List of bicycle-sharing systems
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Bicycle sharing systems
The following table lists active bicycle-sharing systems across the world. Most systems listed allow users to pick up and drop off bicycles at any of the automated stations within the network.
|San Lorenzo, Santa Fe||Biciudad||Biciudad||27 November 2016||8||80|
|Buenos Aires||Ecobici||Serttel Brasil||Bike In Baires Consortium.||2010||400||4000||21917|
|Rosario||Mi Bici Tu Bici||2 December 2015||47||480|
|Australia||Melbourne||Melbourne Bike Share||PBSC & 8D||Motivate||June 2010||30 November 2019||53||676|
|Brisbane||CityCycle||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||September 2010||150||2000|
|Melbourne||oBike||4 Gen. oBike||July 2017||July 2018||dockless||1250|
|Sydney||oBike||4 Gen. oBike||July 2017||July 2018||dockless||1250|
|Sydney||Ofo||4 Gen. Ofo||October 2017||dockless||600|
|Sydney||Reddy Go||Reddy Go||July 2017||2000|
|Austria||Vienna||Citybike Wien ||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux Gewista||June 2003||121||1500||2800|
|Burgenland||LEIHRADL nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||40|
|Lower Austria||LEIHRADL nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||295||1300|
|Salzburg||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2011|
|Vienna||Viennabike||2 Gen.||Association and city council||April 2002||November 2002||200||1500|
|Vorarlberg||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||14||70|
|Belgium||Namur||Libiavelo||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||21 April 2012||24||200|
|Antwerp||Velo||3 Gen. Clear CC||9 June 2011||302||3600||7010|
|Brussels||Villo!||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||19 May 2009 (earlier system since 2006)||346||4115|
|Fortaleza||Bicicletar||Mobilicidade||15 December 2014||80||800|
|(Pedro de) Toledo||Toopedalando||Toopedalando||2011||6||60|
|Rio de Janeiro||Bike Rio||tembici||2011||60||300|
|Canada||Victoria||U-Bicycle||September 2017||initially 150|
|Hamilton||Hamilton Bike Share||Social Bicycles||20 March 2015||1 June 2020||100||750|
|Kitchener, Ontario||Community Access Bicycles||Community Access Bicycles||2011, relaunched 21 August 2013||7||65|
|Montreal||BIXI Montréal||PBSC & 8D||2009||540||6200||8808|
|Toronto||Bike Share Toronto (formerly Bixi Toronto)||PBSC||Motivate||2011||468||5000||6200|
|Vancouver||Mobi||3 Gen. CycleHop||20 July 2016||150||1500|
|Chile||Santiago||Bikesantiago||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2013||53|
|China||Guangzhou||GZ-Public Bicycle||June 2010||50||4840|
|Anqiu||Anqiu Public Bicycle||December 2013||95||2280|
|Baoji||Baoji Public Bicycle Service||September 2013||100||2000|
|Changzhou||Changzhou Public Bicycle|
|Chengdu (Jinniu District)||–||Shanghai Forever Bicycle Co.||June 2010||156||1500|
|Chengdu (Gaoxin District [zh])||–||December 2010||72||1200|
|Fuzhou||Fuzhou Public Bicycle||June 2011||59||1400|
|Haining||Haining Public Bicycle||October 2012||100||2200|
|Hangzhou||Hangzhou Public Bicycle||October 2008||2965||78000|
|Huaian||Huaian Public Bicycle||October 2013||335||7000|
|Huaibei||Huaibei Public Bicycle||April 2014||100||3000|
|Huangyan||Huangyan Public Bicycle||January 2012||93||2500|
|Huizhou||Guangzhou Huimin||April 2012||100||10000|
|Huzhou||Huzhou Public Bicycle||December 2013||85|
|Jiaxing||Jiaxing Public Bicycle||December 2011||334||7800|
|Jinhua||Jinhua Orange Public Bicycle Service||October 2013||100||3000|
|Kunshan||Forever Bicycle||September 2010||745||20000|
|Lanzhou||Lanzhou Public Bicycle||June 2014||111||2000|
|Luoyang||Luoyang Public Bicycle||25 May 2013||35||1000|
|Maanshan||Maanshan Public Bicycle|
|Nantong||Nantong Economic and Technological Development Area Public Bicycle||Forever Publicbike Intelligent Systems||1 January 2013||182||3800|
|Ningbo||Ningbo Public Bicycle||September 2013||600||15000|
|Shanghai||Forever Bicycle||March 2009||596||19165|
|Shaoxing||Shaoxing Public Bicycle||15 June 2011||204||9000|
|Shenzhen / Shekou / Xiaomeisha||Shenzhen City Bicycle Public||Forever Bicycle||September 2010||16||350|
|Weifang||Weifang Public Bicycle||October 2013||735||20000|
|Yixing||Yixing Public Bicycle||December 2012||148||3600|
|Zhangjiagang||Forever Bicycle||Forever Bicycle||June 2010||152||3200|
|Zhenjiang||Zhenjiang Public Bicycle||1 April 2013||80||2000|
|Zhuzhou||Foshan Tianzhou||May 2011||1005||20000|
|Colombia||Medellin||EnCicla||3 Gen (formally 0 Gen)||The Metropolitan Area of Aburra Valley||2011||50||1400|
|Croatia||Zagreb||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||May 2013||21||100|
|Cyprus||Limassol||nextbike Cyprus||3 Gen. nextbike||May 2012||13||170|
|Pissouri||e-asyGo.com Cyprus||own pedelecs||April 2019||3||10|
|Limassol (& Agios Dometios, Aglandjia, Dali, Engomi, Latsia, Pallouriotissa, Strovolos)||Bike in Action||3 Gen. Smoove||27||310|
|Czechia||Ostrava||Rekola||4 Gen.||2018 ||180|
|Prague||Rekola||4 Gen.||2013 ||500||4,700|
|Brno||Rekola||4 Gen.||2014 ||50|
|České Budějovice||Rekola||4 Gen.||2015 ||100|
|Hradec Králové||Rekola||4 Gen.||2015 ||2016|
|Olomouc||Rekola||4 Gen.||2014 ||70|
|Teplice||Rekola||4 Gen.||2017 ||40|
|Kladno||Rekola||4 Gen.||2017 ||2017||80|
|Liberec||Rekola||4 Gen.||2018 ||100|
|Frýdek-Místek||Rekola||4 Gen.||2018 ||80|
|Prague 4 and Brno||Velonet||Velonet|||
|Prague 7||Ofo||4 Gen. Ofo||Ofo||2017||Discontinued|||
|Prostějov||Nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||Nextbike||2019||180|
|Ostrava||Nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||Nextbike||2019||600|
|Aarhus||Aarhus City Bikes||2 Gen||Aarhus Municipality||March 2004||52||450|
|Århus||Bycyklen||2 Gen||May 2007||57||400|
|Copenhagen||Bycyklen||Gobike||16 August 2013||105||1860|
|Copenhagen||Bycykler København||2 Gen||1995||October 2012  Copenhagen municipality changed its mind and a new version was introduced in late 2013.||110||initially 800 (later 2500)|
|Emirates||Abu Dhabi||ADCB Bikeshare||8D||Cyacle||December 2014||11||75|
|Finland||Helsinki||Helsinki City Bikes||3 Gen. Smoove||Helsinki City Transport (HKL)||May 2017 ||345||3450|
|Helsinki||Helsinki City Bikes||2 Gen.||Helsinki City Transport (HKL)||2000||2010 |
|Vaasa||Rekola||4 Gen.||2018 ||60|
|France||Avignon||Vélopop'||3 Gen. Smoove||July 2009||17||200|
|Créteil||Cristolib||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||April 2010||10||75|
|Lyon||Vélo'v||3 Gen. Cyclocity||19 May 2005 ||348||4000|
|Marseille||Le vélo||3 Gen. Cyclocity||2007||122||672|
|Mulhouse||VéloCité||3 Gen. Cyclocity||15 September 2007||40||240|
|Nancy||VélOstan||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||27 September 2009||29||250||675|
|Nantes||Bicloo||3 Gen. Cyclocity||May 2008||103||885||3640|
|Paris||Vélib'||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||15 July 2007||31 December 2017||1229||14500||'108,09|
|Grand Paris||Vélib' Métropole||3 Gen. Smoove||Smovengo||1 January 2018 ||1360||10500|
|Toulouse||VélôToulouse||3 Gen. Cyclocity||16 November 2007||280||2465|
|Valence, Drôme||Libélo||3 Gen. Smoove||Transdev||March 2010||20||380|
|Amiens||Vélam||3 Gen. Cyclocity||February 2008||26||250||376|
|Angers||VéloCité||3 Gen. Cyclocity||2004|
|Belfort||Optymo||3 Gen. Smoove||May 2013||21||200|
|Besançon||VéloCité||3 Gen. Cyclocity||September 2007||30||200||380|
|Caen||V'eol||3 Gen. Clear CC||March 2008||40||350|
|Chalon-sur-Saône||Réflex||3 Gen. Smoove||Transdev||December 2007||14||100|
|Clermont-Ferrand||C.Vélo||3 Gen. Smoove||SMTC||June 2013||10 (22)||100 (220)|
|Dijon||Velodi||3 Gen. Clear CC||February 2008||39||400|
|Grenoble||Métrovélo||3 Gen. Smoove||2006||16||1250|
|La Rochelle||Yélo||Homeport||February 2010||63||300|
|La Rochelle||Vélos Jaunes||Zero Generation||1974||Discontinued|
|Montpellier||Vélomagg'||3 Gen. Smoove||June 2007||52||2414|
|Nice||Vélo Bleu||OYBike||July 2009||175||1750|
|Perpignan||BIP!||3 Gen. Clear CC||February 2008||15||150|
|Rennes||LE vélo STAR||3 Gen. Clear CC||June 1998||82||800|
|Rouen||Cy'clic||3 Gen. Cyclocity||December 2007||21||190|
formerly Vélo Vert
|3 Gen. Smoove||26 June 2010||30||700|
|Strasbourg||Vélhop||3 Gen. Smoove||October 2010||4||1852|
|Georgia||Batumi||BatumVelo||3 Gen. SmooveKey||Batumi Avtotransporti||May 2013||24||370|
|Germany||Aachen||Velocity ||3 Gen.||27 June 2008||46|
|Aschaffenburg||Call a Bike||3 Call a Bike|
|Baden-Baden||Call a Bike||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex|
|Berlin||Call a Bike ||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||March 2003||2016||dockless|
|Berlin||LIDL-BIKES - Call a Bike ||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||March 2017||350 & dockless||3500|
|Berlin||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||500||300|
|Berlin||Ofo||4 Gen. Ofo||October 2016||August 2018|
|Berlin||Donkey Republic Berlin ||4 Gen.||April 2017||600|
|Berlin||Mobike ||4 Gen.||November 2017||700|
|Berlin||fLotte ||0. Gen||Freie Lastenräder ||March 2018||12|
|Berlin||LimeBike||4 Gen.||April 2018||500|
|Berlin||Jump Bikes ||4 Gen.||Jump Bikes||November 2018||100|
|Bielefeld||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||10|
|Bochum||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||6||30|
|Bonn||nextbike||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||October 2018||15 & dockless ||500|
|Bottrop||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||15|
|Bremen||LimeBike||4 Gen.||March 2018||500|
|Coburg||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||5|
|Cologne||Call a Bike||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||March 2000||dockless|
