List of bids for the Summer Olympics

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The Summer Olympics are the world's largest multi-sport event, and are organized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) every four years. Selection of the host city is done at an IOC Session four to seven years prior to the tournament, in which the IOC members vote between candidate cities which have submitted bids. As of the selection of the 2016 Olympics, 28 games have been held in 22 cities in 19 countries. Bids have been made by 64 cities in 34 countries.

The bid process consists of two rounds. First, cities and national Olympic committees (NOCs) may show their interest and submit a preliminary bid, becoming applicant cities. Through analysis of the questionnaires, the IOC gave a weighted-average score to each city based on the scores obtained in each of the questionnaire's eleven themes: political and social support, general infrastructure, sports venues, Olympic Village, environment, accommodation, transport, security, past experience, finance, and legacy. IOC's Executive Committee then selects a short-list of candidate cities. The candidate cities are investigated by the IOC Evaluation Committee, who make an evaluation report. These submit a more extensive bid book and are subject to additional evaluation, which is presented to the IOC members. Voting occurs as an exhaustive ballot, which may occur through multiple rounds until a single city holds a majority of the votes. IOC members from a candidate NOC may not vote in any round while their country remains in the election.

The first three games were not subject to bids; the first IOC Session, in 1894, awarded the first games to Athens (1896) and Paris (1900), respectively. The 1904 Olympics were initially awarded to Chicago, but then moved to St. Louis to be co-located with the World Fair. A system with bids was introduced ahead of the 1908 Olympics, and were awarded to Rome. After the 1906 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy returned the games to IOC, which awarded them to London. The 1916 Olympics were awarded to Berlin, but canceled due to the First World War. The 1940 Olympics were originally awarded to Tokyo, but after the 1938 break-out of the Second Sino-Japanese War, they were returned to the IOC, who awarded them to Helsinki. The games, and the 1944 Olympics awarded to London, were ultimately canceled due to the Second World War. The 1956 Olympics were awarded to Melbourne, but Australian horse quarantine rules forced the equestrian events to be held in Stockholm. Three times there have been only a single bid, Stockholm in 1912, and Los Angeles in 1932 and 1984. Starting with the 2004 Olympics, only the highest-rated cities are short-listed for the final IOC vote.[1]

Paris and Los Angeles - who will host the games in 2024 and 2028 respectively - will join London as the only cities to host three Olympic Games. London, Antwerp, Munich and Sydney are the only cities to never have failed at winning a bid. St. Louis is the only city to have hosted the games without submitting a bid. Helsinki, Minneapolis, Montreal and Munich have bid for both Summer and Winter Olympics; all but Minneapolis have succeeded at winning Summer bids, but none have held Winter Olympics. Detroit is the most unsuccessful city, having failed seven times. Los Angeles has made the most bids, succeeding three times and failing six times. Amsterdam, Budapest and Lausanne have all failed five times. The United States has made the most bids, having bid for 19 games, including all games from 1944 through 1984.[1]

By year[edit]

The following is a list of bids for the Summer Olympics, sorted by year. It consists of the year the games were held or scheduled to be held, the date the decision was made, the city and country which issued the bid, the votes at the IOC Session for each voting round, and the ultimate host of the games. The bid listed first for each games is the one selected by the IOC, whether or not it ultimately hosted the games.[1]

