List of aviation accidents and incidents in Indonesia

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Following is the list of aviation accidents and incidents in Indonesian airspace or involving Indonesian-based airlines.

Death toll (50 fatalities or more)[edit]

Table key[edit]


List of aircraft accidents and incidents resulting in 50 or more fatalities in Indonesia.
Initial sort order is by total fatalities (descending) and then by date (most recent to most distant).
Deaths T Incident[nb 1] Aircraft Location Phase Airport Distance Date
Tot C P G N
234 12 222 0 COM Garuda Indonesia Flight 152 Airbus A300B4-220 indonmenear Medan, Indonesia APR
MES 32 km
(20 mi)
26 September 1997
189 8 181 0 COM Lion Air Flight 610 Boeing 737 MAX 8 indoliJava Sea, near Karawang Regency, Indonesia ENR
CGK 29 October 2018
162 7 155 0 COM Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 Airbus A320-216 indokarKarimata Strait, between Belitung and Borneo, Java Sea, Indonesia ENR
SUB 28 December 2014
149 5 95 49 COM Mandala Airlines Flight 91 Boeing 737-230 indonmeMedan, Indonesia ICL
MES c. 1 km
(0.6 mi)
5 September 2005
143 12 109 22 MIL Indonesian Air Force C-130 Lockheed C-130 Hercules WeMedan, Indonesia ICL
MES 1 km
(0.6 mi)
30 June 2015
135 12 121 2 1* MIL Indonesian Air Force (A-1324) Lockheed C-130H-30 Hercules indoncEast Jakarta, Indonesia ICL
HLP 3 km
(1.9 mi)
5 October 1991
107 11 96 0 COM Pan Am Flight 812 Boeing 707-321B indonba area of Negara, Bali, Indonesia APR
DPS 68 km
(42 mi)
22 April 1974
104 7 97 0 COM SilkAir Flight 185 Boeing 737-36N indonmuMusi River, Indonesia ENR
CGK 19 December 1997
102 6 96 0 COM Adam Air Flight 574[nb 2] Boeing 737-4Q8 indonmakMakassar Strait, Indonesia ENR
MDC 1 January 2007
99 [nb 3] [nb 4] 2 MIL Indonesian Air Force (A-1325) Lockheed C-130H Hercules indonmadnear Madiun, Indonesia APR
MDN 9 km
(5.6 mi)
20 May 2009
70 7 63 0 COM Mandala Airlines Flight 660 Vickers Viscount 816 indonaMt. Lalaboy, Ambon Island, Indonesia APR
AMQ 15 km
(9.3 mi)
24 July 1992
69 7 62 0 COM Merpati Nusantara Airlines Viscount (PK-MVS) Vickers Viscount 828 indonpMentawai Strait, off Padang, Indonesia ENR
WIMG 10 November 1971
61 4 57 0 COM Garuda Indonesia (PK-GVE) Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship indonMount Sibayak, Berastagi, Indonesia ENR
MES 11 July 1979
58 9 49 0 COM KLM Flight 844 Lockheed 1049E indonbiBiak Island, Indonesia ENR
BIK 16 July 1957
54 5 49 0 COM Trigana Air Flight 267 ATR 42-300 chinthMount Tangok, Oksibil District, Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Papua, Indonesia ENR
OKL 16 August 2015

Notes regarding table data columns[edit]


  • Total (Tot): The total number of fatalities associated with the accident or incident.
  • Crew (C): The number of crew fatalities.
  • Passenger (P): The number of passenger fatalities.
  • Ground (G): The number of ground (non-flying) fatalities.
  • Notes (N): The presence of a cross () denotes that all passengers and crew were killed. The presence of a one with an asterisk (1*) indicates the accident or incident had a sole survivor.


Occurrences have been coded to allow for identification and sorting by group membership (accidents and related incidents versus attacks).

Accidents and related incidents[edit]
  • "COM": Commercial aircraft
  • "MIL": Military aircraft

Any collision between a commercial and military aircraft is coded COM.