|Ruhr Area, Dortmund||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||27|
|Darmstadt||Call a Bike||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||2014||30||350 |
|Dresden||nextbike branded SZ-Bike since 2017||3 Gen. nextbike||DVB ||2005||30+||500|
|Duisburg||metropolradruhr nextbike||3 Gen.||September 2010||14|
|Düsseldorf||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2008||45||400|
|Düsseldorf||Flexbeee ||4 Gen.||July 2018||400|
|Düsseldorf||Mobike ||4 Gen.||30 May 2018||600|
|Düsseldorf||Call a Bike branded FordPass Bike||3 Gen. Call a Bike||October 2017||135||1200|
|Dortmund||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||July 2008||55||400|
|Dreieich||Byke||4 Gen.||October 2017||100|
|Erfurt||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||10||30|
|Essen||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||25|
|Flensburg||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||10||30|
|Frankfurt am Main||Call a Bike||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||March 2000||dockless|
|Frankfurt am Main||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||30||300|
|Frankfurt am Main||Byke ||4 Gen.||October 2017||100|
|Frankfurt am Main||LimeBike||4 Gen.||January 2018||500|
|Gelsenkirchen||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||4|
|Freiburg im Breisgau||Call a Bike||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||2010|
|Freiburg im Breisgau||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2019|
|Hamburg||StadtRAD Hamburg||3 & 4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||Deutsche Bahn||July 2009||200||2450|
|Hamburg||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2008||30||250|
|Hamm||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||10||50|
|Hannover||oBike||4 Gen. oBike||2017||500|
|Herne||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||7||45|
|Leipzig||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2008||60||500|
|Magdeburg||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2008||21||100|
|Munich||Call a Bike||4 Gen. Call a Bike flex||March 2000||dockless|
|Munich||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2011||30||3000|
|Oberhausen||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||8||40|
|Offenburg||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||13||86|
|Potsdam||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||20||150|
|Stuttgart||Call a Bike||4 Gen. Call a Bike fix||June 2007||64||400|
|Tübingen||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||9||50|
|Tübingen||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2009||9||50|
|Mülheim a. Ruhr||metropolradruhr||3 Gen. nextbike||2010||13||65|
|Ancient Olympia||Cyclopolis||3 Gen.||2013||4||60|
|Corfu||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||November 2010||8||100|
|Didymóteicho||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||May 2013||8||100|
|East Mani||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||2013||6||100|
|Ioannina||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||September 2012||2||10|
|Iraklio||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||April 2010||100|
|Karditsa||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||March 2013||10||60|
|Kavala||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||2013||4||52|
|Keratsini-Drapetsóna||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||November 2012||6||70|
|Komotini||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||2013||6||100|
|Maroussi||Cyclopolis||3 Gen.||February 2013||6||70|
|Moscháto-Távros||Cyclopolis||3 Gen.||January 2013||5||60|
|Náfplion||Cyclopolis||3 Gen.||June 2013||4||60|
|Naupactus||EasyBike||3 Gen. Smoove||January 2013||4||60|
|Municipality of Nafpaktos
municipality bike rental
|0 Gen.||June 2010|
municipality bike rental
|Nea Smyrni||Cyclopolis||3 Gen.||2013||3||40|
|Salonica||Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Bike||0 Gen.||May 2012||60|
|Hungary||Budapest||MOL BuBi||3 Gen.||April 2014||126||1526|
|Esztergom||EBI||20 September 2013||9||93|
|Győr||GyőrBike||7 September 2015||23||180|
|Kaposvár||Kapsvári Tekergő ||27 October 2015||4||32 (including 6 rollers) |
|Szeged||CityBike Szeged||CityBike Szeged||1 October 2013||12||100|
|Mumbai||FreMo, Cycle Chalao||2012|
|Iran||Urmia||U Bike||U Bike||10 June 2016||20||250|
|Tehran||Bdood||Bdood||1 August 2017||55||5700|
|Ireland||Cork||Coca-Cola Zero Bikes||NTA & An Rothar Nua||18 December 2014||31||320|
|Dublin||Dublin Bikes||Cyclocity||JCDecaux||September 2009||102||950|
|Galway||Coca-Cola Zero Bikes||NTA & An Rothar Nua||24 November 2014||19||205|
|Limerick||Coca-Cola Zero Bikes||NTA & An Rothar Nua||8 December 2014||23||215|
|Israel||Tel Aviv||Tel-O-Fun||April 2016||200+||2000|
|Carugate||Meglio in Bici||5 May 2012||3||30|
|Cernusco sul Naviglio||Meglio in Bici||5 May 2012||3||40|
|Milan||BikeMi||3 Gen. Clear CC||8 December 2008 ||282||4650 (1000 E)||19000|
|Milan||Mobike||4 Gen.||30 August 2017||dockless||8000|
|Milan||Ofo||4 Gen. Ofo||20 September 2017||dockless||4000|
|Milan||Bitride Sharing||Zehus||1 March 2018||31 December 2018||dockless||350|
|Pioltello||Meglio in Bici||5 May 2012||2||20|
|Rimini||Rimini in Bici||16|
|Turin||ToBike||4 March 2011||184|
|Japan||Toyama, Toyama||Cyclocity Toyama||Cyclocity||JCDecaux||22 March 2010||17||130|
|Kazakhstan||Almaty||Almatybike||3 Gen. Smoove||June 2016||300||1700|
|Astana||Astanabike||3 Gen. Smoove||July 2014||250||1280|
|Shymkent||Shymkentbike||3 Gen. Smoove||July 2016||40||200|
|Lithuania||Vilnius||CycloCity||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||2013||33||300|
|Luxembourg||Luxembourg City||Vel'oh||3 Gen. Cyclocity||March 2008||73||680|
|Malaysia||George Town||LinkBike||Fast Rent Bike (PG)||December 2016||25||250|
|Mexico City||Ecobici||3 Gen. Clear CC||2010||452||6500||31000|
|Netherlands||Towns and cities in the Netherlands: all over the country, mainly at railway stations||OV-fiets||OV-Fiets/Nederlandse Spoorwegen||2003||230||15000 |
|Towns and cities in the Netherlands: several locations||Bikedispenser||2005||5||500|
|Delft, Rotterdam and The Hague||Mobike||4 Gen.||2018/2019|
|Norway||Drammen||Drammen City Bikes||3 Gen. Clear CC||2001|
|Oslo||Oslo Bysykkel||3 Gen. Clear CC||2003||106|
|Sandnes||WhiteBikes||volunteers and city council||1996||2002||225|
|Sandnes||3 Gen. Clear CC||2002|
|Trondheim||Trondheim City Bikes||Bycykler||1998||2005||200|
|Trondheim||Trondheim City Bikes||3 Gen. Clear CC||2005||10||125|
|Poland||Białystok||BiKeR||3 Gen. nextbike||31 May 2014||46||460|
|Grodzisk Mazowiecki||Grodziski Rower Miejski||3 Gen. nextbike||27 September 2014||9||60|
|Juchnowiec Kościelny||Rower Gminny||3 Gen. nextbike||July 2015||2||20|
|Katowice||City by bike||3 Gen. nextbike||May 2015||3||40|
|Konstancin||Konstanciński Rower Miejski||3 Gen. nextbike||14 June 2014||5||55|
|Łódź||Łódzki Rower Publiczny||3 Gen. nextbike||30 April 2016||148||1490|
|Lublin||Lubelski Rower Miejski||3 Gen. nextbike||19 September 2014||90||891|
|Opole||Opole Bike||3 Gen. nextbike||15 June 2012||16||164|
|Poznań||Poznański Rower Miejski||3 Gen. nextbike||April 2012||89||973|
|Sopot||Rower Trójmiejski||3 Gen. nextbike||5 September 2013||8||80|
|Szczecin||Bike S||3 Gen. nextbike||2015||85||724|
|Toruń||Toruński Rower Miejski||April 2014||12||120|
|Warsaw||Bemowo Bike||3 Gen. nextbike||1 April 2012||15||140|
|Warsaw||Veturilo||3 Gen. nextbike||1 August 2012||390||5700|
|Wrocław||Wrocławski Rower Miejski||3 Gen. nextbike||June 2011||76||760|
|Vila do Conde||biConde||5 June 2014||10||60|
|Romania||Bucharest||Cicloteque||Proprietary||31 July 2008||6||400|
|Kazan||Veli'k||3 Gen. Cyclocity||Russ Outdoor||1 July 2013||6||120|
|Serbia||Novi Sad||NS Bike||Parking Servis||2011||5||70|
|Slovakia||Bratislava||Whitebikes||Open Source Bike Share||May 2014||50||100|
|Slovnaft BAjk||Slovnaft||7 September 2018||90||400|
|Verejný bicykel||Antik Telecom||June 2020||dockless||70|
|Košice||Verejný bicykel||Antik Telecom||24 April 2019||dockless||200|
|Moldava nad Bodvou||Verejný bicykel||Antik Telecom||25 July 2019||dockless||25|
|Nitra||ARRIVA Bike||nextbike||Arriva||28 July 2017||7||70|
|Poprad||Verejný bicykel||Antik Telecom||8 August 2019||dockless||85|
|Trebišov||Verejný bicykel||Antik Telecom||17 July 2019||dockless||65|
|Veľký Šariš||Verejný bicykel||Antik Telecom||24 June 2020||dockless||15|
|Žilina||BikeKIA||nextbike||Arriva||29 March 2019||20||120|
|Slovenia||Celje||KolesCE||Nomago||13 September 2018||27|
|Kranj||KRsKOLESOM||Mestna občina Kranj||26|
|Ljubljana||Bicike(lj)||Cyclocity||JCDecaux||12 May 2011||33||215|
|Rogaška Slatina in Podčetrtek|
|Velenje||BICY||MICikel||18 September 2012||9||40|
|South Africa||Orania, Northern Cape||Orania Openbare Fietsprojek||16 July 2014||3||30|
|South Korea||Changwon||NUBIJA||October 2008||235||2348|
|Seoul||Ddareungi||15 October 2015||1540||20000|
|Spain||Córdoba||Eco-bici||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||2003||4||35|
|Palma||Bicipalma||28 March 2011||28||336|
|Valencia||ValenbiSi!||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||22 June 2010||276||2400|
|Barcelona||Bicing||3 Gen. Clear CC||22 March 2007||424||6000||28093|
|Elche (Elx)||bicielx||14 June 2010||14||200|
|Gijón||Gijon-Bici||3 Gen. Cyclocity||2003||8||64|
|Girona||Girocleta||25 September 2009||10||260|
|Santander||Tusbic||3 Gen. Cyclocity||September 2008||15||180|
|Seville||Sevici||3 Gen. Cyclocity||April 2007||259||2100|
|Zaragoza||Bizi||3 Gen. Clear CC||28 May 2008||130||1000|
|Sweden||Gothenburg||Styr & Ställ||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||10 August 2010||60||1000|
