List of battles between Scotland and England

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The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland fought dozens of battles with each other. They fought typically over land, particularly Berwick-Upon-Tweed, and the Anglo-Scottish border frequently changed as a result. Prior to the establishment of the two kingdoms, in the 10th and 9th centuries, their predecessors, the Northumbrians and the Picts or Dal Riatans, also fought a number of battles. Major conflicts between the two parties include the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1357), and the Rough Wooing (1544–1551), as well as numerous smaller campaigns and individual confrontations. In 1603, England and Scotland were joined in a "personal union" when King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the throne of England as King James I. War between the two states largely ceased, although the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the 17th century, and the Jacobite risings of the 18th century, are sometimes characterised as Anglo-Scottish conflicts, despite really being British civil wars.

This list is arranged in chronological order.

Battles between Northumbria and the Picts/Dal Riatans[edit]

Date Name Notes
596 Battle of Raith Angles defeated an alliance of Scots, Britons and Picts under King Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata
671 Battle of Two Rivers Ecgfrith of the Northumbrians defeated the Picts
685 Battle of Dunnichen King Bridei Mac Bili defeats the Northhumbrians. Ending Northumbrian hegemony in northern Britain

Early battles between England and Scotland[edit]

Date Name Notes
937 Battle of Brunanburh Anglo-Saxon victory over the combined armies of the kingdoms of Scotland, Dublin and Strathclyde.
1016/1018 Battle of Carham Victory for Malcolm II over Huctred, son of Waldef. Believed to have won Lothian for Scotland.
1093 Battle of Alnwick While besieging Alnwick Malcolm III was killed by knights led by Robert de Mowbray and his army fled.
1138 Battle of Clitheroe English army was routed by William fitz Duncan
1138 Battle of the Standard David I routed by an army led by William of Aumale. Also known as the Battle of Northallerton.
1174 Battle of Alnwick William I of Scotland was captured by a small English force led by Ranulf de Glanvill.

First War of Scottish Independence[edit]

Date Name Notes
1296 Capture of Berwick English under Robert de Clifford take Berwick-upon-Tweed.
1296 Battle of Dunbar John de Warenne defeats John Balliol, paving the way for most of Scotland to fall to Edward I.
1297 Raid of Scone William Wallace joined forces with William Douglas the Hardy and led a successful raid on Scone.
1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge William Wallace defeated the English forces of John de Warenne and Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling on the River Forth.
1298 Battle of Falkirk Led by Edward I the English army defeated the Scots led by William Wallace. Shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland
1303 Battle of Roslin A Scottish force under John III Comyn defeated the English under Sir John Segrave in a series of encounters.
1304 Action at Happrew William Wallace and Sir Simon Fraser were defeated by an army of English knights led by Sir John Segrave.
1304 Siege of Stirling Castle The English under Edward I capture Stirling Castle
1304 Action at Earnside Details are scarce, although it is last action known to be fought by William Wallace.
1306 Battle of Methven Robert the Bruce routed at Methven by Aymer de Valence
1307 Battle of Glen Trool Robert the Bruce drives back an English raiding party in a minor skirmish.
1307 Battle of Loudoun Hill Robert the Bruce's first major victory over the English

Second War of Scottish Independence[edit]

Border Wars[edit]

Anglo-Scottish wars[edit]

Rough Wooing[edit]

Border skirmishes[edit]

External links[edit]