Year Session Bid(s) Vote Host
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Round 5
1896 Kingdom of Greece Athens
1900 France Paris
1904 Chicago  United States United States St. Louis
1908 Rome Kingdom of Italy Italy United Kingdom London
London  Great Britain
Milan Kingdom of Italy Italy
Berlin German Empire German Empire
1912 Stockholm  Sweden Sweden Stockholm
1916 Berlin  German Empire German Empire Berlin (cancelled)
Alexandria  Egypt
Amsterdam  Netherlands
Brussels  Belgium
Budapest Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary
Cleveland  United States
1920 Antwerp  Belgium Belgium Antwerp
Amsterdam  Netherlands
Lyon  France
Atlanta  United States
Budapest  Hungary
Cleveland  United States
Havana  Cuba
Lyon  France
Philadelphia  United States
1924 Paris  France France Paris
Amsterdam  Netherlands
Barcelona  Spain
Los Angeles  United States
Prague  Czechoslovakia
Rome Kingdom of Italy Italy
1928 Amsterdam  Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam
Los Angeles  United States
1932 4 October 1929 Los Angeles  United States United States Los Angeles
1936 Berlin Nazi Germany Germany 43 Nazi Germany Berlin
Barcelona  Spain 16
Alexandria Kingdom of Egypt Egypt
Budapest  Hungary
Buenos Aires  Argentina
Cologne Nazi Germany Germany
Dublin  Ireland
Frankfurt Nazi Germany Germany
Helsinki  Finland
Lausanne   Switzerland
Nuremberg Nazi Germany Germany
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil
Rome Kingdom of Italy Italy
1940 31 August 1936 Tokyo  Japan Japan Tokyo (cancelled)
Helsinki  Finland
1944 London  Great Britain United Kingdom London (cancelled)
Rome Kingdom of Italy Italy
Detroit  United States
Lausanne   Switzerland
Athens Kingdom of Greece Greece
Budapest  Hungary
Helsinki  Finland
Montreal Canada Canada
1948 London  Great Britain United Kingdom London
Baltimore  United States
Lausanne   Switzerland
Los Angeles  United States
Minneapolis  United States
Philadelphia  United States
1952 21 June 1947 Helsinki  Finland 14 15 Finland Helsinki
Los Angeles  United States 4 5
Minneapolis  United States 4 5
Amsterdam  Netherlands 3 3
Detroit  United States 2
Chicago  United States 1
Philadelphia  United States 0
Athens Kingdom of Greece Greece 0
Lausanne   Switzerland 0
Stockholm  Sweden 0
1956 28 April 1949 Melbourne  Australia 14 18 19 21 Australia Melbourne
Buenos Aires  Argentina 9 12 13 20
Los Angeles  United States 5 4 5
Detroit  United States 2 4 4
Mexico City Mexico Mexico 9 3
Chicago  United States 1
Minneapolis  United States 1
Philadelphia  United States 1
San Francisco  United States 0
Montreal Canada Canada 0
1960 15 June 1955 Rome  Italy 15 26 35 Italy Rome
Lausanne   Switzerland 14 21 24
Detroit  United States 6 11
Budapest  Hungary 8 1
Brussels  Belgium 6
Mexico City  Mexico 6
Tokyo  Japan 6
1964 26 May 1959 Tokyo  Japan 30 Japan Tokyo
Detroit  United States 10
Vienna  Austria 9
Brussels  Belgium 5
1968 18 October 1963 Mexico City  Mexico 30 Mexico Mexico City
Detroit  United States 14
Lyon  France 12
Buenos Aires  Argentina 2
1972 25 April 1966 Munich  West Germany 29 31 West Germany Munich
Madrid Spain Spain 16 16
Montreal  Canada 6 13
Detroit  United States 6
1976 12 May 1970 Montreal  Canada 25 41 Canada Montreal
Moscow  Soviet Union 28 28
Los Angeles  United States 17
1980 13 October 1974 Moscow  Soviet Union 39 Soviet Union Moscow
Los Angeles  United States 20
1984 18 May 1978 Los Angeles  United States United States Los Angeles
1988 30 September 1981 Seoul  South Korea 52 South Korea Seoul
Nagoya  Japan 27
1992 16 October 1986 Barcelona  Spain 29 37 47 Spain Barcelona
Paris  France 19 20 23
Brisbane  Australia 11 9 10
Belgrade  Yugoslavia 13 11 5
Birmingham  United Kingdom 8 8
Amsterdam  Netherlands 5
1996 18 September 1990 Atlanta  United States 19 20 26 34 51 United States Atlanta
Athens  Greece 23 23 26 30 35
Toronto  Canada 14 17 18 22
Melbourne  Australia 12 21 16
Manchester  United Kingdom 11 5
Belgrade  Yugoslavia 7
2000 23 September 1993 Sydney  Australia 30 30 37 45 Australia Sydney
Beijing  China 32 37 40 43
Manchester  United Kingdom 11 13 11
Berlin  Germany 9 9
Istanbul  Turkey 7
Brasilia  Brazil Withdrew[2]
Milan  Italy Withdrew[3]
Tashkent  Uzbekistan Withdrew[4]
2004 5 September 1997 Athens  Greece 32 38 52 66 Greece Athens
Rome  Italy 23 28 35 41
Cape Town  South Africa 16 62 22 20
Stockholm  Sweden 20 19
Buenos Aires  Argentina 16 44
Istanbul  Turkey
Lille  France
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil
Saint Petersburg  Russia
San Juan  Puerto Rico
Seville  Spain
2008 13 July 2001 Beijing  China 44 56 China Beijing
Toronto  Canada 20 22
Paris  France 15 18
Istanbul  Turkey 17 9
Osaka  Japan 6
Bangkok  Thailand
Cairo  Egypt
Havana  Cuba
Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia
Seville  Spain
2012 6 July 2005 London  United Kingdom 22 27 39 54 United Kingdom London
Paris  France 21 25 33 50
Madrid  Spain 20 32 31
New York City  United States 19 16
Moscow  Russia 15
Havana  Cuba
Istanbul  Turkey
Leipzig  Germany
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil
2016 2 October 2009 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 26 46 66 Brazil Rio de Janeiro
Madrid  Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo  Japan 22 20
Chicago  United States 18
Baku  Azerbaijan
Doha  Qatar
Prague  Czech Republic
2020 7 September 2013 Tokyo  Japan 42 60 Japan Tokyo
Istanbul  Turkey 26 49 36
Madrid  Spain 26 45
Baku  Azerbaijan
Doha  Qatar
Rome  Italy Withdrew
2024 13 September 2017 Paris  France Unanimous France Paris
Los Angeles  United States Unanimous
Budapest  Hungary Withdrew
Hamburg  Germany Withdrew
Rome  Italy Withdrew
2028 13 September 2017 Los Angeles  United States Unanimous United States Los Angeles

