
  18. ^ World's first railway system to use fuzzy logic to control the speed of trains.
  19. ^ Same system as Paris RER line A
  20. ^ Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom.
  21. ^ Uses LZB 700 signalling systems supplied by Siemens.
  22. ^ Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
  23. ^ Uses the same system as Munich with fully driverless turning at some terminuses.
  24. ^ Line B is partly automated.
  25. ^ Including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension, has had various attempts at automation since the 1970s.
  26. ^ To be converted from a lower GoA to a higher GoA
  27. ^ Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned.
  28. ^ Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated, but just between the 22 underground stations. Outside the underground stations the driver operates the train manual.
  29. ^ A member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven.
  30. ^ A member of staff opens & closes the train doors, drives the train on Sundays, fixes faults.[25]
  31. ^ A driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train, the train is driven manually on Sundays, and can be driven in manual outside of peak hours.
  32. ^ GoA4
  33. ^ System is currently operating on Line 2, with upgrading of the other 2 lines to be fully completed by 2021.
  34. ^ Expected to have ATC/ATO implemented on the Yonge–University–Spadina Line by 2019 and the Bloor–Danforth Line, funding permitting, by 2030.[30]
  35. ^ a b UTO Fully driverless system.
  36. ^ UTO system jointly developed by Thales Group and Shanghai Electric.[33]
  37. ^ GoA2 under construction with GoA4 planned long term.
  38. ^ Tiny, driverless, mail-only subway connecting main post offices and railway terminals in London.
  39. ^ Maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IEC 62290-1:2006 Withdrawn – Railway applications - Urban guided transport management and command/control systems - Part 1: System principles and fundamental concepts". International Electrotechnical Commission. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Automation Essentials – Automated Metros Observatory".
  3. ^ "ViaQuatro ganha Prêmio UITP Latino" (in Portuguese).
  4. ^ "Bombardier Wins Third Mass Transit Complete Signalling System in Brazil". GlobeNewswire. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  5. ^ "Evergreen Extension opening today". 2 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Beijing welcome significant expansion of their urban rail network". Intelligent Transport. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  7. ^ "南港島線無人駕駛列車 職員長駐隨時應急". 東方日報 Oriental Daily. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  8. ^ Briginshaw, David (July 20, 2016). "Automated metros set to reach 2200km by 2025". International Railway Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  9. ^ UK, DVV Media. "Erdoğan opens first driverless metro line in Istanbul". Metro Report. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
  10. ^ Railway Gazette International May 2014, pg 15.
  11. ^ "Thales Awarded Signalling Contract for News Salvador Metro". Thales Group. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Sofia metro line 3 to open in October 2019". The Sofia Globe. 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
  13. ^ a b "武汉地铁进入全自动驾驶时代 5号线有望"尝鲜"" [Wuhan Metro enters the fully driverless era: Line 5 could have "early preview"]. Chutian Metropolis Daily. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019 – via China News Service.
  14. ^ a b "All MRT lines now on new signalling system". The Straits Times. 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  15. ^ TODAY Online (April 13, 2017). "doors open and close automatically under the new system-Gov.sg". gov.sg. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  16. ^ Weir, Kytja (June 2, 2011). "Metro: Trains to stay in manual mode for several years". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 2011-10-21. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
  17. ^ NY1 News (2009-02-21). "L Subway service to be run by computers". Archived from the original on 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  18. ^ "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2011-09-06. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  19. ^ Murray, Christian. "MTA Completes 7-Train Upgrade, Touts Improved Service". Sunnyside Post. Queens Post. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  20. ^ "Jakarta inaugurates MRT system to tackle one of world's worst traffic jams". The Straits Times. 2019-03-24. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  21. ^ "Railway Signal Systems". Nippon Signal Co., Ltd. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  22. ^ "Ansaldo STS, leader of the consortium, opens line M3 of the CBTC Ankara Metro". Ansaldo STS Corporate website. Retrieved 2018-10-21.
  23. ^ "The North-South subway line in Amsterdam is finally open!". DutchReview. 21 July 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Malaga Metro – Lines 1 & 2". Isolgomma Srl. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  25. ^ Transport for London Tube Upgrade Plan Archived 2013-02-15 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Grupo brasileiro assume 15% na concessão da Linha 6 do Metrô e governo de SP admite novo atraso nas obras". G1 (in Portuguese). 19 January 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  27. ^ Fernando Galfo (2019-02-11). "Monotrilho da Linha 17 Ouro somente em 2021". Ferroviando (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  28. ^ "DefesaNet - Tecnologia - THALES - Fornecerá Tecnologia sem Condutor à Linha 17-Ouro do Metrô de SP". www.defesanet.com.br. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  29. ^ "TTC will not complete subway signal-system upgrade by 2019 deadline". Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  30. ^ Spurr, Ben (November 6, 2017). "TTC test of new signalling system 'exceeded expectations'". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
  31. ^ "Taichung Metro Green Line will open by end of 2020". Taiwan News. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
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