Attacks and related incidents[edit]
  • "INB": Internal attack involving a pre-planned bomb (without hijacking).
  • "INH": Internal attack to commandeer of aircraft. Use of weapons (including a bomb or other explosives) for this purpose is coded in this category.
  • "EXG": External attack originating on the ground (e.g., ground to air missiles, destruction of the aircraft while on the runway).
  • "EXS": External attack originating in the sky (e.g., intentional downing by a military aircraft).

[nb 5]


To provide some indication of distance between the site and the nearest location, the following three descriptors are applied:

  • none: No descriptor appears before the location name. The site was within 20 km (12.5 mi) of the location.
  • "off": Used only for those aquatic crash sites within 20 km (12.5 mi) of the location.
  • "near": The site was approximately 20 km to 50 km (12.5 mi to 31 mi) from the location.
  • "area of": The crash site was over 50 km (31 mi) from the location provided.

The names of occurrence locations are based on their present-day names.

Phases of flight[edit]

The phases of flight are those defined by the joint Commercial Aviation Safety Team/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team.[19]

  • Standing (STD): Prior to pushback/taxi, after gate arrival, or stationary and parked.
  • Taxi (TXI): Moving under own power, prior to takeoff or after landing.
  • Take off (TOF): Initiation of takeoff power, pulling back on controls, through to 10 m (35 ft) altitude.
  • Initial climb (ICL): End of TOF to the first of: initial prescribed power reduction, 300 m (1000 ft) altitude, or VFR pattern.
  • En route (ENR): End of ICL, through descent, to initial approach (IFR) or 300 m (1000 ft) above runway elevation (VFR).
  • Maneuvering (MNV): Only for low altitude flight (observation, photography) or aerobatics.
  • Approach (APR): From IAF or 300 m (1000 ft) elevation to landing flare.
  • Landing (LDG): Landing flare through to exit from runway.
  • Unknown (UNK): Unable to determine phase of flight.

Airports and distance[edit]

Airports associated with occurrences at all phases of flight (except ENR) are represented by their three-letter IATA airport code. In some cases, no IATA code is reported/assigned in which case the four-letter ICAO code is used. In rare instances (e.g., active or decommissioned military bases or closed airports whose civil codes have been reassigned), no codes exist. These airports are represented with three asterisks "***" in place of letters. Distance from the point of impact to the airport runway is provided for occurrences during the initial climb (ICL) and approach (APR) phases. On occasion, distance is provided for occurrences during takeoff (TOF) and landing (LDG) if the aircraft impacted within the aerodrome, but not on the runway.


  • 6 October 1937: a KLM Douglas DC-3-194B "Specht" (PH-ALS) crashed just after takeoff from Talang Betoetoe Airport, killing four of 12 on board. The number one engine failed, causing a fire. Although the pilot cut fuel to the engine, the aircraft could not gain altitude on the remaining engine.[20]


  • 22 January 1940: a KNILM Lockheed 14-WF62 Super Electra (PK-AFO) lost altitude after takeoff from Denpasar Airport in Bali and crashed into the Indian Ocean after a wingtip struck the water, killing 8 occupants and leaving only 1 survivor.[21]
  • 6 December 1941: Dutch Navy Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina Y-44 crashed at Tandjong Pandan, killing five.[22]
  • 29 December 1941: a KNILM Douglas DC-3-194B "Nandoe" (PK-ALN) was destroyed on the ground by Japanese fighters while parked at Polonia Airport.[23]
  • 29 December 1941: a BOAC Short Empire Mk.I "Cassiopeia" (G-ADUX) crashed on takeoff off Sabang after it struck debris, killing four.[24]
  • 30 January 1942: a Qantas (leased from Imperial Airways) Short Empire "Corio" (G-AEUH) was shot down by seven Japanese Mitsubishi A6M Zero aircraft and crashed 3 nmi from the mouth of the Noelmini River; 13 of 18 on board died in the attack.
  • 3 March 1942: a KNILM Douglas DC-3-194B "Pelikaan" (PK-AFV) was attacked and shot down by three Japanese Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero aircraft, whom returning to base after attacking Broome in Western Australia, causing the evacuation flight from Bandung to force-land at Carnot Bay, 90 kilometers north of Broome; three passengers and one crew member (J.F.M. Blaauw, mechanic) died during a later strafing attack.[25]
  • August 1943: an Imperial Japanese Airways Nakajima L2D (J-BIOA) was shot down near Sulawesi.[26]
  • 24 January 1945: an Imperial Japanese Airways Nakajima L2D (J-BKOA) disappeared between Denpasar and Surabaya.[27]
  • 29 July 1947: an Orissa State Government Douglas C-47B (VT-CLA) was shot down by a Royal Dutch Indies Army Curtiss P-40. The C-47 went into a dive, crashing into trees and later into rice paddies in Ngoto, Bantul and broke up, killing eight of nine on board; only the tail remained intact. The C-47 was chartered by the Indonesian government to deliver Malaysian Red Cross supplies. Dutch authorities claimed that they were not informed of the flight and that the aircraft had no Red Cross markings.[28]
  • 25 October 1948: a Pacific Overseas Airlines C-47 (HS-PC103) crashed off Sumatra Island; the aircraft was probably shot down by Dutch pilots.[29]
  • 2 December 1949: a Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij (BPM) Boeing-Canada Canso B (PK-AKC) crashed on landing at Muntok Bay during a survey flight, killing six of 11 on board.[30]