|Lund||Lundahoj||3 Gen. Cyclocity||JCDecaux||20 August 2014||17||250|
|Malmö||Malmö By Bike||3 Gen. Clear CC||14 May 2016||50||500|
|Stockholm||Stockholm City bikes||3 Gen. Clear CC||April 2006||67||1000|
|Lausanne||velopass (in French)||June 2009||April 2013|
|Luzern||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||2008||30||280|
|Bangkok||oBike||4 Gen. oBike||July 2017|
|Bangkok||Pun Pun Bike Share||2012||50||500|
|Karşıyaka||Karbis||3 Gen. nextbike||January 2014||6|
|Konya||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||40|
|Ukraine||Kiev||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||nextbike Kyiv LLC||15 August 2018||33||100|
|Lviv||nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||nextbike Ukraine LLC||31 March 2016||24||140|
|United Kingdom||Barton-upon-Humber (England)||Factory Bikes||WhiteBikes||Elswick Hopper||19??||19??|
|Belfast (Northern Ireland)||Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes||3 Gen. nextbike||NSL||27 April 2015||30||300|
|Bristol (England)||YoBike||YoBike||May 2017|
|Cardiff (Wales)||Nextbike||3 Gen. nextbike||March 2018||5||50|
|Glasgow (Scotland)||Mass Automated Cycle Hire (MACH)||3 Gen. nextbike||24 June 2014||31||400|
|Edinburgh (Scotland)||Just Eat Cycles||Urban Sharing||Serco||24 June 2018||50+||500||700|
|Liverpool (England)||City Bike||May 2014||130||1000|
|Milton Keynes (England)||SantanderCyclesMK||3 Gen. nextbike||CycleSaviours||17 June 2016||42||300|
(known as WhipBikes until 2011)
|Nottingham (England)||Ucycle||Sustrans & Evans Cycles||2010||0||460|
|Portsmouth (England)||Bikeabout||Public Velo||University of Portsmouth||1996||1998||2|
|Slough (England)||Smoove||3 Gen. Smoove||November 2013||4||60|
|Southampton (England)||YoBike||YoBike||September 2017|
|London (England) ||Santander Cycles (formerly Barclays Cycle Hire)||PBSC||Serco||30 July 2010||839||13600|
|United States||Aspen, Colorado||WE-cycle||PBSC||June 2013||16||200|
|Boise, Idaho||Boise Bike Share||Social Bicycle||16 April 2015||15||117|
|Boulder, Colorado||Boulder B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||23||120|
|Broward County, Florida||Broward B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||35|
|Denver, Colorado||Denver B-cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2010||89||737|
|Des Moines, Iowa||Des Moines B-cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2010||4||18|
|Indianapolis, Indiana||B-Cycle||May 2014||25||300|
|Meridian, Colorado||M-Bike||Zagster||15 March 2010||11|
|Miami Beach, Florida||Decobike||SandVault||2011||100||1000|
|New York City||Citi Bike||PBSC & 8D||Motivate||27 May 2013||739||10494||65000|
|Tampa, Florida||Coast Bike Share||3 Gen. CycleHop and Social Bicycles||7 December 2014||30||300|
|Washington, D.C. area||Capital Bikeshare||PBSC & 8D||Motivate||2010||406||4457|
|United States||Ann Arbor, Michigan||ArborBike||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2014||14||125|
|Atlanta||Relay Bike Share||May 2016||65||500|
|Austin, Texas||Bike Share of Austin||3 Gen. B-Cycle||December 2013||46||375|
|Austin||Yellow Bike Project||WhiteBikes||Austin YBP and city council||January 1997||200|
|Battle Creek||Battle Creek BCycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||19 August 2013||3||21|
|Black Rock City||Yellow Bikes||Yellow Bikes|
|Boston, Massachusetts||Hubway||PBSC & 8D||Motivate||2011||158||1461||3268|
|Charlotte, North Carolina||Charlotte B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2012||21||200|
|Chattanooga, Tennessee||Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System||PBSC||2012||37||334|
|Cincinnati, Ohio||Red Bike||3 Gen. B-Cycle||15 September 2014||50|
|Columbia, South Carolina||BlueBikeSC||Bbewege||September 2018||18||135|
|Columbus, Ohio||CoGo||PBSC||Motivate||July 2013||41||335|
|El Paso, Texas||El Paso BCycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||14 September 2015||8||80|
|Eugene, Oregon||PeaceHealth Rides||PeaceHealth Rides||2018||36||300|
|Fairbanks, Alaska||Fairbikes||A2B Bikeshare||24 September 2015|
|Fargo, ND||GreatRides||3 Gen. B-Cycle||15 March 2010||11||101|
|Fort Worth, Texas||Fort Worth B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||22 April 2013||32||300|
|Fullerton, California||OCTA BikeShare||Bike Nation||6 January 2014||10||75|
|Hoboken, New Jersey||Hudson Bike Share||3 Gen. nextbike||September 2015||29||250|
|Houston, Texas||Houston B-cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2012||51||400|
|Jersey City||Citi Bike||8D||Motivate||September 2015||35||350|
|Kailua, Hawaii||Hawaii B-cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||2||12|
|Kansas City, Missouri||Kansas City B-cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2012||30||300|
|Kona District, Hawaii||PBSC||2016||3||30|
|Lansing, MI||Capital Community Bikeshare||A2B Bikeshare||2014||8||20||Closed|
|Lincoln, Nebraska||BikeLNK||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2018||19||100|
|Los Angeles||Metro Bike Share||3 Gen. B-Cycle||7 July 2016||65||1000|
|Madison, Wisconsin||Madison B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||39||350|
|Milwaukee, Wisconsin||Bublr Bikes||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2014||87||400+|
|Minneapolis, Minnesota and Saint Paul, Minnesota||Nice Ride||PBSC & 8D||2010||171||1833|
|Oklahoma City, Oklahoma||Spokies||Spokies||2012||7||100|
|Omaha, Nebraska||Omaha B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||5||35|
|Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||Indego||3 Gen. B-Cycle||23 April 2015||105||1000|
|Phoenix, Arizona||Grid Bike Share||3 Gen. CycleHop and Social Bicycles||25 November 2014||40||500|
|Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||Healthy Ride PGH||3 Gen. nextbike||2015||50||500|
|Portland, Oregon||Biketown||19 July 2016||100||1000|
|Portland, Oregon||Yellow Bike Project||1 Gen. WhiteBikes||Yellow Bike Project||1994||1997||1000|
|Salt Lake City, Utah||SLC Bike Share||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2013||12||100|
|San Antonio, Texas||San Antonio B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||68||600|
|San Diego||DecoBike||DecoBike||JCDecaux||February 2015||180||1800|
|San Francisco Bay Area||2013|
|San Francisco Bay Area||Ford GoBike||Motivate||June 2017||550||7000|
|Santa Monica, California||United States of America||3 Gen. CycleHop and Social Bicycles||13 August 2015||80||500|
|Savannah, Georgia||CAT Bike||3 Gen. B-Cycle||24 January 2014||2||16|
|Seattle, Washington||Pronto Cycle Share||8D||Motivate||13 October 2014||50||500|
|Spartanburg, South Carolina||Spartanburg B-Cycle||3 Gen. B-Cycle||2011||5||40|
|St. Paul||Yellow Bike Project||1 Gen. w/ BikeCard||volunteers and city council||1997|
Advertising company JCDecaux launched its "Cyclocity" programs initially in Vienna, Austria in 2003 and in Lyon, France in 2005. The company also started programs in other cities in Europe such as Paris, Córdoba, and Kazan, as well as cities outside of Europe, such as Brisbane, Australia. Payment for using the bikes is done with smart cards.
Competitor Clear Channel, then operating as Adshel, opened the first example of this in Rennes in 1997, and has several other sites including Oslo, Stockholm, Sandnes and Trondheim, most generally similar to that offered by their competitor.
French cities not included in the list above offering a bicycle sharing system include Lorient, Annemasse and Aix-en-Provence.
In 1965, the group Provo painted fifty bicycles white and scattered them unlocked in downtown Amsterdam for everyone to use freely. The bicycles were both taken by people, and impounded by the authorities, as a city ordinance forbade leaving unlocked bikes in public places.
In September 1997, a pilot project for a public share system, based on the UK's Grippa racks was established in Rotterdam, for use by commuters, but it was terminated the following year due to poor functionality of the electronic bike racks.
The first Norwegian bicycle sharing system was introduced in Sandnes in 1996. It consisted of 225 green DBS bikes that were free to use in the fashion of a 1st generation bicycle sharing system. The Sandnes system was converted to a 3rd generation system in 2002. In 1998, Trondheim introduced a 2nd generation system with 200 bicycles modeled after that of Copenhagen's. The Trondheim system was converted into a 3rd generation system in 2005. The following cities are known to have city bike arrangements. Some are prepaid automatic (example Oslo), some are manual (like in Tønsberg). In 2001, Drammen introduced a 3rd generation system together with the Clear Channel. Bergen, The second biggest city in Norway has occasionally had city bikes, and as of 2018 and 2019 opened a new and improved system based on the system in Oslo together with OBOS and Urban Infrastructure Partner.
- Oslo - Oslo Bysykkel (172 rental hubs as of March 2017)
Timișoara is the first Romanian city to introduce a public rent-a-bike system. The scheme is called VeloTM and has 25 stations and 300 bikes. The rent-a-bike system works with the RATT card. Renting a bike is free however, the card costs.
Automated public bicycle sharing services in Russia operate in Moscow, Sankt-Petersburg, Kazan and Almetyevsk (Republic of Tatarstan). The system in Moscow is steadily expanding each year while the systems in Sankt-Petersburg and Kazan are struggling to survive. The system in Almetyevsk is dockless with about 300 pre-marked parking lots across the town where the bicycles must be left after use. A couple of smaller-scale dockless systems are deployed in Adlersky City District in Sochi.
