Page protected with pending changes level 1

List of best-selling game consoles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sony's PlayStation 2 is the best-selling game system overall with over 155 million units worldwide.[1]

A video game console is a standardized computing device tailored for video gaming that requires a monitor or television set as an output.[2] Handheld controllers are commonly used as input devices. Video game consoles may use one or more storage media like hard disk drives, optical discs, and memory cards for content. They weigh between 2 and 9 pounds on average and their compact size allows them to be easily used in a variety of locations with an electrical outlet.[3] Each are usually developed by a single business organization.[2] Dedicated consoles can only play built-in games.[4] Gaming consoles in general are also described as "dedicated" in distinction from the more versatile personal computer and other consumer electronics.[5][6][7] Sanders Associates engineer Ralph H. Baer along with company employees Bill Harrison and Bill Rusch licensed their television gaming technology to contemporary major TV manufacturer Magnavox. This resulted in Magnavox Odyssey's 1972 release—the first commercially available video game console.[8]

A handheld game console is a lightweight device with a built-in screen, games controls, speakers,[9] and has greater portability than a standard video game console.[3] It is capable of playing multiple games unlike tabletop and handheld electronic game devices. Tabletop and handheld electronic game devices of the 1970s and 1980s are the precursors of handheld game consoles.[10] Mattel introduced the first handheld electronic game with the 1977 release of Auto Race.[11] Later, several companies—including Coleco and Milton Bradley—made their own single-game, lightweight tabletop or handheld electronic game devices.[12] The oldest handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges is the Milton Bradley Microvision in 1979.[13] Nintendo is credited with popularizing the handheld console concept with the Game Boy's release in 1989[10] and continues to dominate the handheld console market.[14][15]

PlayStation 2 has over 10,828 software titles, and 1.52 billion units of software were sold worldwide as of December 2010.[16] Nintendo DS has over 2,000 software titles (as of August 2013),[17] and 945.48 million units of software sold worldwide as of September 2014.[18]

Best-selling game consoles[edit]

The Nintendo DS product line are the best-selling handheld consoles, selling 154.02 million units worldwide. The original (left) sold 18.79 million units. The majority of sales came from the DS Lite (right) at 93.86 million units.[18]
Two members of the DS product line, the DSi (left) and DSi XL (right) helped to further drive sales, moving 41.37 million units combined.[18]

The following tables contain video game consoles and handheld game consoles that have sold at least 1 million units worldwide either through to consumers or inside retail channels. Each console include sales from every iteration unless otherwise noted. Dedicated consoles are marked with an asterisk (*) next to the platform's name, while  †  indicates the current generation consoles on the market. The years correspond to when the home or handheld game console was first released—excluding test markets. Each year links to the corresponding "year in video gaming". Hardware firms labelled  Atari ,  Microsoft ,  Nintendo ,  Sega  or  Sony  have more than two consoles listed; those with a white background do not.

All game consoles[edit]

Million-selling game consoles
Platform Firm Released[‡] Units sold Ref.
PlayStation 2 Sony 2000 >155 million [note 1]
Nintendo DS Nintendo 2004 154.02 million [18]
Game Boy/Game Boy Color Nintendo 1989/1998 118.69 million [note 2]
PlayStation Sony 1994 102.49 million [33]
Wii Nintendo 2006 101.63 million [18]
Xbox 360 Microsoft 2005 84 million [note 3]
PlayStation 3 Sony 2006 >83.8 million [note 1]
PlayStation Portable Sony 2004 82 million [note 1]
Game Boy Advance Nintendo 2001 81.51 million [18]
Nintendo Entertainment System Nintendo 1983 61.91 million [18]
Nintendo 3DS current generation consoles Nintendo 2011 59.79 million [18]
Super Nintendo Entertainment System Nintendo 1990 49.10 million [18]
PlayStation 4 current generation consoles Sony 2013 43.5 million [39][40][41]
Nintendo 64 Nintendo 1996 32.93 million [18]
Sega Genesis Sega 1988 30.75 million [note 4]
Atari 2600 Atari 1977 30 million [42]
Xbox Microsoft 2001 24 million [43]
GameCube Nintendo 2001 21.74 million [18]
Wii U current generation consoles Nintendo 2012 13.02 million [18]
PlayStation Vita current generation consoles Sony 2011 13 million [note 1]
Master System Sega 1986 10–13 million [note 5]
Sega Game Gear Sega 1990 10.62 million [50]
Xbox One current generation consoles Microsoft 2013 >10 million [note 3]
TurboGrafx-16 NEC/Hudson Soft[note 6] 1987 10 million [52]
Sega Saturn Sega 1994 9.26 million [53]
Dreamcast Sega 1998 9.13 million [53][54][55][56]
Sega Pico Sega 1993 >3.4 million [note 7]
WonderSwan Bandai 1999 3.5 million [note 8]
Color TV Game *[65] Nintendo 1977 3 million [66]
Intellivision Mattel 1980 3 million [67]
N-Gage Nokia 2003 3 million [68]
ColecoVision Coleco 1982 >2 million [note 9]
Magnavox Odyssey² Magnavox/Philips 1978 2 million [72]
Atari Lynx Atari 1989 >1 million [note 10]
Philips CD-i Philips 1991 >1 million [note 11]
Telstar *[77] Coleco 1976 >1 million [note 12]
Atari 5200 Atari 1982 1 million [79]