  • 17 November 1950: a Garuda Indonesia Airways Douglas C-47A-65-DL (DC-3) overran the runway into a ditch while landing at Juanda Airport, killing 2 crew aboard, while 20 passengers and a crew member survived.[31]
  • 11 April 1955: An Air India Lockheed L-749A Constellation was en route from Hong Kong to Jakarta when it exploded in mid-air and crashed into the waters off the coast of the Natuna Islands; 16 people were killed in the crash and three survived. A time bomb had been placed on the aircraft in an attempt to assassinate Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai.[32]
  • 16 July 1957: KLM Flight 844 was taking off from Biak Airport in West Papua when it plunged into Cenderawasih Bay. Out of 68 people on board, only 10 people survived the accident. The cause of the crash was never determined.


  • 24 January 1961: Garuda Indonesia Flight 424, a Douglas C-47A (PK-GDI), struck the western slope of Mount Burangrang, (15 km north of Bandung), killing all 21 occupants aboard. The DC-3 took off from Jakarta for a flight to Bandung, Yogyakarta and Surabaya; wreckage was found four days later.[33]
  • 3 February 1961: Garuda Indonesia Flight 542 Douglas C-47 went missing while flying over the Java Sea. All 5 crew and 21 passengers on board were believed to have been perished.[34]
  • 1 January 1966: The only known mid air collision in Indonesia, two Garuda Indonesia C-47A collided in mid-air near Palembang, killing all 34 on board both aircraft.[35][36]
  • 16 February 1967: Garuda Indonesia Flight 708 crashed on landing at Manado due to pilot error, killing 22 of 92 on board.[37]
  • 28 May 1968: a Garuda Indonesia Convair 990 bound for Karachi, Pakistan crashed into the sea shortly after taking off from Bombay Santa Cruz Airport. All 29 people on board (15 passengers and 14 crew members) died. In addition, there was one casualty on the ground.[38]



  • 10 November 1971: A Merpati Nusantara Vickers Viscount 828 (PK-MVS) "Sabang" crashed into the sea 75 miles (121 km) off Sumatra killing all 69 people on board.[39]
  • 5 April 1972: a Merpati Nusantara Vickers Viscount was the subject of an attempted hijacking. The hijacker was killed.[40]


  • 28 February 1973: A Merpati Nusantara Airlines DHC-6 crashed into terrain near Nabire, Papua, killing all 13 on board.