The Velobike system was opened in 2013. In 2015 it was fully replaced by the Smoove-based solution using B’TWIN bicycles. In 2018 there were 430 parking stations in the system with 4300 bicycles. There were 424 736 users registered and 4.25 million journeys were performed in this season.
- Mobee network
In 2001, the not-for-profit organization BiCyBa released White Bicycles into public use in Bratislava, Slovakia. During the next three months all the bikes were stolen or destroyed, and the project was cancelled. In 2013, a new community-run bike-sharing program in Bratislava called White Bikes commenced service with about 100 bikes (donated by local Rotary Club) and over 60 stations (as of December 2017). It is built on the Open Source Bike Share System based on an SMS and a web app. It was started in 2013 by BikeKitchen initiative and cycling advocacy NGO Cyklokoalicia. There is no fee to use bikes, membership is granted after initial personal introduction and training. Bikes are available all year long.
Official Bratislava city bike sharing Slovnaft Bajk was launched on 7 September 2018 in cooperation with Slovnaft company. It offered only under 100 bicycles initially at around 80 stations. Number of bicycles increased to around 190 later, but users complained about the UX and broken bicycles / rental process. Estimated 23% of bicycles were not working or rendered inaccessible for rental.
The first commercial bike sharing in Slovakia was launched in 2016 in the city of Prievidza. Zelený bicykel (translates as Green bicycle) has 19 stations and is expected to add 10 more in 2018. Bikes are not available during winter season.
Public transportation company Arriva launched a bike sharing in Nitra in 2017. It is a complementary service for its bus service. It only features 7 docking stations, the price is €25 per year, €3 per day or €0.50 per hour. Bikes are not available during winter season.
Another commercial floating bike sharing system was launched by a telecom provider Antik Telecom in Košice in May 2019. They introduced their system to a districts Rača and Vajnory in Bratislava in June 2020.
Switzerland possesses several bicycle sharing systems including Publibike, Smide, and oBike which was launched in Zurich on 5 July 2017. The Publibike network consists of 350 stations throughout the country. It includes nine stations on the Lausanne campus. oBike is said to have deployed 350 bikes in the city of Zurich with bike hire being CHF 1.50 for 30 minutes, with a CHF 129 deposit being required. The city of Zürich also has a free bike-rental program, "Züri rollt", with several pick-up and drop-off locations.
In 1993, a Green Bike Scheme bike sharing programme was initiated in Cambridge, United Kingdom, using a fleet of some 300 bicycles. The overwhelming majority of the fleet were stolen or missing within a year of the programme's introduction, and the Green Bike Scheme was abandoned.
In an attempt to overcome losses from theft, the next innovation adopted by bike sharing programmes was the use of so-called 'smart technology'. One of the first 'smart bike' programmes was the Grippa™ bike storage rack system used in Portsmouth's Bikeabout scheme. The Bikeabout scheme was launched in October 1995 by the University of Portsmouth, UK as part of its Green Transport Plan in an effort to cut car travel by staff and students between campus sites. Funded in part by the EU's ENTRANCE programme, the Bikeabout scheme was a "smart card" fully automated system. For a small fee, users were issued 'smart cards' with magnetic stripes to be swiped through an electronic card reader at a covered 'bike store' kiosk, unlocking the bike from its storage rack. CCTV camera surveillance was installed at all bike stations in an effort to limit vandalism. Upon arriving at the destination station, the smart card was used to open a cycle rack and record the bike's safe return. A charge was automatically registered on the user's card if the bike was returned with damage or if the time exceeded the three-hour maximum. Implemented with an original budget of approximately £200,000, the Portsmouth Bikeabout scheme was never very successful in terms of rider usage,[a] in part due to the limited number of bike kiosks and hours of operation. Seasonal weather restrictions and concerns over unjustified charges for bike damage also imposed barriers to usage. The Bikeabout program was discontinued by the University in 1998 in favour of expanded minibus service; the total costs of the Bikeabout programme were never disclosed. Following the discontinuation of the University of Portsmouth's Bikeabout programme in 1998 (it had been launched in 1996), the introduction of new bicycle share systems proceeded more slowly in the United Kingdom than in the rest of Europe.
With initial sponsorship from Barclays and later Santander, Transport for London launched a cycle hire scheme in London, where hire under 30 minutes is free from special bicycle stands across the city, after a daily, monthly or annual charge has been paid.
Outside of London, the largest is the hire-a-bike operation in Blackpool, operated by Hourbike, with 60 stations and 500 bikes in the scheme. This scheme uses both RFID membership cards and instant point-of-sale memberships to cater for both residential users and the very many visitors that go to the resort every year. Hourbike also has schemes in Lincoln, Reading, Liverpool, Nottingham and Southport in England as well as Dumfries, Scotland.
In 2017, ofo, a Beijing-based bike share company, announced plans to provide shared bike services to several British cities. In 2018, the company withdrew service to several British towns and reduced service area coverage to others as part of a global restructuring plan.
Some bike-sharing schemes use mobile phone apps to reserve or sign out bikes. In the UK, OYBike delivered small-scale operations at 2 universities, 3 business parks, 3 London boroughs, and a private hotel chain in London until 2011. Like Munich's Call-a-Bike, OYBike used mobile phone technology to log use and charge for hires and can set up hire points in as little as 10 minutes.
Brompton Bike Hire has 40 docks across 25 major locations in the UK, starting at £2.50 for 24 hours and is using the same hardware as BIXI Montréal, members can rent a folding Brompton bike. The locations of the docks include London, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol, Reading, Southampton and Oxford.
in 2007, (another source gives early 2008) London mayor Ken Livingstone promised that an extensive bicycle sharing system modelled on the Paris Vélib' system would be introduced in London during his final term in office. The scheme was not completed until Boris Johnson was in office, and consequently became known informally as "Boris Bikes".
In 2018 the Singaporean-based company oBike launched in London, with 400 dockless bikes and is anticipated to soon spread to other cities in the UK. In the UK, oBike's bike hire is 50p for 30 minutes, with a £49 deposit being required.
Belfast launched a public bike hire scheme on 27 April 2015. The scheme was sponsored by Coca-Cola HBC Northern Ireland and is called Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes. The Department for Regional Development (DRD) provided initial capital funding for the scheme as part of their Active Travel Demonstration Projects budget. NSL is looking after the daily operation of the scheme, while Nextbike is responsible for the bikes. There are 33 docking stations with options for expansion depending on securing additional resources and council approval.
Recent expansions to cities in Scotland piggy-backing on the Commonwealth Games 2014 in Glasgow included Glasgow and Stirling. Stirling's scheme was named "Pedalforth" following a competition in the community and comprises 100 bikes and 11 stations. Glasgow was provided with 400 bikes across 31 stations in 2014. A system operated by JCDecaux is proposed for Edinburgh.
Nextbike started a public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff on 26 March 2018, with five docking stations and 50 bicycles. The original plan had been to have the public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff by Autumn 2017. The plan is still to reach 500 cycles over 50 docking stations in the city. It came 6 years after OYBike ended a smaller scheme (with 10 stations), following the council's withdrawal of funding in 2011.
The first widely deployed bicycle sharing system was BIXI Montréal. BIXI Montréal launched in 2009. It has since expanded to 6200 bicycles at 540 stations, making it by far the largest bicycle sharing system in Canada. Although initial program costs were $15 million for planning and implementation of the Bixi project, subsequent additional costs incurred in expanding the program have driven costs upwards of $23 million. Started in May 2009, it has expanded to over 5000 bicycles at 450 stations. The system was developed by PBSC Urban Solutions along with a consortium of vendors. The BIXI technology was then used in numerous bike sharing systems in North America, Europe and Australia. The Montreal system was ranked by Time Magazine as the 19th best invention of 2008.
The Bixi system was implemented in June 2009 in Ottawa/Gatineau as Capital Bixi. Capital Bixi launched in 2009 as a pilot program with 100 bicycles and 10 stations. In 2012, it was expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations. Its owner, the NCC, sold it to US-based CycleHop in April 2014 when its operator, Montreal-based Public Bike System Company, filed for bankruptcy protection in January 2014. CycleHop renamed the service to VeloGo and replaced the fleet with all-new 'smart' bicycles, where intelligence (i.e. GPS tracking, etc.) is built into each bicycle, instead of relying on base stations, as with Bixi system. VeloGo began its service in the summer of 2015.
From 2001 to 2006, BikeShare, operated by the Community Bicycle Network (CBN) in Toronto, was for a time the most popular community bicycle sharing program in North America. BikeShare was intended to overcome some of the theft issues by requiring yearly memberships to sign out any of the 150 refurbished yellow bikes locked up at 16 hubs throughout central Toronto. At its height, over 400 members could sign out a bike from any hub for up to three days. The hubs were located at stores, cafes and community centres where the staff would volunteer their time to sign bikes out and in. Despite steadily increasing administrative, implementation, and maintenance costs, CBN could only charge users around 20 percent of actual costs, as users were unlikely to spend more than $50 per year for a membership. Without sufficient funds in the form of private and government grants, CBN was forced to discontinue BikeShare in 2006.
Bixi Toronto launched in 2011 with 800 bicycles at 80 stations. In 2013, when Public Bike System Company acknowledged that it could not repay its $3.9 million loan to the city, the system was taken over by the Toronto Parking Authority and renamed Bike Share Toronto. In 2016, the city of Toronto signed a contract with PBSC to expand their system. Its network hosts 5,000 bicycles spread among 465 stations.
From 2005 to 2008, a largely unregulated bike sharing program was operated by the Peoples' Pedal organisation in Edmonton, Alberta. The program suffered from high theft and vandalism rates, with 95% of the bikes that had been placed into service stolen or missing by 2008.
In February 2010, the government of Mexico City inaugurated a new bicycle sharing network called EcoBici. With distinctive red and white liveried bicycles, the network as of February 2015 consists of 444 stations with 6,500 bicycles. With more than 240,000 registered users, it has been argued that Ecobici is the largest bicycle-sharing program in North America. The system is run by a private company, Clear Channel México, but funded by the government with an initial investment of 75 million pesos. Users of the system are required to purchase an RFID card at a cost of 400 pesos which will provide them with access to the bicycles for one year. Use of a bicycle is free for the first 45 minutes; extra charges are applied for use beyond this time limit.
In December 2014, the government of the State of Jalisco implemented a bicycle sharing system called MiBici with 86 stations and 860 bicycles. As of October 2016, it has 236 stations with 2 thousand bicycles. This system uses the technology and the hardware of PBSC.
In February 2016, the Municipality of Pachuca inaugurated a bicycle sharing system called Bici Capital with 6 stations and 140 bicycles.
From January 2017, the Puebla will have a system called Bici Puebla with 139 stations and 2,100 bicycles.