Home game consoles[edit]

Only the PlayStation (top) and Wii (bottom) join the PlayStation 2 in home consoles surpassing 100 million units sold.
The first popular home console, the Atari 2600 (1980 version pictured), was released in 1977.[80]
Million-selling home game consoles
Platform Firm Released[‡] Units sold Ref.
PlayStation 2 Sony 2000 >155 million [note 1]
PlayStation Sony 1994 102.49 million [33]
Wii Nintendo 2006 101.63 million [18]
Xbox 360 Microsoft 2005 84 million [note 3]
PlayStation 3 Sony 2006 >83.8 million [note 1]
Nintendo Entertainment System Nintendo 1983 61.91 million [18]
Super Nintendo Entertainment System Nintendo 1990 49.10 million [18]
PlayStation 4 current generation consoles Sony 2013 43.5 million [39][40][41]
Nintendo 64 Nintendo 1996 32.93 million [18]
Sega Genesis Sega 1988 30.75 million [note 4]
Atari 2600 Atari 1977 30 million [42]
Xbox Microsoft 2001 24 million [43]
GameCube Nintendo 2001 21.74 million [18]
Wii U current generation consoles Nintendo 2012 13.02 million [18]
Master System Sega 1986 10–13 million [note 5]
Xbox One current generation consoles Microsoft 2013 >10 million [note 3]
TurboGrafx-16 NEC/Hudson Soft[note 6] 1987 10 million [52]
Sega Saturn Sega 1994 9.26 million [53]
Dreamcast Sega 1998 9.13 million [53][54][55][56]
Sega Pico Sega 1993 >3.4 million [note 7]
Color TV Game *[65] Nintendo 1977 3 million [66]
Intellivision Mattel 1980 3 million [67]
ColecoVision Coleco 1982 >2 million [note 9]
Magnavox Odyssey² Magnavox/Philips 1978 2 million [72]
Philips CD-i Philips 1991 >1 million [note 11]
Telstar *[77] Coleco 1976 >1 million [note 12]
Atari 5200 Atari 1982 1 million [79]

Handheld game consoles[edit]

Sony's PlayStation Portable signified the company's debut in the handheld market. Forbes editor Penelope Patsuris noted "The competition marks the first time that a company with real clout has challenged the lock that Nintendo has had on handheld gaming for 15 years."[14]
Million-selling handheld game consoles
Platform Firm Released[‡] Units sold Ref.
Nintendo DS Nintendo 2004 154.02 million [18]
Game Boy/Game Boy Color Nintendo 1989/1998 118.69 million [note 2]
PlayStation Portable Sony 2004 82 million [note 1]
Game Boy Advance Nintendo 2001 81.51 million [18]
Nintendo 3DS current generation consoles Nintendo 2011 59.79 million [18]
PlayStation Vita current generation consoles Sony 2011 13 million [note 1]
Sega Game Gear Sega 1990 10.62 million [50]
WonderSwan Bandai 1999 3.5 million [note 8]
N-Gage Nokia 2003 3 million [68]
Atari Lynx Atari 1989 >1 million [note 10]

Best-selling game consoles by firm[edit]

Total amount of every console with at least 1 million units sold.

