List of bagpipes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Northern Europe[edit]


  • Uilleann pipes: Also known as Union pipes and Irish pipes, depending on era. Bellows-blown bagpipe with keyed or un-keyed 2-octave chanter, 3 drones and 3 regulators. The most common type of bagpipes in Irish traditional music.
  • Great Irish Warpipes: One of the earliest references to the Irish bagpipes comes from an account of the funeral of Donnchadh mac Ceallach, king of Osraige in AD 927.[1] Bagpipes were a noted instrument in Irish warfare since medieval times, but only became standardized in Irish regiments in the British Army in the last century, when the Great Highland Bagpipe became standard. The Warpipe differed from the latter only in having a single tenor drone. Irish warpipes fell out of use for centuries due to the British outlawing them; whence the Scottish bagpipes took the place of the Irish bagpipes role in the British army. Warpipes today are rarer specialty instruments in military and civilian pipe bands, or private players.[2]
  • Brian Boru bagpipes: Carried by the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and had three drones, one of which was a baritone, pitched between bass and tenor. Unlike the chanter of the Great Highland Bagpipe, its chanter is keyed, allowing for a greater tonal range.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it developed into the modern uilleann bagpipe.


  • Great Highland Bagpipe: This is perhaps the world's best-known bagpipe. It is native to Scotland. It has acquired widespread recognition through its usage in the British military and in pipe bands throughout the world. The bagpipe is first attested in Scotland around 1400, having previously appeared in European artwork in Spain in the 13th century. The earliest references to bagpipes in Scotland are in a military context, and it is in that context that the Great Highland bagpipe became established in the British military and achieved the widespread prominence it enjoys today.
  • Border pipes: also called the "Lowland bagpipe" or "reel pipes", commonly confused with smallpipes, but louder. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland it is conically bored, made mostly from African blackwood like Highland pipes. Some makers have developed fully chromatic chanters.
  • Scottish smallpipes: a modern re-interpretation of an extinct instrument.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it developed into the modern uilleann bagpipe.
  • Zetland pipes: a reconstruction of pipes believed to have been brought to the Shetland Islands by the Vikings, though not clearly historically attested.

England and Wales[edit]

  • English bagpipes: with the exception of the Northumbrian smallpipes, no English bagpipes maintained an unbroken tradition. However, various other English bagpipes have been reconstructed by Jonathan Swayne and Julian Goodacre.
Kathryn Tickell playing a "16 keyed" Northumbrian smallpipe.
  • Northumbrian smallpipes: a bellows-blown smallpipe with a closed end chanter played in staccato.
  • Border pipes: also called the "Half-long pipes" in the North East, commonly confused with smallpipes, but louder. Traditionally played in Northern England as well as the Lowlands of Scotland. English border pipes have been reconstructed by Swayne, and they have in common with the Lowland Scottish pipes above 2-4 drones in a single stock, but the design of the chanter (melody pipe) is closer to the French cornemuse du centre and uses the same "half-closed" fingering system.
  • Cornish bagpipes: an extinct type of double chanter bagpipe from Cornwall (southwest England); there are now attempts being made to revive it on the basis of literary descriptions and iconographic representations.[3]
  • Welsh pipes (Welsh: pibe cyrn, pibgod): Of two types, one a descendant of the pibgorn, the other loosely based on the Breton veuze. Both are mouthblown with one bass drone.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.
  • Yorkshire bagpipes, known in Shakespeare's time, but now extinct
  • Lincolnshire bagpipes, a one-drone pipe extinct by 1850, with one reproduction made in the modern era
  • Lancashire bagpipes, widely mentioned in early-Modern literature and travel accounts


  • Säkkipilli: The Finnish bagpipes died out but have been revived since the late 20th century by musicians such as Petri Prauda.
  • Pilai: a Finnish bagpipe, described in 18th century texts as similar to the Ukrainian volynka.



  • Dūdas: Latvian bagpipe, with single reed chanter and one drone.


Dūdmaišis at the National Museum of Lithuania
  • Dūdmaišis, or murenka, kūlinė, Labanoro dūda. A bagpipe native to Lithuania, with a single reed chanter and one drone.


Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson
  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for "bagpipe" in general, the name is commonly used for the revived Swedish bagpipe, based on surviving säckpipor of the Dalarna region. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, and usually a single drone in the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter. There are around 20 surviving historical instruments in various museums and private collections.
  • Walpipe, according to some 19th century anglophone sources a type of bagpipe used alongside "the Sakpipe" in Lapland during the 18th and 19th centuries. The only known description,[4] as well as the name, in addition to it not being mentioned in any Swedish sources, suggests it's not a bagpipe but another name for the Swedish cowhorn.