In the United States, public bicycle share programs have largely centered around major cities and universities. Some corporate campuses have private systems. According to a report by the National Association of City Transportation Officials, a total of 35 million bike-share trips took place within the United States in 2017 across 100 bike-share systems across the country, operated by eight companies. With Seattle leading the way on dockless bike sharing in the U.S. in summer 2017, but other cities soon joining the ranks, nine months later, about 44% of rides were dockless. As elsewhere, the bikes became controversial in various cities; Dallas reportedly had 20,000 bikes on the streets, they were essentially banned in New York City and San Francisco, with Austin, Texas issuing emergency rules for their implementation.
Bikes Belong (Dem/Rep Conventions), 2008
In 2007, Bikes Belong (now known as PeopleForBikes), an advocacy group financed by major bicycle manufacturers worked with city officials, local advocates, and the healthcare firm Humana to bring bikesharing to the Republican and Democratic 2008 conventions. Called "Freewheelin!" the program offered 1,000 bicycles at 12 stations throughout the downtowns of the host cities, Denver and Minneapolis/St. Paul, over the five days of each convention. Bikes Belong's stated goal was to provide a proof-of-concept that large-scale bicycle sharing that was exploding in European cities could work in U.S. cities and provide a valuable addition to the transportation mix. The program was popular among conventioneers, and helped the city of Denver to create a narrative around the "green" attributes of the convention. Both Denver and Minneapolis successfully pursued permanent bikesharing systems, with Denver B-cycle launching on 22 April 2010 as the first of its scale in the U.S., followed by Minneapolis' NiceRide system launching on 10 June 2010.
In 2017, CDPHP Cycle! launched in Albany and three other Capital region cities. The bikes can be locked to official docks or any other rack for a slightly higher fee. The system is operated by CDTA.
Alpharetta offers a bike share program operated by Zagster. Trips under 3 hours are free, and annual memberships are $20. Bikes can be rented from 4 stations throughout Alpharetta. Bikes can be taken anywhere, including Alpharetta's Big Creek Greenway – a 12 foot wide concrete path that stretches 8 scenic miles terminating in Big Creek park.
In June 2016, Relay Bike Share launched as the bike share system for the City of Atlanta. The program—operated by Cyclehop, LLC and Social Bicycles, LLC—launched with 100 bicycles at 10 stations throughout the downtown area. The program aims to offer 500 bicycles across the city by the end of 2016.
In December 2013, Austin B-cycle launched as the bike share system for the City of Austin with 11 stations. It is operated as a public-private partnership between the City of Austin and the non-profit Bike Share of Austin. The current system operates 46 bike share stations 24/7 in the downtown Austin area. Austin B-cycle set a national bike share record for the most checkouts per bicycle in a single day, 10.1 checkouts per bike, on 14 March 2015 during the SXSW festival.
In May 2014, over 40 bicycles were stolen from Baltimore Recreation and Parks department's bike-share program. The bikes were stolen during the city's Ride Around Reservoir program in Druid Hill Park. The bikes were set up to be lent out when a group of youths took them. The cost of replacing the stolen bikes is devastating to the program, which operates completely on donations.
Birmingham launched Zyp Bikeshare in October, 2015. Annual memberships are $75, with monthly passes for $20, 3-day passes for $12, and daily passes for $6. Zyp also offers discounted annual memberships to individuals who qualify. Zyp operates 400 bikes at 40 kiosks. Bikes can be ridden anywhere in the downtown Birmingham area. Once a bike is unlocked, riders have 45 minutes to ride before incurring additional fees if they have not docked at another station. As well as traditional bikes, Zyp was the first bikeshare in North America to have electric pedal-assist bikes to help riders cover distances or mount hills faster.
In 2007, Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino and Director of Bicycle Programs, Nicole Freedman, decided to bring bike sharing to the Boston area. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council, the regional planning agency for the metro-Boston region of 101 cities and towns, joined the effort. Brookline, Cambridge, and Somerville also participated.
On 28 July 2011, Boston launched its 60-station, 600-bike Hubway system, sponsored by the shoe manufacturer New Balance and funded in part by a $3 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. The contract to operate was awarded to Alta Bicycle Share and the equipment provider was PBSC Urban Solutions. Bicycle-sharing was greeted with a mix of excitement and skepticism. In its first two and a half months, Hubway recorded 100,000 station-to-station rides. After recording 140,000 trips in four months, Boston's European-style bicycle-sharing system expanded outside city limits, planting stations across Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline.
In spring of 2018 Motivate the operator of the system changed sponsors from Hubway to the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association and officially changed the name of the bike share program to Bluebikes Boston. As of December 2018, the system had deployed 262 stations with a fleet of over 2,500 bikes.
In May 2011, Boulder, Colorado launched a bicycle sharing system, Boulder B-Cycle, with 100 bicycles and 15 stations. This system, like many in northern latitude cities, closes down during winter months to help preserve the life of the equipment.
Broward County, FL
Broward B-Cycle launched in December 2011 as the country's first county-wide bike share program, with 200 bikes and 20 stations located in several cities within Broward County, including Fort Lauderdale. This system was funded through a public-private partnership with the Florida Department of Transportation providing a $311,000 grant through Broward County, and B-Cycle's sponsors providing the remainder of the initial capital and operating costs.
Reddy Bikeshare launched in 2016 with 200 bicycles at 35 stations around the city.
In August 2013, the College of Charleston's Office of Sustainability began a bike sharing program. This program's 16 bicycles are free to use for all full-time students, faculty, and staff members.
In July 2012, the Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System launched in Chattanooga, Tennessee with 300 bikes and 28 solar-powered stations by PBSC. It was the first large scale bicycle transit system in the Southeast. The system has expanded to 33 stations and had recorded over 78,000 trips by its second anniversary.
On 28 June 2013, Chicago launched Divvy, a bike share system with 750 bikes at 75 stations. As of December 2016, the system operates over 5800 bikes at 580 stations, using both PBSC's hardware and software.
In September 2014, Cincinnati Red Bike started operation. It opened with 35 docking stations in downtown, Over the Rhine, University of Cincinnati's main campus and surrounding areas. In 2015 Red Bike expanded to 50 stations with over 300 bikes and has a ridership of 100,000+ per year.
In September 2018, Columbia launched BlueBikeSC with BlueCross BlueShield SC being the chief sponsor. In March 2019, the regions transit authority, The Comet (transit) expanded the bike share system adding 10 stations to the system with a $250,000 grant from the federal transit authority. As of February 2020, the system has 18 stations and 135 bikes with roughly half of them being Pedelec bikes.
On 30 July 2013, CoGo Bike Share started in Columbus, Ohio. It opened with 300 bikes and 30 docking stations in downtown and surrounding areas, all provided by PBSC and operated by Motivate. In summer 2015, Zagster launched a 115 bicycle, 15 station system on the Ohio State University campus. The university decided not to integrate with the city's CoGo system.
The Ohio State University announced plans to integrate electric assist bicycles as part of its bicycle share program launching in 2015.
On 22 April 2010, Denver became the first U.S. city with a large-scale smart-technology enabled bicycle sharing system with the launch of Denver B-cycle. The system launched with 45 stations and 450 bicycles throughout downtown, downtown-adjacent neighborhoods, and on higher-education campuses. Denver B-cycle's roots came from the "Freewheelin" bikesharing program which operated for 6 days during the 2008 DNC convention in Denver. In Denver, several B-cycle rental stations are located at RTD Light Rail Platforms. The Denver B-cycle program varies in cost depending on use. Fees range from $8 per day to $80 per year.
Denver's B-cycle needed 7 1/2 months to reach 100,000 station-to-station rides.
Des Moines, IA
B-Cycle has partnered with the Des Moines Bicycle Collective, operating bike-sharing stations throughout the downtown core, East Village, Ingersoll, Sherman Hill, and Drake University neighborhoods. The system is in operation from 1 March - 30 November each year.
Mogo, a nonprofit affiliate of the Downtown Detroit Partnership launched MoGo Bike Share in the Greater Downtown area with 430 bicycles across 43 stations on 23 May 2017.
PeaceHealth Rides is administered by JUMP Bikes (formerly Social Bicycles, and now owned by Uber) and is a partnership of the City of Eugene, Lane Transit District, and the University of Oregon. The system launched in downtown Eugene, the Whiteaker neighborhood, and the area around the University of Oregon with 300 bicycles across 36 stations in April 2018. PeaceHealth, a not-for-profit Catholic health system with 10 hospitals in three states including one hospital in Eugene, is the sponsor.
In March 2015, bicycle advocacy nonprofit Great Rides Fargo launched Great Rides Bike Share, a system with 101 bicycles at 11 stations. The system was launched in partnership with North Dakota State University, where students are enrolled at no additional cost. It was the first system to include integrated card access for enrolled students.
Fort Wayne, IN
Fort Worth, TX
On 22 April 2013, Fort Worth Bike Sharing, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, launched a B-cycle system consisting of 300 bikes and 30 stations serving Downtown, Near Southside, and Cultural District in Fort Worth, Texas. Fort Worth B-cycle is included in a program called "B-connected" which allows members of over 15 participating B-cycle cities to use their annual memberships for free in other cities.
The City of Greenville and nearby Farmville, NC launched the Bikeshare system LimeBike in early 2018. The service serves the citizens of Greenville and Farmville along with the students of East Carolina University.
The City and County of Honolulu passed Bikeshare Resolution 14–35 on 14 March 2014. Bikeshare Hawaii, a local non-profit, operates as "Biki", chose PBSC as the system provider in 2016. The initial service provided about 100 stations and 1000 bicycles and started in June 2017. During the first partial year NACTO ranked Biki as the 8th most ridden bike share service in the US. Biki reached 1 million rides after about 16 months of service. A 30% service expansion was undertaken in December 2018. The current service area extends from Iwilei to Waikiki / Diamond Head and mauka of H-I highway with about 1300 pedal bikes and over 130 stations. Biki had its first >100,000 ride month in October 2018 and had over 1 million rides during 2018. NACTO ranked Biki as the 6th most ridden bike share service in the US for 2018. Biki chose PBSCs FIT model bicycle for its accessibility (lower weight and lower center of gravity) and as such has a much higher ratio of women riders (44%) than most US systems. Additionally, there is currently an independent small pilot program in Kailua (Hawai`i County) with 3 stations also utilizing PBSC equipment. This program received an additional small expansion grant in 2018.
In May 2014, Indianapolis launched the bike share program called Indiana Pacers Bikeshare with 25 stations and 250 bikes. On 5 September 2019, the program expanded to include 21 more stations and 275 more bikes, bringing the program total to 525 bicycles and 50 stations.