Million-selling game consoles by firm
Manufacturer Home
console sales
Handheld
console sales
Total sales
Nintendo 283.33 million 414.01 million 697.34 million
Sony >384.79 million 95 million >479.79 million
Microsoft 118 million 118 million
Sega 59.14–62.14 million >14.02 million >76.16 million
Atari 31 million >1 million >32 million
Hudson Soft/NEC 10 million 10 million
Bandai 3.5 million 3.5 million
Coleco >3 million >3 million
Magnavox/Philips >3 million >3 million
Mattel 3 million 3 million
Nokia 3 million 3 million

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Sony stopped divulging individual platform sales starting with 2012 fiscal reports,[19][20] and continues to sporadically.[21] PlayStation 2: 138.8 million units sold as of Sony's first fiscal quarter ending June 2009 (Q1 FY2009).[22] Sony sold 16.2 million units from Q2 FY2009 until March 31, 2012.[23] It was discontinued worldwide on January 4, 2013.[24] PlayStation 3: A Sony press release reported 80 million sold as of November 2, 2013.[25] 3.4 million were shipped in 2014 and 0.4 million in the first quarter of 2015.[26] PlayStation Portable: 52.9 million units sold as of Q1 FY2009.[22] Sony sold 23.4 million units from Q2 FY2009 until March 31, 2012.[27] On June 3, 2014, IGN reported a sales figure of 80 million,[28] but the Associated Press noted "More than 76 million PSP machines were sold, as of two years ago, the last time a tally was taken."[29] Shipments to North America ended in January 2014, and to Japan in June 2014. Shipments to Europe ended during the latter part of 2014.[29] IGN reported in mid-November that 82 million PSP were manufactured and shipped at end of production.[30] PlayStation Vita: 13 million reported by Tech Radar on January 30, 2016.[31][unreliable source?]
  2. ^ a b Nintendo only provided a combined sales total.[32] Before Game Boy Color's release in late-1998,[‡] previous models sold 64.42 million units combined worldwide.[18]
  3. ^ a b c d Starting with Microsoft's fiscal quarter ending June 2014 (Q4), the company stopped divulging individual platform sales in their fiscal reports.[34] Xbox 360: Sold 84 million as of June 2014.[35] Xbox One: Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella unveiled at a December 3, 2014 shareholder presentation that 10 million units were sold.[36] Ars Technica estimated it to have outsold the Wii U starting in late 2014, continues to outpace it,[37] and reached approximately 19 million worldwide by early January 2016. Microsoft have not confirmed these Xbox One sales figures.[38]
  4. ^ a b 30.75 million sold by Sega worldwide as of March 1996,[50][53] not including third-party sales. In addition, Tec Toy sold 3 million in Brazil,[81][82] and Majesco projected it would sell 1.5 million in the United States.[83]
  5. ^ a b 10–13 million, not including recent Brazil sales figures.[44][45] Screen Digest wrote in a 1995 publication that the Master System's active installed user base in Western Europe peaked at 6.25 million in 1993. Those countries that peaked are France at 1.6 million, Germany at 700 thousand, the Netherlands at 200 thousand, Spain at 550 thousand, the United Kingdom at 1.35 million, and other Western European countries at 1.4 million. However, Belgium peaked in 1991 with 600 thousand, and Italy in 1992 with 400 thousand. Thus it is estimated approximately 6.8 million units were purchased in this part of Europe.[46] 1 million were sold in Japan as of 1986.[47] 2 million were sold in the United States.[48] 8 million were sold by Tectoy in Brazil as of 2016.[49]
  6. ^ a b Designed by Hudson and manufactured and marketed by NEC.[51]
  7. ^ a b Sega sold this amount as of April 2005.[57] Its successor launched on August 6, 2005.[58] Majesco re-manufactured and distributed the Pico in the United States starting at the end of 1999.[59]
  8. ^ a b Bandai released three WonderSwan iterations.[60] A March 2003 Famitsu article reported the original (March 1999)[61] and color (December 2000)[61] versions sold approximately 3 million units combined,[62] while the SwanCrystal (July 2002)[60] sold over 200 thousand units.[62] Bandai announced the transition from hardware to third-party development in February 2003 due to declining sales and will supply software to the competitor's Game Boy Advance by March 2004.[63] Average weekly Famitsu sales during the transition were only a couple hundred units,[§] and the SwanCrystal went build to order starting in autumn 2003.[62] WonderSwan hardware designer Koto claimed over 3.5 million were sold.[64]
  9. ^ a b The ColecoVision reached 2 million units sold by the spring of 1984. Console quarterly sales dramatically decreased at this time, but it continued to sell modestly[69][70] with most inventory gone by October 1985.[71]
  10. ^ a b The Wall Street Journal reported in November 1992 approximately 1 million were sold.[73] Around June 1994, Atari shifted its focus from the Lynx to its Jaguar console.[74]
  11. ^ a b This Philips-reported figure was in The New York Times on September 15, 1994.[75] The CD-i was discontinued in 1998.[76]
  12. ^ a b Coleco launched Telstar in 1976 and sold a million. Production and delivery issues, and dedicated consoles being replaced by electronic handheld games dramatically reduced sales in 1977. Over a million Telstars were scrapped in 1978, and it cost Coleco $22.3 million that year[70]—almost bankrupting the company.[78]