  • 22 April 1974: Pan Am Flight 812 crashed into a hillside at Grogek, North Bali. The flight was a scheduled international flight from Hong Kong to Sydney, Australia, with an intermediate stop at Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. All of the 96 passengers and 11 crew on board were killed.[41]
  • 7 September 1974: a Garuda Indonesia Fokker F-27 crashed on approach to Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport. The aircraft crashed short of the runway while on approach in limited visibility. The aircraft eventually struck buildings near the runway and caught fire. 33 out of 36 people on board perished.[42]


  • 24 September 1975: Garuda Indonesia Flight 150 crashed on approach to Palembang Airport. The accident, which was attributed to poor weather and fog, killed 25 out of 61 passengers and one person on the ground.[43]
  • 4 November 1976: a Bali International Air Service Fokker F-27 was landing at Banjarmasin Airport when one of its propeller auto-feathered due to crew error. The plane crashed into the side of the runway and burst into flames. 29 out of 38 people on board were killed in the crash.[44]
  • 7 February 1977: a Merpati Nusantara Douglas C-47A PK-NDH was damaged beyond economic repair in a landing accident at Tanjung Santan Airport.[45]
  • 29 March 1977: A Merpati Nusantara DHC-6 Twin Otter stalled and crashed into the woods in Sulawesi after the pilot made an erroneous maneuver to evade an imminent collision with terrain. 13 people out of 23 people on board were killed.[46]
  • 5 October 1978: A Merpati Nusantara Douglas C-47A (PK-NDI) burned out whilst parked at Ngurah Rai International Airport, Bali.[47]
  • 11 July 1979: a Garuda Indonesia Fokker F-28 on a domestic flight hit a volcano on approach to Medan Airport, Indonesia. All 61 people on board were killed.[48]



  • 12 January 1981: a Garuda Indonesia Douglas DC-10-30 PK-GIB overran the runway on landing at Ujung Pandang Airport, Sulawesi, Indonesia and was substantially damaged. The aircraft subsequently returned to service.[49]
  • 28 March 1981: Garuda Indonesia Flight 206, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, PK-GNJ "Woyla", was hijacked on a domestic flight from Palembang to Medan by five heavily armed hijackers. The hijackers diverted the flight to Penang, and then to Bangkok. The hijackers demanded the release of 84 political prisoners in Indonesia. On the third day of the hijacking (31 March 1981) the airplane parked in Bangkok Don Muang International Airport was stormed by Indonesian commandos One of the commandos was shot, probably by his comrades, as was the pilot, also probably by Indonesian commandos. The rest of the hostages were released unharmed. Two of the hijackers surrendered to the Thai commandos, but they were killed by the Indonesian commandos on the plane taking them back to Jakarta.[50][51]





  • 24 July 1992: Mandala Airlines Flight 660 – PK-RVU, a Vickers Viscount 816, was flying from Makassar, South Sulawesi to Ambon, Maluku. Suddenly a strong gust of wind from above caused the plane to lose altitude rapidly. It slammed into the side of Inahau Hill in Mount Lalaboy. All 70 people on board perished. Investigators concluded the strong wind and pilot error were the cause of the crash.
  • 18 October 1992: Merpati Nusantara Airlines Flight 5601, a IPTN/CASA CN-235-10 (PK-MNN) struck the side of Mount Papandayan while on approach to Bandung, Indonesia, killing all 31 people on board. The plane lost contact with control tower while above Mount Puntang. A search and rescue team found the debris of the plane and no survivors. Merpati's sole female pilot was among the dead.[57]




  • 10 January 1995: Merpati Nusantara Airlines Flight 6715, a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 (PK-NUK) "Sangihe", went missing over the Molo Strait between Flores and Rinca islands. As of November 2016, the aircraft was never found. Search and rescue operation were called off. All 14 people on board were presumed dead.[59]


  • 7 December 1996: Dirgantara Air Service Flight 5940, a CASA C-212 Aviocar was taking off from Banjarmasin when one of its engine suddenly malfunctioned. The pilot had attempted to return to airport. However, it failed to reach its intended destination and crashed into an industrial factory, killing 18 people including 3 on the ground. 1 passenger survived the crash.




  • 18 November 2000: Dirgantara Air Service Flight 3130 failed to take off from Datah Dawai Airport in East Kalimantan and crashed to nearby forest due to overloading. No passengers or crew were killed however everyone was injured. Investigation found an astonishing fact that the pilot voluntarily endangered the occupants by accepting bribes to let a handful of passengers board the already fully loaded aircraft.