Jersey City, NJ
On 21 September 2015, the Citi Bike system that started in New York City in 2013 expanded across the Hudson River to Jersey City, New Jersey with 35 stations and 350 bikes. Even though Citi Bike Jersey City is independent of Citi Bike New York, one membership works for both systems. The system experienced its first wave of expansion in July 2016 with 15 new stations and 150 additional bikes. The system currently boasts 50 stations with 500 bicycles throughout Jersey City.
Kansas City, MO
In 2012, Kansas City, Missouri launched Kansas City B-cycle in partnership with Blue Cross Blue Shield. The system currently has 30 stations and over 200 bicycles reaching downtown, Union Hill, Westport, Plaza and as of Summer 2015, Brookside Trolley Trail. North Kansas City will be adding 3 more stations in spring 2017 as well as several more coming to Midtown KCMO.
Los Angeles, CA
On 7 July 2016, Los Angeles County launched Metro Bike Share, a 1,400-bike system with equipment by B-Cycle, operated by Bicycle Transit Systems. It was the first North American system to be both branded as part of the public transit agency and accessible using the regional TAP card, though at the time of launch users were required to maintain separate accounts for each transit mode and pay separate fares.
On 20 April 2018, BikeLNK was launched and as of 2019, is made up of 105 bicycles and 20 stations. The program has recorded over 70,000 trips in 18 months of usage.
In 1996, Madison, Wisconsin, instituted its Red Bikes Project, a public bike sharing program. These red-painted bicycles were available for the use of the general public, primarily in the student areas of State Street between the University of Wisconsin campus and the Wisconsin State Capitol. Initially, the only rule regarding the use of a Red Bikes Project bicycle was that it was required to remain outside and unlocked, and thus available for any passerby. After a surge in bicycle thefts and vandalism, the program was modified to require a valid credit card and $80 in security deposits for both the bicycle and the now-mandatory bicycle lock. The program is now only available seasonally, from spring (when all snow has melted) to 30 November.
In 2015, the Green Apple Bikes bike-share system started in Manhattan, Kansas that makes single-speed cruisers available free for 4-hour periods. The program is funded by a consortium of businesses, and bicycles are maintained by volunteers.
On 23 May 2018, Explore Bike Share launched in Memphis, TN, and West Memphis, AR. The system was launched with 60 stations and 600 bicycles serving portions of West Memphis, Downtown Memphis, Uptown Memphis, Midtown Memphis, South Memphis, and Orange Mound, with a plan to add another 30 stations and 300 bicycles in 2019. The system uses B-Cycle equipment.
Miami & Miami Beach, FL
In March 2011, DecoBike launched in Miami Beach, Florida. The initial rollout of the program included "approximately 100 solar-powered stations and 1,000 custom-designed bikes available to residents and visitors." This public bicycle sharing and rental program is owned and operated by DecoBike, LLC, a Miami-based company, and operates under a long-term agreement with the City of Miami Beach. The service is available to both residents and visitors: any adult with a major credit card can check out a bike to pedal to their next location. An iPhone app and an interactive map on the DecoBike website allows one to locate the nearest "station" and displays the number of bikes available and the number of free docking spaces in real-time.
In August 2014, the City of Milwaukee in partnership with a local non-profit organization, Midwest Bike Share, launched Bublr Bikes with 10 stations in downtown Milwaukee. The system grew to 17 stations by Fall 2015, and now there are 50 stations in the City of Milwaukee plus another 7 stations in the adjacent suburb of Wauwatosa(as of December 2016). Planning for additional stations within the City of Milwaukee is underway. Additionally, the adjacent communities of Shorewood and West Allis are expected to add around 7 stations each to the system in 2017. In May 2019 a project to add an additional 26 stations to the existing 87 was announced, with plans to have the additional stations online by summer 2020.
In June 2010, Minneapolis initiated operation of Nice Ride, one of the first examples of a large-scale municipal bike sharing program in the United States. Phase 1 included 700 bikes and 65 stations throughout Minneapolis Due to popularity, the system was aggressively expanded into neighboring Saint Paul in 2011. As of 29 April 2012, Nice Ride had recorded a total of 330,000 trips, and a systemwide total of 1,330 bikes at 146 stations. The system is provided by PBSC. Minneapolis, Nice Ride needed six months to reach 100,000 station-to-station rides.
New Paltz, NY
New York City, NY
On Memorial Day, 27 May 2013, New York City started its privately funded Citi Bike program. It was the nation's largest when it began operation, but Washington, D.C.'s system has grown faster. It began with 6,000 bikes at 330 docking stations in Manhattan and parts of Brooklyn. According to the city vision OneNYC the city wants to expand it to 12,000 bikes and 750 docking stations in Manhattan, all of Brooklyn and Queens . By 29 May, in its third day of operation, the program had 21,300 individuals signed on as annual members. As of June 2013[update] Citi Bike is the largest bike sharing program in the United States. In August 2015, Citi Bike once again became the largest system in the United States with 400 stations. Jump Bikes, a dockless electric bicycle sharing system launched in the city during September 2017.
Oklahoma City, OK
On 18 May 2012, the City of Oklahoma City launched its bike share program known as Spokies. On 1 August 2014, Spokies became part of EMBARK, Oklahoma City's transit agency. The system has eight docking stations and 145 bikes throughout downtown Oklahoma City. The Spokies program began with an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block grant administered by the City of Oklahoma City’s Office of Sustainability. This grant was designed to promote energy efficiency, including alternative methods of transportation. Spokies has been part of EMBARK since August 1, 2014. On August 18, 2016, Spokies joined the Bcycle Bike Share System, becoming part of a country-wide network with over 15,000 bikes. In June 2019, Spokies launched the Spokies DASH with the assistance of a Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality grant supported by ACOG, Downtown OKC, Colony Partners, and Uptown 23rd.
On 23 April 2015 the City of Philadelphia launched its privately funded Indego bike share program with 60 docking stations and 600 bikes, located in Center City, South Philadelphia, Northern Liberties, and University City. It used equipment by B-Cycle and was operated by Bicycle Transit Systems with a naming sponsorship from locally based health insurer Independence.
On 25 November 2014, Phoenix launched Grid Bike Share with 100 bikes at 27 stations. It has since expanded to nearly 500 bikes at 48 stations, and has plans to add another 200 bikes and 20 stations. Mesa, AZ, joined the system in March 2016, with 100 bikes at 14 stations, with plans to add another 200 bikes and 10–14 stations. Tempe, AZ, intends to join the three-city system in early 2017 with 300 bikes at 31 stations.
On 31 May 2015 Pittsburgh, during an Open Streets day, launched its Healthy Ride bike share program. The system launched with 50 docking stations and 500 bikes located in Downtown Pittsburgh, South Side Flats, North Shore, Strip District, Lawrenceville, Oakland, Bloomfield, and Shadyside.
One of the first community bicycle projects in the United States was started in Portland, Oregon in 1994 by civic and environmental activists Tom O'Keefe, Joe Keating and Steve Gunther. It took the approach of simply releasing a number of bicycles to the streets for unrestricted use. While Portland's Yellow Bike Project was successful in terms of publicity, it proved unsustainable due to theft and vandalism of the bicycles. The Yellow Bike Project was eventually terminated, and replaced with the Create A Commuter (CAC) program, which provides free secondhand bicycles to certain preselected low-income and disadvantaged people who need a bicycle to get to work or attend job training courses,
On 19 July 2016 Portland launched Biketown, a system with 1,000 GPS-enabled smart bikes sold by Social Bicycles and operated by Motivate with a $10 million, five-year naming sponsorship by Nike. It was the continent's largest smart-bike system at the time of launch. The 100 stations covered 8.1 square miles but were concentrated most densely in downtown Portland and the Pearl and Northwest Districts. Funding came entirely from a $2 million allocation of federal dollars approved by the Metro regional government, from Nike, and from ongoing user fees and smaller sponsorships.
In 2011, the city of Salem, Massachusetts launched a bike share program called Salem Spins offering use of bicycles free of charge, for use around the city. The seasonal program was financed in part with a $25,000 grant for a fleet of 20 bicycles. The program is offered from April to October.
Salt Lake City, UT
On 8 April 2013, Salt Lake City launched GREENbike as the region's Bike Share brand. The program launched in downtown Salt Lake City with 10 stations and added two new stations less than four months later. The program will be expanding to 20 stations by 2014 with the goal of 100 stations in downtown Salt Lake City. Satellite GREENbike systems in cities such as Ogden are in the works and will be connected by the state transit authority's Frontrunner light rail train.
San Diego, CA
Though the City of San Diego signed a 10-year contract with Discover (formerly DECO) Bike in 2013, a docked bike-share, in January 2018 the city attorney Mara Elliot opined that the city's contract did not preclude other companies from operating within city limits, as long as there were "no city support or participation, other than legally required reviews and approvals." Ofo and LimeBike began operating on 15 February 2018. As of March 2018, Ofo, LimeBike, and Mobike offered dockless bike rentals within the city. LimeBike and Bird offer electric scooters, and LimeBike offered electric pedal-assist bikes as well. However, there have been some concerns in high-pedestrian corridors.
Due to breach of contract (according to the city of San Diego), the City of San Diego withdrew the operations permit for the Discover Bike in March 2019 and thus ended docked bike share service in the city.
San Francisco / Bay Area, CA
In August 2013 the Bay Area Bike Share system began operating in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. The system allocated half of its 700 bicycle fleet in San Francisco, and the rest along the Caltrain corridor in Redwood City, Palo Alto, Mountain View and San Jose. In 2015, it was announced that the scheme would expand to 7,000 bikes, over 2016-2017, and would include the East Bay Area communities of Berkeley, Emeryville, and Oakland.
On 13 October 2014, Pronto Cycle Share launched with 500 bicycles and 50 stations. Pronto uses Motivate of New York City as the operator. In January 2017, Seattle's mayor announced the system would be permanently shut down at the end of March 2017 due to funding shortfalls. Dockless systems by LimeBike and Spin were introduced in July 2017 as their first large-city systems in the US.
Stony Brook, NY
In April 2013, Stony Brook University launched the Wolf Ride Bike Share system with 4 stations and 48 bicycles. As of November 2015, the system consists of 12 stations and 78 bicycles using software and hardware provided by PBSC.
In 1996, a pilot bicycle share project known as the Orange Bike Project was organised in Tucson, Arizona by Bootstraps to Share, a homeless advocacy organisation inspired by the Bikes Not Bombs movement. Using funds from a taxpayer-funded government grant to obtain, recondition, and maintain 30 bicycles, project organisers announced plans to station the bicycles in downtown Tucson and areas adjacent to the University of Arizona. The publicly shared bicycles, painted bright orange by Earl Scheib to identify them, were primarily intended for use by the homeless or those without means of affordable transportation. The initial 30 bicycles placed into service for the Orange Bike Project were all stolen within a few weeks. A total of 80 bicycles were eventually used in the Orange Bike Project, all of which were either stolen or vandalised beyond repair. In one case, an Orange Bike Project bicycle was thrown in front of a freight train, in others, bikes were found with major frame damage consistent with deliberate vandalism. The program was terminated after only five months of operation.