References[edit]

  1. ^ GameCentral staff (June 27, 2013). "Xbox 360 beats Wii as the UK's best-selling console". Metro. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Lee, Robin (August 23, 2012). Peitz, Martin; Waldfogel, Joel, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the Digital Economy. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780195397840. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Shelly, Gary; Misty, Vermaat (February 25, 2010). Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World, Complete. Shelly Cashman. Contributing authors: Quasney, Jeffrey; Sebok, Susan; Freund, Steven. Cengage Learning. p. 24. ISBN 9781439079263. 
  4. ^ Retro Rogue. "2004 Holiday Gift Guide Review - Atari Flashback Console (Atari)". GameSpy. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  5. ^ Chen, Brian (August 29, 2013). "New Device At Nintendo Is Cheaper, For Youths". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  6. ^ Kuchera, Ben (February 28, 2011). "It's unofficial: dedicated gaming devices may be losing out to phones". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  7. ^ Newman, Jared (November 11, 2013). "PC Game Streaming Is Going to Be Huge". Time. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  8. ^ Edwards, Benj (May 15, 2007). "Videogames Turn 40 Years Old". 1UP.com. p. 4. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  9. ^ University of Maribor (April 24, 2007). "D 4.1 - Standards and technology monitoring report (revised version)" (PDF) (1.7 ed.). Sixth Framework Programme (European Community): 20. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  10. ^ Loguidice, Bill; Barton, Matt (May 8, 2008). "A History of Gaming Platforms: Mattel Intellivision". Gamasutra. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  11. ^ Demaria, Rusel; Wilson, Johnny (December 18, 2003). High Score! The Illustrated History of Video games (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9780072231724. 
  12. ^ East, Tom (November 11, 2009). "History Of Nintendo: Game Boy". Official Nintendo Magazine. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Patsuris, Penelope (June 7, 2004). "Sony PSP Vs. Nintendo DS". Forbes. Retrieved November 4, 2013. 
  14. ^ Hutsko, Joe (March 25, 2000). "88 Million and Counting; Nintendo Remains King of the Handheld Game Players". The New York Times. p. C1. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Playstation2 sales reach 150 million units worldwide" (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. February 14, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Nintendo Offers Unrivaled Value and Variety This Holiday Season with Lower Wii U Price, Zelda Wii U Bundle and New Nintendo 2DS Portable" (Press release). Nintendo. August 28, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Historical Data: Consolidated Sales Transition by Region" (PDF). Nintendo. July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016. 
  18. ^ "Business Development: Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Business Development: Unit Sales of Hardware(FY2013-)". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  20. ^ Makuch, Eddie (February 6, 2014). "PS4 helps Sony's game division rise, but PS3 sales see "significant decrease"". GameSpot. Retrieved December 13, 2015. 
  21. ^ a b "Slimmer, Lighter PlayStation 3, new PlayStation Network services, plenty of content and a great value price" (PDF) (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. August 18, 2009. p. 2. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  22. ^ "PlayStation 2 Worldwide Hardware Unit Sales". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  23. ^ Stuart, Keith (January 4, 2013). "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  24. ^ "PlayStation 3 Sales Reach 80 Million Units Worldwide" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Q4 FY2014 Consolidated Financial Results Forecast (Three months ended March 31, 2015)" (PDF). Sony. April 30, 2015. p. 25. Retrieved April 30, 2015. Computer Entertainment System: 2.8. PS4 (included): 2.4 