Southern Europe[edit]


  • Zampogna (also called ciaramella, ciaramedda, or surdullina depending on style and or region): A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for doubled chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from zero to three drones (the drones usually sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote, though in some cases a drone plays the tonic).
  • Piva: used in northern Italy (Bergamo, Emilia), Veneto and bordering regions of Switzerland such as Ticino. A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero.
  • Müsa: played in Pavia, Alessandria, Genova and Piacenza.
  • Baghèt: similar to the piva, played in the region of Bergamo, Brescia and, probably, Veneto.
  • Surdelina: a double-chantered, bellows-blown pipe from Naples, with keys on both chanters and drones
  • Launeddas: is a typical pipe from Sardinia but it is characterised by the absence of bags: the mouth works as bag.



The ancient name of bagpipes in Greece is Askavlos (Askos Ασκός means wine skin, Avlos Αυλός is the pipe)

  • Askomandoura (Greek: ασκομαντούρα): a double-chantered bagpipe used in Crete
  • Tsampouna (Greek: τσαμπούνα): Greek Islands bagpipe with a double chanter. One chanter with five holes the second with 1,3 or 5 depending on the island. The tsambouna has no drone as the second chanter replaces the drone.
  • Gaida (Greek: γκάιντα): a single-chantered bagpipe with a long separate drone, played in many parts of Mainland Greece. The main center is Thrace, especially around the town of Didymoteicho in the Northern Evros area. In the area of Drama (villages of Kali Vrisi and Volakas) a higher pitched gaida is played. Around Pieria and Olympus mountain (Rizomata and Elatochori) another type of gaida is played. Each of these regions have their distinct sound, tunes and songs.[6]
  • Dankiyo or Tulum: traditional double-chantered bagpipes played by Pontic Greeks

North Macedonia[edit]

Gaida (pronounced guy'-da) also known as meshnica (Macedonian: мешница) is the Macedonian name of the bagpipe (Macedonian: гајда). It's a folk musical wind instrument composed of a bag (Macedonian: мев), with three or four tubes for blowing and playing. The Macedonian bagpipe can be two-voiced or three-voiced, depending on the number of drone elements. The most common are the two-voiced bagpipes. The three-voiced bagpipes have an additional small drone pipe called slagarche (pronounced slagar'-che) (Macedonian: слагарче). They can be found in certain parts of Macedonia, most of them in Ovče Pole (Macedonian: Овчеполието).[7] On the territory of Macedonia, there are two variants of the placement of the elements:

  • The first variant, which is the most widespread, is when the blow pipe and the drone are place of the front legs, and the chanter goes at the head. The small drone goes between the blow pipe and the drone slightly towards the chanter.
  • The second variant is found only in Radoviš and differs from the first in that the drone goes at the animal head while the chanter and the blow pipe are inserted at the legs. The small drone goes between the two legs.[8]
Macedonian bagpiper ГАЈДАЏИЈА

All bags for these types a bagpipes are made usually from the entire skin of a goat or sheep. The use of donkeyskin has also been reported in the past..

Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

A Serbian bagpiper
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock): Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter (usually with wooden billy-goat head) that curves up at the end.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player's shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.
  • Parkapzuk (Armenian պարկապզուկ)
  • Cimpoi is the name for the Romanian bagpipes. Two main categories of bagpipes were used in Romania: with a double chanter and with a single chanter. Both have a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives.
  • Magyar duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlősíp, bőrduda and Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.


Dudy wielkopolskie (man) and Kozioł czarny (woman)
  • Dudy is the generic term for Polish bagpipes,[9] though since the 19th century they are usually referred to as kobza due to the confusion with koza and the relative obscurity of kobza proper in Poland. They are used in folk music of Podhale (koza), Żywiec Beskids and Cieszyn Silesia (dudy and gajdy), and mostly in Greater Poland, where there are four types of bagpipes:

The Balkans[edit]



Finno-Ugric Russia[edit]

Turkic Russia[edit]


Western Europe[edit]