The Tulsa Townies bicycle project was launched in August 2007 by Saint Francis Health System to promote an active and healthy lifestyle in the community. This project is the first bicycle program of its kind in northeastern Oklahoma. The bicycle rental stations are located at the Tulsa River Parks trail along Riverside Drive at 19th and 41st streets and in Jenks at the 96th street Arkansas River pedestrian bridge.
Washington, D.C. & Northern Virginia
In Washington, D.C., a privately operated bike-sharing project known as SmartBike DC opened for service in 2008 for the District of Columbia with 10 stations and 120 bikes. Operated by an advertising firm, Clear Channel Outdoor, the system was funded by advertising revenues from bus shelters on public streets, along with revenues from user membership and usage fees. The program suffered from perennially low membership and rider usage rates, as well as a limited number of bike rental stations. It was officially terminated in January 2011.
On 20 September 2010, Arlington County, Virginia and the District of Columbia launched the U.S.'s first public-private partnership bikeshare system, Capital Bikeshare (CaBi) which replaced SmartBike DC. Unlike SmartBike, CaBi is a public taxpayer-supported (local government and federal funds) bicycle sharing program. The initial scheme involved some 1,100 bicycles at 100 stations located throughout the District of Columbia and parts of Arlington County, Virginia. The cost of planning, implementation and administration for Capital Bikeshare totaled US$5.0 million, with first-year operating costs of US$2.3 million for 100 stations. CaBi was operated by Alta Bicycle Share (now Motivate International) with equipment from Montreal-based PBSC Urban Solutions. For a time, Capital Bike Share was the largest bike sharing system in the United States until May 2013. The system expanded into Alexandria, Virginia in 2012, and Montgomery County, Maryland in 2013. Thus Capital Bike Share expanded to become the largest bike sharing system in the United States again with 344 stations again, before losing that title again in 2015.
In June 2017, the city of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin partnered with Zagster to incorporate an adaptive bike-share station into their existing Bublr network. It is thought to be the first adaptive bike-share station in Wisconsin, and the dual partnership is thought to be the first of its kind in the United States.(ride share programs existed in Madison Wisconsin for free)
In California, many cities have launched or have stated plans to launch their own bike-sharing programs, including the cities of Anaheim (currently 10 bikes at 1 station, with plans for 100 bikes at 10 stations), Los Angeles (plans for 4000 bikes at 400 stations), Santa Monica (plans for 250 bikes at 25 locations), and San Diego The San Francisco Bay Area's Bay Area Air Quality Management District, in partnership with Alta Bike Share, city governments, and transportation authorities, have announced plans for a pilot regional sharing program in 2013 for the San Francisco Peninsula and San Jose.
In the Fall of 2009, the University of California, Irvine introduced its Zotwheels automated bike share program. Students and university employees may sign up for a Zotwheels membership card at an annual cost of $40, which enables the user to check out a bike from any bike station located throughout campus for a maximum of three hours and drop it off at any other station. A$200 charge is imposed for a lost, stolen, or severely damaged bike. Bicycle availability and station operational status may be determined using an interactive map. Revenues from membership fees are sufficient to offset only a small fraction of the total operating costs of the program; all remaining manufacture, installation, maintenance, and implementation costs of the Zotwheels systems and the bicycles themselves are borne by UCI. Zotwheels was developed as a collaboration between the UCI Parking and Transportation Services, The Collegiate Bicycle Company, CSL Ltd, and Miles Data Technologies.
ofo offers a partnership program with universities to provide sustainable campus transportation. On 21 February 2018, ofo and Pomona College in Claremont, California launched the first college pilot program in California. The collaboration will benefit not only the Pomona College community, but also the other Claremont Colleges in the Claremont Consortium.
On 2 December 2015 Rosario launched Mi bici tu bici and has 200 bicycles available at 18 rental stations in the downtown.
On November 2016 San Lorenzo launched Biciudad, a free-to-use Bike Sharing System of the city of San Lorenzo. This is a system of Free Public Transport launched by the San Lorenzo Government to achieve the reduction of the use of motor vehicles and enhance other means of non-motorized transport such as walking, or the bike itself.
The Biciudad Bike Sharing System is expanding along with the construction of a circuit of exclusive lanes for bicycles across the city.
Bike Itaú is a public bicycle sharing system in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is run by PBSC Urban Solutions and started on 20 February 2018, and is sponsored by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú. The system replaces the old one operated by Serttel, a private concessionaire, that began operations in October 2011.
A similar scheme was implemented in the city of São Paulo on 24 May 2012, called Bike Sampa. It is free up to the first hour of use, after which users are charged R$5 every 30 minutes. There are about 140,000 registered users and, as of 6 May 2013, there had been 220,000 bicycle trips in the city. Serttel is also the concessionaire for this scheme, and the website of Bike Sampa is hosted by Mobilicidade. Other cities with similar bike sharing systems are operated by Serttel (www.serttel.com.br): Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Porto Alegre, Santos, Recife, Belém, Manaus, Fortaleza, Vitória and Aracaju. Fortaleza deserves a highlight because its bike sharing system, named Bicicletar, has the highest relative use in Brazil. With 800 bikes and 80 stations the system register 6,4 trips per bike in workdays.
The commune of Providencia, part of the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, implemented a public bike-share system in Latin America, named B'easy and starting services in August 2008 with a monthly membership of 1000 Chilean Pesos (US$2) and 4 stations.
Santiago Metropolitan Area
Bikesantiago started its services in October 2013 in the metropolitan commune of Vitacura with 30 stations, 300 bicycles and a monthly membership of 4990 Chilean pesos (US$8). By November 2015, it had 25000 subscribers, 132 stations and 1882 bicycles on the communes of Lo Barnechea, Vitacura, Providencia (Replacing the original B'easy system), Santiago, Ñuñoa, Recoleta and Independencia and has contracts for a programmed expansion in a total of 14 communes, 200 stations and 2100 bikes in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago.
Bici Las Condes is the communal bike-share system of Las Condes, part of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago. It started services in March 2015 with a total of 50 stations and 500 bikes and has a planned expansion to a total of 100 stations and 1000 bikes. The decision of the Las Condes municipal council of not joining the Metropolitan area tender for an bike-sharing metropolitan interconected system was very controversial.
The EnCicla Bike Share System in Medellín is operated by the metropolitan area of Aburrá Valley. EnCicla is integrated with the city's existing infrastructure of cycle routes, mass transit and public transport systems.
In August 2012 the Municipality of Quito government established a municipal bicycle sharing system called Bici Q. The Municipality of Cuenca implemented a public bicycle sharing system in 2013. Bici Q is completely free and is available for anyone to users with membership cards, which can be obtained online or in person.
Initially, a number of traditional (third generation) docked public bike systems operated by local municipal governments opened across China, with the largest ones being in Wuhan and Hangzhou. The first was introduced in Beijing in 2007. However, third generation bike sharing is not considered successful for the majority cities in China. Bike sharing in Beijing virtually stopped and it also has encountered difficulties in Shanghai and Wuhan.
In 2014, students from Peking University created a company called ofo and initialize the fourth generation bike sharing system in their campus. In 2017, a number of private competing app-based dockless bike-sharing programs have started to appear in numerous cities across China. The two largest dockless operators are Mobike and Ofo, others include Bluegogo and Xiaoming. Many Chinese cities have experienced massive growth in the number and use these dockless bikeshare programs, clogging sidewalks around major commercial hubs and subway stations with parked bikes. Given the speed of growth with these services, local governments did not have any regulations or planning to accommodate these systems. However the Chinese government encourages the development of dockless bikes to reduce urban pollution. Early studies in Beijing and Shanghai have linked the massive increase of dockless bike shares to the decrease in the number of private automobile trips that are less than five kilometres. In Guangzhou, the arrival of dockless bike shares had a positive impact in the growth of cycling modeshare.
A municipal scheme in Beijing launched in 2012 with the stationing of 2,000 bikes in Chaoyang district. The scheme is scheduled to consist of 20,000 rental bikes and 500 kiosks, according to the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform. The main operating area will be in business districts and near subway stations and major public venues. By 2015, authorities intend to have 50,000 bikes available, similar to the Hangzhou scheme that is their model. This follows the failure of a scheme launched in 2005–2006 (ahead of Velib) and in the light of a 2011 announcement by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport that it expects to raise the bike share of urban commuter journeys from 20 to 23 per cent by 2015.
In March 2017, Beijing saw over 200,000 dockless shared bikes from various companies entered service. Near the end of 2017 it has grown to 2.35 million for-hire bikes from 15 companies. The bikes are accessible via an app, and cost 1 RMB per hour plus a refundable damage deposit of 299 RMB. This is on top of the existing municipal run dock based bike network with 86,000 bikes. The Beijing municipal government has pledged to improve management and parking availability in response to the rapidly growing fleets of dockless bikes shares. Beijing cycling mode share increased from 5.5% to 11.6% after the arrival of these dockless bike systems.
In preparation for the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China, Shanghai launched a limited bike share programme which are accessible by RFID cards. Users could purchase 100-ride credits for about $30. Short rides are rewarded credits and longer rides subtract credits once the bikes have been re-docked. Shanghai planned to expand to 3,500 Bicycle Hot Spots throughout the entire city by 2010. Two years after the World Expo, Shanghai's bicycle sharing programme has been mostly limited to the Minhang District.
The Shanghai Bike Authority estimated that there are 280,000 shared bikes in Shanghai by March 2017, with a projected increase of 220,000 bikes by June. In March 2017, the government in Shanghai is requesting a temporary ban on the introduction of new private "dockless" shared bikes. Shanghai has prepared new regulations that will restrict rider ages to between 12 and 70 and bikes in service for more than three years in a row must be permanently removed. Mobike alone operates 100,000 bikes in Shanghai and has claimed to have made Shanghai into the city with the world's largest bike share network.
Starting from around the beginning of 2017, Haikou, the capital of Hainan province, experienced a massive increase in the number of dockless bikes by Ofo, Mobike, and Quick To which and cost 2 RMB per hour. The fourth is the Haikou Public Bike System which is a traditional municipal run docked system.
Wenzhou has multiple bike share programs serving different districts of the city. The first one opened in 2012 serving Lucheng District with about 5,000 bikes and 180 stations. Next year, a bike share with 2,200 bikes and 66 stations opened in Longwan District. At the same time, a separate bike share program with 1,040 bikes and 32 stations opened in Ouhai District. The latter of the two is being expanded to 3,250 bikes and 109 stations. According to local government records, more than 20,000 dockless bikes from various private bike share companies have entered service in Wenzhou recently.