  26. ^ "PSP (PlayStation Portable) Worldwide Hardware Unit Sales". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  27. ^ Campbell, Evan (June 3, 2014). "Sony Discontinuing PSP". IGN. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  28. ^ a b Associated Press (June 3, 2014). "Sony to Stop Selling PlayStation Portable". Associated Press. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  29. ^ Moriarty, Colin (November 17, 2014). "Vita Sales Are Picking Up Thanks to PS4 Remote Play". IGN. Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Your PS Vita may be gathering dust, but it's no console failure". TechRadar. Retrieved 2016-06-14. [unreliable source?]
  31. ^ Edwards, Benj (April 21, 2009). "Happy 20th b-day, Game Boy: here are 6 reasons why you're #1". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  32. ^ a b "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q4". Microsoft. July 22, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  34. ^ Makuch, Eddie (June 9, 2014). "E3 2014: $399 Xbox One Out Now, Xbox 360 Sales Rise to 84 million". GameSpot. Retrieved August 12, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Microsoft Annual Meeting of Shareholders". Microsoft. December 3, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2015. Finally, our gaming business is thriving with the Xbox One hitting 10 million units sold. I am thrilled to welcome Mojang and Minecraft community to Microsoft. 
  36. ^ Orland, Kyle (July 30, 2015). "Analysis: Sony pushes past 50 percent of the worldwide console market". Ars Technica. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  37. ^ Walton, Marky (January 29, 2016). "EA lets slip lifetime Xbox One and PS4 consoles sales". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 5, 2016. 
  38. ^ a b "FY2014 Consolidated Financial Results (Fiscal year ended March 31, 2015)" (PDF). Sony. April 28, 2016. p. 25. Retrieved April 28, 2016. PS4: 7.5 (FY13) 
  39. ^ a b "FY2015 Consolidated Financial Results (Fiscal year ended March 31, 2016)" (PDF). Sony. April 28, 2016. p. 23. Retrieved April 28, 2016. PS4: 14.8 (FY14) 
  40. ^ a b "Q1 FY2016 Consolidated Financial Results (Three months ended June 30, 2016)" (PDF). Sony. July 29, 2016. p. 7. Retrieved August 1, 2016. 17.7 (FY15), 3.5 (Q1 FY16) 
  41. ^ a b "AtGames to Launch Atari Flashback 4 to Celebrate Atari's 40th Anniversary!" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  42. ^ a b "Gamers Catch Their Breath as Xbox 360 and Xbox Live Reinvent Next-Generation Gaming". Xbox.com. May 10, 2006. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007. 
  43. ^ Buchanan, Levi (March 20, 2009). "Genesis vs. SNES: By the Numbers". IGN. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Nintendo moved 49.1 million Super NES consoles over the course of the generation and beyond, far surpassing the Genesis, which sold a still impressive 29 million units. [...] The Master System sold an anemic 13 million to the NES count of 62 million. 
  44. ^ Forster, Winnie (2005). The Encyclopedia of Game.Machines: Consoles, Handhelds, and Home Computers 1972–2005. Magdalena Gniatczynska. p. 139. ISBN 3-00-015359-4. 
  45. ^ "Sega Consoles: Active installed base estimates". Screen Digest. March 1995: 60.  (cf. here [1], here [2], and here [3])
  46. ^ Nihon Kōgyō Shinbunsha (1986). "Amusement". Business Japan. Nihon Kogyo Shimbun. 31 (7-12): 89. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  47. ^ Sheff & Eddy 1999, p. 349: "Atari sold a handful of its 5200s and 7800s, and Sega sold a total of 2 million Master Systems."
  48. ^ Azevedo, Théo (May 12, 2016). "Console em produção há mais tempo, Master System já vendeu 8 mi no Brasil" (in Portuguese). Universo Online. Retrieved May 13, 2016. Comercializado no Brasil desde setembro de 1989, o saudoso Master System já vendeu mais de 8 milhões de unidades no país, segundo a Tectoy. 
  49. ^ a b c "Yearly market report". Famitsu Weekly (in Japanese) (392): 8. June 21, 1996. 
  50. ^ Nutt, Christian. "Stalled engine: The TurboGrafx-16 turns 25". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2016. 
  51. ^ a b Phillips, Tom (April 11, 2012). "SNES celebrates 20th birthday in UK". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2014. 
