List of banking crises
This is a list of banking crises. A banking crisis is a financial crisis that affects banking activity. Banking crises include bank runs, which affect single banks; banking panics, which affect many banks; and systemic banking crises, in which a country experiences many defaults and financial institutions and corporations face great difficulties repaying contracts. A banking crisis is marked by bank runs that lead to the demise of financial institutions, or by the demise of a financial institution that starts a string of similar demises.
A bank run occurs when many bank customers withdraw their deposits because they believe the bank might fail. There have been many runs on individual banks throughout history; for example, some of the 2008–2009 bank failures in the United States were associated with bank runs.
Banking panics and systemic banking crises
- Crisis of 1763, started in Amsterdam, begun by the collapse of Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky and Leendert Pieter de Neufville's bank, spread to Germany and Scandinavia
- Crisis of 1772–1773 in London and Amsterdam, begun by the collapse of the bankers Neal, James, Fordyce and Down.
- Panic of 1792, New York
- Panic of 1796–1797, Britain and United States
- Panic of 1819, a U.S. recession with bank failures; culmination of U.S.'s first boom-to-bust economic cycle
- Panic of 1825, a pervasive British recession in which many banks failed, nearly including the Bank of England
- Panic of 1837, a U.S. recession with bank failures, followed by a 5-year depression
- Panic of 1847, United Kingdom
- Panic of 1857, a U.S. recession with bank failures
- Panic of 1866, Europe
- Panic of 1873, a U.S. recession with bank failures, followed by a 4-year depression
- Panic of 1884, United States and Europe
- Panic of 1890, mainly affecting the United Kingdom and Argentina
- Panic of 1893, a U.S. recession with bank failures
- Australian banking crisis of 1893
- Panic of 1896, acute U.S. recession
- Panic of 1901, a U.S. economic recession that started a fight for financial control of the Northern Pacific Railway
- Panic of 1907, a U.S. economic recession with bank failures
- Shōwa Financial Crisis, a 1927 Japanese financial panic that resulted in mass bank failures across the Empire of Japan.
- Great Depression, the worst systemic banking crisis of the 20th century
- Secondary banking crisis of 1973–1975 in the UK
- Japanese asset price bubble (1986–2003)
- Savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s in the U.S.
- 1988–92 Norwegian banking crisis
- Finnish banking crisis of 1990s
- Swedish banking crisis (1990s)
- Rhode Island banking crisis
- Peruvian banking crisis of 1992
- Venezuelan banking crisis of 1994
- 1997 Asian financial crisis
- 1998 collapse of Long-Term Capital Management
- 1998 Russian financial crisis
- Argentine economic crisis (1999–2002)
- 1998–99 Ecuador banking crisis
- Subprime mortgage crisis in the U.S. starting in 2007
- 2008 United Kingdom bank rescue package
- 2009 United Kingdom bank rescue package
- 2008–2009 Belgian financial crisis
- 2008–2012 Icelandic financial crisis
- 2008–2009 Russian financial crisis
- 2008–2009 Ukrainian financial crisis
- 2008–2012 Spanish financial crisis
- 2008–2011 Irish banking crisis
Reinhart, Carmen M.; Rogoff, Kenneth S. (2009). This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14216-6.
Taylor, Alan M. The great leveraging. NBER 18290
- Laeven L, Valencia F (2008). "Systemic banking crises: a new database" (PDF). IMF WP/08/224. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2008-09-29. Cite journal requires
- Reinhart C, Rogoff K (2009). "Varieties of crises and their dates" (PDF). This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton University Press. pp. 3–20. ISBN 978-0-691-14216-6. Retrieved 2009-11-28.