Garuda Indonesia Flight 421 after its "successful" ditching, dubbed as "Miracle Flight" in Indonesia
  • 16 January 2002: Garuda Indonesia Flight 421 en route from Lombok to Yogyakarta was forced to make an emergency landing in poor weather on the Bengawan Solo River, due to an engine flameout caused by water and hail ingestion. In the process, the cabin floor suddenly ripped, causing two flight attendants to be sucked out. One person, a stewardess, was killed in the accident. The remaining 59 people survived.[64]



  • 5 September 2005: Mandala Airlines Flight 91 Shook violently, stalled and crashed into a residential neighborhood in Medan, North Sumatra. A total of 149 people were killed in Indonesia's deadliest air disaster involving ground fatalities. Flight crew took-off with flaps and slats retracted.


  • 11 February 2006: Adam Air Flight 782, registration number PK-KKE (c/n 23773), lost navigational and communications systems twenty minutes into a flight from Jakarta to Makassar, Sulawesi. The plane was subsequently flown into a radar "black spot" and was lost for several hours, eventually making an emergency landing at Tambolaka Airport, Sumba.[67]
  • 4 March 2006: Lion Air Flight 8987, a McDonnell Douglas MD-82, crashed after landing at Juanda International Airport. Reverse thrust was used during landing, although the left thrust reverser was stated to be out of service. This caused the aircraft to veer to the right and skid off the runway, coming to rest about 7,000 feet (2,100 m) from the approach end of the runway. There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was badly damaged.[68]
  • 24 December 2006: Lion Air Flight 792, a Boeing 737–400, landed with an incorrect flap configuration and was not aligned with the runway. The plane landed hard and skidded along the runway causing the right main landing gear to detach, the left gear to protrude through the wing and some of the aircraft fuselage to be wrinkled. There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was written off.[69]


  • 21 February 2007: Adam Air Flight 172, a Boeing 737–300 aircraft flying from Jakarta to Surabaya with registration PK-KKV (c/n 27284), had a hard landing at Juanda International Airport. The incident caused the fuselage of the plane to crack and bend at the middle, with the tail of the plane drooping towards the ground. There were no reports of serious injuries from the incident.[71][72]
  • 7 March 2007: Garuda Indonesia Flight 200, a Boeing 737–400 flying from Jakarta to Yogyakarta, bounced three times after suffering a hard landing at Adisucipto International Airport, Yogyakarta. The aircraft overran the runway and crashed onto a nearby embankment. 21 people were killed. Investigators found the pilot did not extend the flaps to the recommended position and was fixated on landing the aircraft immediately, even though it was traveling too fast.[73]


  • 10 March 2008: an Adam Air Boeing 737–400 aircraft flying from Jakarta to Batam with registration PK-KKT (c/n 24353), skidded 75 metres off the end of the runway while landing in Batam. All passengers survived and two were treated for shock. The plane sustained damage to one wing.[74][75]


The wreckage of Mimika Air Flight 514, seen on the slope of Mt. Gergaji



Merpati Flight 836 overran the runway in Manokwari, crashed and split into two on April 2010
  • 13 April 2010: Merpati Nusantara Airlines Flight 836 – A Boeing 737 operated by Merpati Airlines overran the runway in Manokwari with 109 people on board. The plane impacted terrain and broke up into three pieces. All 109 people on board survived; 44 people suffered minor injuries.
  • 2 November 2010: Lion Air Flight 712, a Boeing 737–400 (registration PK-LIQ) overran the runway on landing at Supadio Airport, Pontianak, coming to rest on its belly and sustaining damage to its nose gear. All 174 passengers and crew evacuated by the emergency slides, with few injuries.[80]


  • 7 May 2011: a Merpati Nusantara Xian MA60 PK-MZK, operating on the Sorong-Kaimana route, crashed onto the sea several meters from Kaimana Airport. The aircraft was on approach to Kaimana in Papua when it impacted water 500 meters from the runway. A total of 25 people were killed in the incident. The Captain chose to abort landing and performed a sharp left turn. It was also revealed that the Captain didn't retract the flaps properly causing the plane to lose altitude rapidly.[81]
  • 29 September 2011: Nusantara Buana Air Flight 823 – As the aircraft flying quite low over Gunung Leuser National Park, the crews encountered a thick cloud. Knowing that there were no other options as there were no gaps between the cloud, thus forcing them to fly into the cloud. But without any visual reference, the plane lose altitude and impacted terrain. All 18 people were killed.
  • 3 December 2011, a Merpati Nusantara CASA C-212 Aviocar passenger plane sustained substantial damage in a landing accident at Larat-Watidar Airport, Indonesia. There were three crew members and 19 passengers on board. Two passenger suffered minor injuries.[82]