  52. ^ a b c d e Ernkvist, Mirko (August 21, 2012). Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy, eds. The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 9781136258244. Retrieved December 5, 2015. 
  53. ^ a b "Sega Corporation Annual Report 2001" (PDF). Sega Corporation. August 1, 2001. p. 14. Retrieved November 2, 2015. A total of 3.39 million hardware units and 23.87 million software units were sold worldwide during fiscal 2001, for respective totals of 8.20 million units and 51.63 million units since Dreamcast was first brought to market. 
  54. ^ a b "Revisions to Annual Results Forecasts" (PDF). Sega Corporation. October 23, 2001. p. 4. Retrieved November 2, 2015. Regarding sales of Dreamcast hardware from inventory resulting from the withdrawal from Dreamcast production [...] the Company exceeded initial targets with domestic sales of 130,000 units and U.S. sales of 530,000 units for the first half. Consequently, at the end of the half, Dreamcast inventories totaled 40,000 units domestically and 230,000 units for the United States, and we anticipate being able to sell all remaining units by the holiday season as initially planned. 
  55. ^ a b "Sega Corporation Annual Report 2002" (PDF). Sega Corporation. July 1, 2002. p. 6. Retrieved November 2, 2015. The year ended March 31, 2002 was a turning point for Sega. We exited the hardware business, ceasing production of Dreamcast and selling through the remaining inventory. 
  56. ^ "Business Strategy: Interactive Education Business". Sega Toys. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  57. ^ "食育、安全などの"五育"を取り入れ、エデュテイメント事業を推進「遊びながら学ぶ」が進化する『Advanced PICO Beena』(アドバンスピコ ビーナ)8月発売" (PDF) (Press release) (in Japanese). Sega Toys. April 5, 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  58. ^ "Majesco Signs Licensing Deal to Distribute Sega Pico Educational Systems: Systems Will Be Available In All Major Toy Retailers By Holiday Season" (Press release). Business Wire. August 5, 1999. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  59. ^ a b Ricciardi, John (October 1, 2002). "Hands-On With Bandai's SwanCrystal ; Move over, Game Boy Advance - there's a new bird in town". Electronic Gaming Monthly. EGM Media Group (159): 58. ISSN 1058-918X. On July 12, toy giant Bandai unleashed a third iteration (in stylish red and blue models) of their handheld WonderSwan system, the new-and- improved SwanCrystal, in Japan. 
  60. ^ a b "Bandai to Launch WonderSwan Color in Dec.". Jiji Press English News Service. August 30, 2000. A new colored version of Bandai Co.'s <7967> WonderSwan handheld game machine will hit Japanese stores in early December, the Japanese game maker said Wednesday. [...] The original WonderSwan, with its black-and-white displays, has sold 1.55 million units since its debut in March 1999. 
  61. ^ a b c "第21回 スワンクリスタル受注生産へ! ワンダースワンのこれまでとこれからを探る! 【見習い記者の取材日記】". Famitsu (in Japanese). March 8, 2003. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Bandai to Supply Software for Nintendo's Game Boy". Jiji Press English News Service. February 18, 2003. The move reflects declining sales of Bandai's WonderSwan mobile game machine. The major Japanese toy maker is looking to supply two or three software titles for the rival company's popular game machine by March next year. Bandai will shift its focus from sales of hardware to software for "multiple platforms," including personal digital assistants, Takasu told a press conference. 
  63. ^ "Device solution". Koto. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  64. ^ a b Parish, Jeremy (July 13, 2013). "The Famicom Legacy". USgamer. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  65. ^ a b Sheff & Eddy 1999, pp. 27–28: "[Color TV Game 6] was followed by a more powerful sequel, Color TV Game 15. A million units of each were sold. The engineering team also came up with systems that played a more complex game, called "Blockbuster," as well as a racing game. Half a million units of these were sold."
  66. ^ a b "Intellivision: Intelligent Television". GameSpy. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  67. ^ a b Androvich, Mark (February 19, 2008). "N-gage's Second Coming". Gamesindustry.biz. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2014. We had 700,000 active users and we had 3 million N-Gage devices out there. 