The Guangzhou BRT has a bike share program integrated around its BRT stations. According to the local government, in 2017, Guangzhou has a fleet of over 700,000 bikes in various public and private bike share programs. On average 4 million trips each day were made using share bikes. The local government is reviewing traffic management strategies and road design standards to accommodate the increase in cycling traffic.
In 2014, Guilin City opened docked bike share with 3,000 bikes spread out over 100 stations.
The Hangzhou Public Bicycle bike-sharing system has 60,600 bikes and started in 2008. Bike-sharing stations can be found in Hangzhou every 100 metres. The first hour of use is free, followed by 1 yuan ($0.15) for the first hour, 2 yuan the second hour, and 3 yuan each subsequent hour. In 2013 USA Today called the Hangzhou bike-sharing system the 'best in the world'. From a March 2010 survey of Hangzhou Public Bicycle members and non-members it was found that 30% of Hangzhou Bike-Sharing users incorporated bicycle sharing into their most common commute. Furthermore, the bicycle sharing system captured modal share from bus transit, walking, autos and taxis. Another key finding in this study suggests that car ownership may not reduce the likelihood of bikesharing use. In fact, members of the Hangzhou system exhibited a higher rate of auto ownership in comparison to non-members. Before the arrival of private dockless systems, Hangzhou was the largest bike share system in the world until it was overtaken by Wuhan. In 2011, the system had 2,050 bike-share stations with a fleet of over 50,000 bikes and serving 240,000 trips per day. By 2015, it was expanded to over 84,000 bikes and 3,354 stations.
Since December 2013, Nanning has a bicycle sharing system with 1000 bicycles and 50 stations. The first hour of usage is free, after it costs 2RMB/h. By 2014, it was expanded to about 25,000 bikes and 896 stations.
A municipal docked bike share program, operated by Taiwan-based YouBike, opened in 2016 with over 200 stations and a fleet of 6,000 bikes. In 2017, it is being expanded to 410 stations with over 18,000 bikes.
A municipal docked bike share program opened in 2015 with 5,000 bikes and over 700 stations. In 2017, the system was expected to consist of 2,500 bike stations as far south as Chenggong District and approximately 45,000 bicycles. Kunming expects to expand its bicycle-sharing system to 6,500 stations by 2019. Bicycles are free for the first hour, 0.5 yuan for each additional half hour and 15 yuan for an entire day.
Meanwhile, plans have been announced by Cleantech Solutions to enable users to rent bikes from multiple providers, by providing an app with a centralised list of available bicycles across all providers.
The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) launched the first software based ‘Public Bicycle Sharing scheme (PBS)’ through which commuters can rent cycles from a residential area and travel to the nearest Metro station and then rent a cycle from a departing Metro station to the nearby localities.
Two days prior to the 2018 Men's Hockey World Cup, a Public Bicycle Sharing (PBS) system was launched in Bhubaneshwar. The bikes included Hexi bikes, Yana and Yulu, and comprised 2000 bikes overall.
A lot of IT companies in Pune have been taking the initiative of promoting cycling to work. A lot of bicycle sharing systems started in Pune itself. One bicycle renting system was initiated by PedalSaddle in Pune providing cycles for rent for cheaper than public transportation. Pune has India's first and biggest bicycle mall ever with a total investment of Rs 5 crore. In January 2018, one of China's leading bicycle-sharing companies, Ofo, launched its dockless bicycle-sharing services in Pune. In 2017, ENPRO Industries, Pune took the initiative of promoting cycling to work.
Bandung municipal government operates 30 stations with 270 bikes, called Boseh Bikesharing.
Gowes, which means "to paddle," in Indonesian, started operation in limited areas of Jakarta in 2018.
According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as of 2012 there were a number of city-level pilot schemes in operation in Japan, the largest of which was Edogawa City in Tokyo with 500 cycles available for hire. Toyama also has a bicycle sharing system, that takes the region's public transit IC card Passca.
LinkBike in George Town, Penang commenced operations in December 2016 with 60 bicycles, making it the first city in Malaysia to introduce a public bicycle-sharing system. This service has since been expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations throughout George Town, covering destinations between Gurney Drive to the north and Queensbay Mall to the south.
In March 2017, the Kota Kinabalu City Hall began to implement its bicycle sharing service with 20 bicycles made available for the first stage. Those who want to use the service need to have the City Hall 'touch and go' card with RM200 (U$45) as deposit to use the bicycle for 24 hours with the money refunded when the bicycle is returned. Its stations are available in major hotels in the city as well as in Tanjung Lipat and in front of the Grace Court apartment in Sembulan with another 150 bicycles available in stores.
The Subang Jaya LRT/KTM station has been selected as the first pioneer for bicycle sharing system brought by Singaporean company into Malaysia. oBike rider will be charged RM1.00 per 15 minutes usage.
Following trials, a bike-sharing system named Ddareungi was introduced in Seoul in October 2015 in select areas of the right bank of the Han River. After a few months, the number of stations reached 150 and 1500 bikes were made available. In 2016, the number of stations has increased steadily to cover new districts. As of July 2016, there were about 300 stations and 3000 bikes available, and Seoul mayor Park Won-soon has confirmed his intention to increase the number of bikes available to 20,000.
A bike-sharing system named Tashu was introduced in Daejeon from November 2007. On 12 November 2017, Daejeon City hosted a festival for the purpose of revitalizing public bicycles at the EXPO Citizen Plaza.
Launched in Taipei City in 2009 and expanded through cooperation between the Taipei City Government and Taiwanese bike manufacturer Giant, YouBike is the largest bicycle-sharing service in the country; the system saw 22 million rentals in 2014, double the 11 million rentals in the previous year.
Singaporean dockless bicycle-sharing platform oBike launched in Taiwan in April 2017 under the management of Taiwan's Aozhi Network Technology Co., Ltd. The parking of the bikes in public areas such as sidewalks and motorcycle parking spaces caused controversy. As of 20 June 2017, oBike was present in the cities of Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Hsinchu, Tainan and Kaohsiung as well as the counties of Nantou, Yilan, Hualien and Taitung.
Public bike sharing services in Turkey use Baksi system. In Istanbul, the system called İsbike started in 2012 with 10 stations and 100 bikes along the Marmara coast on the Asian side of the city.
United Arab Emirates
ADCB Bikeshare is the first and only bike sharing scheme in the United Arab Emirates. The scheme operates in the nation's capital city of Abu Dhabi, and is sponsored by Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank. ADCB Bikeshare launched December 2015. Run by Cyacle, the programme operates on Yas Island and Al Raha Beach, where there are 11 stations with 75 bicycles available for hire. In the first eight months of operation, 5,641 people became members of the scheme and rode 78,689 kilometres (48,895 miles) on 8,536 trips.
A number of Australian cities have had docking shared bike systems since 2010. In 2017 dockless bike sharing commenced in all the capital cities. The dockless systems experienced a higher degree of vandalism, including bikes dumped in rivers, than has been seen in other countries. The dockless services all provided helmets with the bikes.
Melbourne Bike Share (MBS), the first municipal bicycle share system in Australia, was launched in Melbourne in June 2010. It started with 10 stations. Usage has been lower than expected and has required ongoing public subsidy. Take-up has been affected by the location of docking stations and the legal requirement for riders wear helmets, which are not provided with the bikes. Ridership doubled when $5 helmets were offered for sale from vending machines. Currently the MBS uses 500 cycles at about 50 stations around Melbourne's central business district.
Newcastle's central business district launched an e-bike share scheme on 21 May 2018, including 19 docking stations with 100 electric bikes. The bike scheme was launched as a partnership between the operator BYKKO, and Transport for NSW. An initial pilot program funded with $2000AUD of council grant money was conducted, though evidence of the evaluation does not appear to be posted publicly. After speaking with the local newspaper, BYKKO said the aim of the project is to complement the existing public transport system.
The Brisbane CityCycle, operated by JCDecaux, started on 1 September 2010 and has grown to include 2000 bikes in 150 stations. Its operation has depended on public subsidy. Initially, helmets were not provided with the bikes, but this was later changed. After only achieving 80,000 trips in its first twelve months, this increased to 522,388 in the 2016-17 financial year.
In 2017 dockless systems were launched in a number of Australian cities.
- oBike has placed 1,000 bikes since July 2017.
- Reddy Go started with 1,500 bikes, also in July 2017, and has expanded to over 2,000 bikes. The company quit Sydney in July 2018, citing "red tape".
- Ofo launched with 600 bikes in October 2017. In July 2018 Ofo announced it was leaving Australia.
- Mobike distributed up to 500 bikes in November 2017.
- oBike placed 1,250 bikes in Melbourne since July 2017. There has been notable vandalism of the bikes in the first few months, including being dumping in the Yarra River.
- Urbi bike-share began a 12-month trial operating within the City of Joondalup in September 2017.
Subscriptions for CityCycle, a Vélib-style community bike hire scheme by JCDecaux for Brisbane started on 1 September 2010 and has grown to include 2000 bikes in 150 stations from the University of Queensland to Tenerife. Its operation has depended on public subsidy. Initially helmets were not provided with the bikes but this was later changed. After only achieving 80,000 trips in its first twelve months, by 2016-17 this had increase to 522,388.
The bikes were linked to the public transport go card – a single card covering all buses, trains, ferries and the Gold Coast light rail system. In 2017 it was announced new bank card facilities would be added to the stations.
- Gold Coast
Mobike started with 200 bikes around Surfers Paradise and Broadbeach in February 2018 with the number expected to grow to 2,000 by the time of the Commonwealth Games in April. Mobike has been granted exclusive rights to operate bike sharing by the local council and will partner with Transit Australia Group and Good Cycles.
In both Auckland and Christchurch, Nextbike provide some limited cycle sharing facilities; plans are in hand to expand these. The New Zealand Transport Agency is working with Auckland Transport and the Christchurch City Council respectively to investigate cycle sharing schemes for each city, and independently a private consortium proposes to have a scheme in place in Auckland during 2017.
- Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – NammaCycle
- Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi -Desi Wheels
- Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay – Zoomcar PEDL
Several cycle hire schemes in UK towns and cities overlap their university areas, e.g. the one at Stirling. Others, e.g. Leeds, offer longer-term cycle hire. Kingston University are reported to have a scheme called KU Bikes due to begin in early 2018, while Derby anticipates that Hourbike will run a scheme in Derby operating electric bikes, around the same time.
- Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee – Belmont Bikes
- California State University, East Bay, Hayward, California – Zagster
- College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina – Bike Share
- Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa – Purple Bikes
- Cornell University, Ithaca, New York – Big Red Bikes
- Duke University, Durham, North Carolina – Zagster
- Emory University, Druid Hills, Georgia – Bike Emory
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