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List of basic income models

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A basic income is a form of social security in which a population group receives a regular sum of money, either from a government or from some other public institution, independent of any other income.[1][2][3] This is a list of alternates to universal basic income that intends to give all citizens of a population an unconditional sum of money, which have been implemented or proposed.

Name Description Spokespersons Tested in Books Films/articles/interviews
Universal basic income (UBI), also known by many other names Periodic cash payment unconditionally delivered to all on an individual basis, without means-test or work requirement.[4] Philippe Van Parijs, Karl Widerquist, Guy Standing US and Canada (local experiments); the Iranian basic income is somewhat between a partial and a full basic income.[citation needed] Independence, Propertylessness, and Basic Income,[5] Real Freedom for All, Public Economics in Action: the Basic Income/Flat Tax proposal, Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy Negative income tax & work, Negative income tax in Israel, Negative income tax in Ontario, Short info
Negative income tax (NIT) Similar to a basic income but means test so that the grant gradually phases out as income increases. Milton Friedman, Juliet Rhys-Williams, Daron Acemoglu Capitalism and Freedom, Free to Choose
Wage subsidy, sometimes known as participation income Scope limited to people in work (varyingly interpreted). A. C. Pigou, Edmund Phelps, Tony Atkinson Inequality (2015; Atkinson) 'Low-wage employment subsidies versus the welfare state' (Phelps)
Partial basic income (PBI) Any basic income set at a level that is less than enough to meet a person's basic needs.[6] Alaska (Permanent Fund of Alaska)[7]
Personal Basic Income A Minimum Basic Income that is self-generated by communities by pooling their data into data banks, monetizing its value, and receiving dividends. Manish Bhan


Early-stage experimentation. SmartTribe.org
Citizen's dividend Dependent on land value tax values from land and rents Henry George, Thomas Paine Alaska (Permanent Fund Dividend) Agrarian Justice, Progress and Poverty
Universal dividend Dependent on a portion of production, proxied by a fixed and flat tax on personal income and corporate net profits, distributed flat as a non-taxed benefit among all residents or citizens over a certain age. John Moser The American Citizen's Dividend
Basic income for households In the form of BI or NIT.
Basic income + negative income tax A combination of BI and NIT. Hermonie Parker investigated several versions in Instead of the Dole Instead of the Dole
$8000 UBI, $4000 (minimum income), $4000 Carbon tax dividend. For those under 65. Seniors system unchanged. Pascal J - naturalfinance.net in Canadian context. naturalfinance.net
Basic income and social insurance Andreas Bergh Bergh 2004
Stake holding grants A large one-time grant, usually received when the individual reaches maturity. Thomas Paine, Bruce Ackerman, Anne Alstott The Stakeholder Society, Redesigning distribution
European/regional basic income Basic income for a region, for example Europe. Van Parijs, Steve Quilley, Phillippe C. Schmitter m.fl. Marc's proposal, NAFTA-divident
Conditional cash transfers (basic income with strings attached) Not a guarantee because conditions exist, but conditions are easily fulfilled (or example, children going to school). Brazil (Bolsa Famila) Just Give Money to the Poor: The Development Revolution from the Global South
Basic income for special regions (such as Israel-Palestine) Philippe Van Parijs
Basic income for food FIAN To poor countries
Global basic income Global Basic Income Foundation, Myron J. Frankman m.fl., World Basic Income
Local basic income For a village, city, district, province, etc. Karl Widerquist Otjivero (Namibia), 2 villages in China, GiveDirectly project in Kenya, Alaska's Permanent Fund Dividend,[8] Native American Casino Dividends Alaska's Permanent Fund Dividend,[9] Exporting the Alaska Model[10]
Social credit Social credit movement, C.H. Douglas
Basic income + flat tax Equal tax rate. M. Friedman, Tony Atkinson Public Economics in Action: The Basic Income/Flat Tax Proposal
Basic income + VAT Basic income financed by tax on consumption. Vivant Germany
Basic income + demurrage A self stabilizing money supply that is resistant to inflation and deflation. Omar Syed, Aamir Syed Sound Money Without Commodities
Basic income justified by equal rights to natural resources Karl Widerquist, Jay Hammond, Peter Barnes Alaska, Iran (from 2011) Independence, Propertylessness, and Basic Income,[11] Capitalism 3.0
Social dividend Based on publicly owned enterprises, see market socialism. James Meade, Oskar Lange, Abba Lerner, John Roemer, James Yunker
Basic income instead of subventions Iran (from 2011)
Carbon fee and dividend Basic income funded by a carbon tax. Citizens' Climate Lobby British Columbia
Basic income to disaster regions Haiti-1, A way to peace
Basic income in the form of energy credits Cosmic Accounting
Basic income startup (ReCivitas) "Lifetime Basic Income" Marcus Brancaglione, Bruna Pereira Brazil Quatinga Velho (local experiment) Lessons from the Practice of Basic Income [1], Basic Income Startup [2] BRAZIL: Basic Income Startup gives "lifetime basic incomes" to villagers [3], NGO founds collaborative "projects network" [4]
Basic income + monetary reform + land value tax James Robertson, Herman Daly
Universal right to capital income "Legislation requiring that a percentage of capital stock (shares) from every initial public offering (IPO) be channeled into a Commons Capital Depository, with the associated dividends funding a universal basic dividend (UBD)", which would be entirely independent of welfare payments and unemployment insurance.[12] Yanis Varoufakis The Universal Right to Capital Income
Three Pillars National Dividend (ND) - a payment to all citizen-residents, paid for by a tax on the commons

National Income Supplement (NIS) - distributing all income taxes back to income earners, which would allow all income brackets to benefit from each other's success, and amplify their earnings (and underwrite labour costs).

Assisted Savings Program (ASP) - mandatory long-term savings/investment, and distributing all capital gains taxes to ASP accounts, ensuring savers benefit from each other's success, and amplify their savings.[13]

Returning tax revenues to citizens through these programs is enabled by a shift to a form of Land Value Tax (called a ULT) for general revenues. The Three Pillars would also replace the minimum wage and state-run pensions.

The New Physiocratic League The New School of Economics


  1. ^ "Improving Social Security in Canada Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper". Minister of Human Resource Development Canada. 1994. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  2. ^ "History of Basic Income". Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN). Archived from the original on 21 June 2008.
  3. ^ Universal Basic Income: A Review Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed August 6, 2017.
  4. ^ "About Basic Income | BIEN — Basic Income Earth Network". Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  5. ^ Widerquist, Karl (7 March 2013). Independence, Propertylessness, and Basic Income. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-31309-6.
  6. ^ "Description at U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  7. ^ "Description at U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  8. ^ Widerquist, Karl (14 February 2012). Alaska's Permanent Fund Dividend. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-01502-0.
  9. ^ Widerquist, Karl (14 February 2012). Alaska's Permanent Fund Dividend. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-01502-0.
  10. ^ Widerquist, Karl (19 February 2016). Exporting the Alaska Model. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-03165-5.
  11. ^ Widerquist, Karl (7 March 2013). Independence, Propertylessness, and Basic Income. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-31309-6.
  12. ^ Varoufakis, Yanis (31 October 2016). "The Universal Right to Capital Income". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  13. ^ "The New Physiocratic Platform". The New Physiocratic League. 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.