A graffiti in Solo regarding the Mount Salak Sukhoi Superjet 100 crash
  • 9 May 2012: a Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft crashed on a demonstration flight operating from Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia.[83] The aircraft hit the cliff in Mount Salak, a volcano in the province of West Java, killing all 37 passengers and 8 crew aboard. The plane was on a demonstration flight in Indonesia, carrying potential customers and reporters. But few minutes later the plane impacted Mount Salak with 'no chance of survival'. Final reports indicated that the crews ignored the Terrain Warning System. They thought that the warning system was broken so they turned off the warning system while enganging in a conversation with a potential customer. Unbeknownst to them that the plane was in extreme proximity with terrain.[84][85]


  • 13 April 2013: Lion Air Flight 904, a Boeing 737–800 (registration PK-LKS; c/n 38728) from Bandung to Denpasar with 108 people on board, crashed into the water near Ngurah Rai International Airport, Bali, while attempting to land. The aircraft’s fuselage broke into two parts. While Indonesian officials reported the aircraft crashed short of the runway, reporters and photographers from Reuters and the Associated Press indicated that the plane overshot the runway. All passengers and crew were evacuated from the aircraft and there were no fatalities.[86]
  • 10 June 2013: a Xian MA60 PK-MZO, operating Merpati Nusantara Airlines Flight 6517 from Bajawa to Kupang with 50 people on board, crash-landed at Kupang airport in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Twenty five passengers were injured. The aircraft, which has been damaged beyond repair, lay on its belly on the runway with its engines jammed face down into the tarmac and its wings bent forward.[87]
  • 6 August 2013: Lion Air Flight 892, a Boeing 737–800 (registration PK-LKH; c/n 37297) from Makassar to Gorontalo with 117 passengers and crew on board, collided into a cow in Jalaluddin Airport. All people on board survived.[88]


  • 28 December 2014: The Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 aircraft, operating the route from Surabaya to Singapore, crashed into the Java Sea during bad weather, killing all 155 passengers and seven crew on board. A little crack in solder caused a significant electrical interruption to the rudder travel limiter. The crews tried to fix the problem, but just made it worse as they pulled the circuit breakers off, causing protection system to go off. Subsequent miscommunication later caused the plane to plunge into the Java Sea. Had the crews not pulled the circuit breakers, the flight would have made it through to their destination. It remains the third deadliest accident in Indonesia. [90]


  • 30 June 2015: an Indonesian Air Force Lockheed C-130 Hercules crashed near a residential neighbourhood with 12 crew and 109 passengers on board shortly after taking off from Medan, killing all aboard, along with 22 people on the ground.[91]
  • 16 August 2015: Trigana Air Service Flight 267 – The ATR 42 was on final leg to Oksibil Airport when it suddenly slammed into Tangok Mountain, few miles from the airport. Search and rescue teams found that none of the 54 people on board survived the crash. Both black boxes were retrieved by the National Transportation Safety Committee (KNKT). A preliminary report indicated the plane hit the terrain instantaneously, indicating a CFIT.
Crash site of Aviastar Flight 7503
  • 2 October 2015: Aviastar Flight 7503 – Missing over Sulawesi, SAR team later found that debris have been found in Latimojong Mountain. As they reach the crash site, there were no survivors found. All 10 people on board were killed in the crash.



See also[edit]


All accident and incident references to the Aviation Safety Network database are sub-pages of their main website,

  1. ^ In cases where specific flight numbers do not exist or are not provided in supporting records, the aircraft's registration number appears in parentheses.
  2. ^ Adam Air Flight 574 blackbox, cockpit voice recording (blackbox) from the last five minutes of the flight.
  3. ^ It is not known how many passengers or crew were killed in the incident. However, it is known that there were 112 people on the aircraft, including 98 passengers and 14 crew.
  4. ^ It is not known how many passengers or crew were killed in the incident. However, it is known that there were 112 people on the aircraft, including 98 passengers and 14 crew.
  5. ^ Categories adapted from RAND Corporation aviation research.