The boha of Gascony
  • Musette de cour: A French open ended smallpipe, believed by some to be an ancestor of the Northumbrian smallpipes, used for classical compositions in 'folk' style in the 18th Century French court. The shuttle design for the drones was recently revived and added to a mouth blown Scottish smallpipe called shuttle pipes.
  • Biniou (or biniou kozh "old style bagpipe"): a mouth blown bagpipe from Brittany. The great Highland bagpipe has also been used since the 20th century in marching bands called bagadoù and known as biniou braz ("great bagpipe").
  • Veuze, found in Western France around Nantes, into the Breton marshes and in the very north of Poitou (Vendée).
  • Cabrette: bellows-blown, played in the Auvergne region of central France.
  • Chabrette (or chabretta): found in the Limousin region of central France.
  • Bodega (or craba): found in Languedoc region of southern France, made of an entire goat skin.
  • Boha: found in the regions of Gascony and Landes in southwestern France, notable for having no separate drone, but a drone and chanter bored into a single piece of wood.
  • Musette bressane: found in the Bresse region of eastern France
  • Cornemuse du Centre (or musette du Centre) (bagpipes of Central France) are of many different types, some mouth blown. They can be found in the Bourbonnais, Berry, Nivernais, and Morvan regions of France and in different tonalities.
  • Chabrette poitevine: found in the Poitou region of west-central France, but now extremely rare.
  • Caramusa: a small bagpipe with a single parallel drone, native to Corsica
  • Musette bechonnet, named from its creator, Joseph Bechonnet (1820-1900 AD) of Effiat.
  • Bousine, a small droneless bagpipe played in Normandy. (fr:Bousine)
  • Loure, a Norman bagpipe which gives its name to the French Baroque dance loure.
  • Pipasso, a bagpipe native to Picardy in northern France
  • Sourdeline, an extinct bellows-blown pipe, likely of Italian origin
  • Samponha, a double-chantered pipe played in the Pyrenees
  • Vèze (or vessie, veuze à Poitiers), played in Poitou
A Bagpipe Player is playing a Marktsackpfeife with four drones in Germany.

Spain and Portugal[edit]

Gaita is a generic term for "bagpipe" in Castilian (Spanish), Portuguese, Basque, Asturian-Leonese, Galician, Catalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used across the northern regions of Spain and Portugal and in the Balearic Islands. In the south of Spain and Portugal, the term is applied to a number of other woodwind instruments, a trait that the moroccan ghaita also shares, since its name origin comes from the southern iberian peninsula. Just like the term "Northumbrian smallpipes" or "Great Highland bagpipes", each region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands have been formed in some traditions.

A piper with his gaita sanabresa
Old handmade Gaita Coimbrã. 1930, Armando Leça.


  • Dudelsack: German bagpipe with two drones and one chanter. Also called Schäferpfeife (shepherd pipe) or Sackpfeife. The drones are sometimes fit into one stock and do not lie on the player's shoulder but are tied to the front of the bag. (see: de:Schäferpfeife)
  • Marktsackpfeife: a bagpipe reconstructed from medieval depictions
  • Huemmelchen: small bagpipe with the look of a small medieval pipe or a Dudelsack.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player's shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.

The Low Countries[edit]


  • Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): In Switzerland, the Sackpfiffe was a common instrument in the folk music from the Middle Ages to the early 18th century, documented by iconography and in written sources. It had one or two drones and one chanter with double reeds.


  • Bock (literally, male goat): a bellows-blown pipe with large bells at the end of the single drone and chanter

West Asia[edit]


Pontic bagpipe/dankiyo/tulum consist of: 1. Post - Skin (bag): Animal Skin, 2. Fisaktir - blowpipe: Wood or Bone, 3. Avlos - flute: Wood & Reeds, 4 . Kalame - Reeds: Reeds




  • Gudastviri (Georgian: გუდასტვირი): A double-chantered horn-tipped bagpipe played in Georgia. Also called a chiboni or stviri.



  • Jirba (جربة): a type of double-chantered droneless bagpipe, primarily played by the ethnic Iranian minority of Bahrain.

Arabian Peninsula[edit]

North Africa[edit]

The Tunisian mizwad



  • Zukra (Arabic: زكرة): famous in Libya bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.


  • Mizwad (Arabic: مِزْود; plural مَزاود mazāwid): Tunisian bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.


South Asia[edit]


  • Mashak, a bagpipe of Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The term is also used for the Highland pipes which have displaced the traditional bagpipe over time, such as the mushak baja (Garhwali : मूषक बाजा): in Garhwal region. or masak-been (Kumaoni : मसकबीन): of the Kumaon Division.
  • Titti (bagpipe), a Telugu bagpipe of Andhra Pradesh
  • Sruti upanga, a bagpipe of Tamil Nadu primarily used for drone accompaniment

Non-traditional bagpipes[edit]


  1. ^ "The history of Ireland by Geoffrey Keating | Ireland".
  2. ^
  3. ^ Woodhouse, Harry (1994). Cornish Bagpipes: Fact or Fiction?. Trewirgie: Dyllansow Truran. ISBN 978-1-85022-070-1.
  4. ^ "Society of Antiquaries Collections Online | SAL/02/011/043". Retrieved 2023-10-25.
  5. ^ Partridge, J. K.; Jeal, Frank; Cooke, P. R. (1977). "The Maltese Zaqq". The Galpin Society Journal. 30: 112–144. doi:10.2307/841372. JSTOR 841372.
  6. ^ "gaida (bagpipe) in Greece : γκάιντα στην Ελλάδα : gaida (Dudelsack) in Griecheland : gaida Yunanistan'da". Retrieved 2015-11-11.
  7. ^ "Доц. м-р Горанчо Ангелов - НЕКОИ ТОНСКИ КАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ КАЈ ГАЈДАТА" (PDF).
  9. ^ Dudy grają