  68. ^ "Coleco Industries sales report" (Press release). PR Newswire. April 17, 1984. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 'First quarter sales of ColecoVision were substantial, although much less that [sic] those for the year ago quarter,' Greenberg said in a prepared statement. He said the company has sold 2 million ColecoVision games since its introduction in 1982. 
  69. ^ a b Kleinfield, N. R. (July 21, 1985). "Coleco Moves Out Of The Cabbage Patch". The New York Times. p. F4. Retrieved January 13, 2014. Coleco is now debating whether to withdraw from electronics altogether. Colecovision still sells, but it is a shadow of its former self. 
  70. ^ Associated Press (October 19, 1985). "Coleco's Net In Sharp Rise". The New York Times. p. 45. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 13, 2014. Thursday, Coleco said the entire inventory of its troubled Adam personal computer has been sold, along with much of its Colecovision inventory. The company's chairman, Arnold Greenberg, said Coleco expects no more charges against earnings from the two discontinued products. 
  71. ^ a b "Top 25 Video Game Consoles of All Time (Magnavox Odyssey 2)". IGN. Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  72. ^ Pereira, Joseph (November 16, 1992). "Technology (A Special Report): At Our Leisure --- (Not So) Great Expectations: Hand-held Video Games Will Get Better, But Big Improvements May Take a While". The Wall Street Journal. p. R10. ISSN 0099-9660. Meanwhile, Nintendo, the first on the market with its black-and-white Game Boy, has sold approximately 7.5 million portable systems, analysts estimate. Sega has sold about 1.6 million units of its color Game Gear system, while Atari Inc. has sold about one million units of its $99 Lynx color portable system. 
  73. ^ Dvorak, John (September 1999). "The Riddle of the Lynx". Computer Shopper. SX2 Media Labs: 97. ISSN 0886-0556. Retrieved February 13, 2014. (subscription required (help)). The Jaguar looked to be a winner, with popular new games and hot sales. Around June of 1994 the company decided to stop supporting the Lynx and concentrate on the Jaguar. 
  74. ^ Elrich, David (September 15, 1994). "Video-Game Wars: Fighting It Out Off-Screen". The New York Times. p. C2. ISSN 0362-4331. According to Philips, there are 1 million CD-i owners worldwide. 
  75. ^ Townsend, Allie (November 4, 2010). "Top 10 Failed Gaming Consoles". Time. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  76. ^ a b Dillon, Roberto (April 12, 2011). The Golden Age of Video Games: The Birth of a Multibillion Dollar Industry. Taylor & Francis. pp. 22–23. ISBN 9781439873236. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  77. ^ Mehegan, David (May 8, 1988). "Putting Coleco Industries Back Together". The Boston Globe. p. A1. ISSN 0743-1791. Retrieved April 23, 2014. (subscription required (help)). When the game [Telstar] crashed hard, earnings fell 50 percent in 1977 and the company lost $22 million in 1978, barely skirting bankruptcy after Handel -- then chief financial officer -- found new credit and mollified angry creditors after months of tough negotiation. 
  78. ^ a b Schrage, Michael (May 22, 1984). "Atari Introduces Game In Attempt for Survival". The Washington Post: C3. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 29, 2009. (subscription required (help)). The company has stopped producing its 5200 SuperSystem games player, more than 1 million of which were sold. 
  79. ^ Reimer, Jeremy (October 10, 2005). "The evolution of gaming: computers, consoles, and arcade". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 10, 2014. 
  80. ^ Théo Azevedo (July 30, 2012). "Vinte anos depois, Master System e Mega Drive vendem 150 mil unidades por ano no Brasil" (in Portuguese). UOL. Retrieved October 18, 2012. Base instalada: 5 milhões de Master System; 3 milhões de Mega Drive 
  81. ^ Sponsel, Sebastian (November 16, 2015). "Interview: Stefano Arnhold (Tectoy)". Sega-16. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 
  82. ^ "Sega farms out Genesis". Consumer Electronics. March 2, 1998. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. 
§ WonderSwan Famitsu sources
Release year sources
Bibliography