  1. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Garuda Indonesia-152)". Aviation Safety Network. 26 September 1997. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  2. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Lion Air Flight 610)". Aviation Safety Network. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  3. ^ "ASN Aircraft Accident Airbus A320-216 PK-AXC Java Sea". Aviation Safety Network. 28 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  4. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Mandala Airlines-091)". Aviation Safety Network. 5 September 2005. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  5. ^ "Aircraft Accident Investigation Report KNKT/05.24/09.01.38 (Mandala Airlines-091 [PK-RIM])" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC). 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  6. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed KC-130B Hercules A-1310 Medan". Aviation Safety Network. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  7. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Indonesian Air Force [A-1324])". Aviation Safety Network. 5 October 1991. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  8. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Pan Am-812)". Aviation Safety Network. 22 April 1974. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  9. ^ "ASN Accident Description (SilkAir-185)". Aviation Safety Network. 19 December 1997. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  10. ^ "Aircraft Accident Report (Silkair-185 [9V-TRF])" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC). 14 December 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  11. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Adam Air-574)". Aviation Safety Network. 1 January 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  12. ^ "Aircraft Accident Investigation Report KNKT.07.01/08.01.36 (Adam Air PK-KKW)" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  13. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-AU [A-1325])". Aviation Safety Network. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  14. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Mandala Airlines-660)". Aviation Safety Network. 24 July 1992. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
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  16. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Garuda Indonesia [PK-GVE])". Aviation Safety Network. 11 July 1979. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  17. ^ "ASN Accident Description (KLM-844)". Aviation Safety Network. 16 July 1957. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  18. ^ "ASN Accident Description (Trigana Air Service-267)". Aviation Safety Network. 16 August 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  19. ^ "Phase of Flight Definitions" (PDF). International Aviation Standards. 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  20. ^ Accident description for PH-ALS at the Aviation Safety Network
  21. ^ "Accident description: Monday, 22 January 1940". Aviation Safety Network.
  22. ^ Accident description for Y-44 at the Aviation Safety Network
  23. ^ "Criminal Occurrence description". Aviation Safety Network.
  24. ^ Accident description for G-ADUX at the Aviation Safety Network
  25. ^ "Criminal Occurrence description: Tuesday, 3 March 1942". Aviation Safety Network.
  26. ^ Criminal description for J-BIOA at the Aviation Safety Network
  27. ^ Accident description for J-BKOA at the Aviation Safety Network
  28. ^ Criminal description for VT-CLA at the Aviation Safety Network
  29. ^ Criminal description for HS-PC103 at the Aviation Safety Network
  30. ^ Accident description for PK-AKC at the Aviation Safety Network
  31. ^ "Accident description: Friday, 17 November 1950". Aviation Safety Network.
  32. ^ "Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  33. ^ "Accident description: Tuesday, 24 January 1961". Aviation Safety Network.
  34. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Saftety Network. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ "Accident description: Thursday, 16 February 1967". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  38. ^ "Accident description: Tuesday, 28 May 1968". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  39. ^ "Accident description: Wednesday, 10 November 1971". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  40. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  41. ^ "PA-812". Aviation Safety Network.
  42. ^ "Accident description: Saturday, 7 September 1974". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  43. ^ "Accident description: Wednesday, 24 September 1975". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  44. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  45. ^ "PK-NDH Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  46. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  47. ^ "PK-NDI Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
  48. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  49. ^ "Non-fatal Accidents/Incidents: Scheduled Flights". Flight International: 174. 18 July 1981.
  50. ^ Conboy, Ken (2004). Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces. Equinox Publishing. pp. 277–278. ISBN 9799589886.
  51. ^ "Hijacking description : Saturday, 28 March 1981". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  52. ^ Harro Ranter (20 March 1982). "ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-28 Fellowship 1000 PK-GVK Bandar Lampung-Branti Airport (TKG)". Retrieved 14 December 2015.
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