By city[edit]

The following is a list of bids submitted by city. It lists the county, city, and year for which failed, withdrawn, and successful bids were submitted. A parenthesis indicates that the city was awarded the games without a bidding process. A dagger (dagger) indicates that the city was awarded the games, but that they were ultimately not held in the city, either because the games were canceled or moved. An asterisk (*) indicates that the bid was not shortlisted. A double asterisk (**) indicates that the bid was withdrawn.[1]

Country City Failed/Withdrawn bids Successful bids
 Argentina Buenos Aires 1936, 1956, 1968, 2004
 Australia Brisbane 1992
Melbourne 1996 1956
Sydney 2000
 Austria Vienna 1964
 Azerbaijan Baku 2016*, 2020*
 Belgium Antwerp 1920
Brussels 1916, 1960, 1964
 Brazil Brasilia 2000**
Rio de Janeiro 1936, 2004*, 2012* 2016
 Canada Montreal 1944, 1956, 1972 1976
Toronto 1996, 2008
 China Beijing 2000 2008
 Cuba Havana 1920, 2008*, 2012*
 Czech Republic/
Czechoslovakia
Prague 1924, 2016*
 Egypt Alexandria 1916, 1936
Cairo 2008*
 Finland Helsinki 1936, 1944 1940dagger 1952
 France Lille 2004*
Lyon 1920, 1968
Paris 1992, 2008, 2012 1900, 1924, 2024
 Germany/West Germany/
 German Empire
Berlin 1908, 2000 1916dagger, 1936
Cologne 1936
Frankfurt 1936
Hamburg 2024**
Leipzig 2012*
Nuremberg 1936
Munich 1972
 Great Britain Birmingham 1992
London 1908, 1948, 2012
Manchester 1996, 2000
 Greece Athens 1944, 1952, 1996 1896, 2004
 Hungary/
 Austria-Hungary
Budapest 1916, 1920, 1936, 1944, 1960, 2024**
 Ireland Dublin 1936
 Italy Milan 1908, 2000**
Rome 1924, 1936, 1944, 2004, 2020**, 2024** 1908dagger, 1960
 Japan Nagoya 1988
Osaka 2008
Tokyo 1960, 2016 1940dagger, 1964, 2020
 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 2008*
 Mexico Mexico City 1956, 1960 1968
 Netherlands Amsterdam 1916, 1920, 1924, 1952, 1992 1928
 Puerto Rico San Juan 2004*
 Qatar Doha 2016*, 2020*
 Russia/ Soviet Union Moscow 1976, 2012 1980
Saint Petersburg 2004*
 South Africa Cape Town 2004
 South Korea Seoul 1988
 Spain Barcelona 1936 1992
Madrid 1972, 2012, 2016, 2020
Seville 2004*, 2008*
 Sweden Stockholm 1952, 2004 1912, 1956
  Switzerland Lausanne 1936, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1960
 Thailand Bangkok 2008*
 Turkey Istanbul 2000, 2004*, 2008, 2012*, 2020
 United States Atlanta 1920 1996
Baltimore 1948
Chicago 1952, 1956, 2016 1904dagger
Cleveland 1916, 1920
Detroit 1944, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972
Los Angeles 1924, 1928, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1976, 2024** 1932, 1984, 2028
Minneapolis 1948, 1952, 1956
New York City 2012
Philadelphia 1920, 1948, 1952, 1956
San Francisco 1956
St. Louis 1904
 Uzbekistan Tashkent 2000**
 Yugoslavia/ Serbia Belgrade 1992, 1996

By country[edit]

The following is a list of bids submitted by national Olympic committee, listing the country and years it bid. Only countries that have submitted bids from multiple cities are included. Successful bids are in boldface. A parenthesis indicates that the city was awarded the games without a bidding process. A dagger (dagger) indicates that the city was awarded the games, but that they were ultimately not held in the city, either because the games were canceled or moved.[1]

Country Years
 Australia 1956, 1992, 1996, 2000
 Belgium 1916, 1920, 1960, 1964
 Brazil 1936, 2000, 2004, 2012, 2016
 Canada 1944, 1956 1972, 1976, 1996, 2008
 Egypt 1916, 1936, 2008
 France 1900, 1920, 1924, 1968, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2024
 Germany 1908, 1916dagger, 1936, 1972, 2000, 2012
 Great Britain 1908, 1948, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2012
 Italy 1908dagger, 1924, 1936, 1944, 1960, 2000, 2004, 2020, 2024
 Japan 1940dagger, 1960, 1964, 1988, 2008, 2016, 2020
 Russia/ Soviet Union 1976, 1980, 2004, 2012
 Spain 1924, 1936, 1940, 1972, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020
 United States 1904, 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984, 1996, 2012, 2016, 2024, 2028

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  2. ^ Unnamed (22 January 1996). "39 Steps to Olympic Fiasco". The Irish Times.
  3. ^ Associated Press (11 March 1993). "Milan Withdraws Olympic Bid". Los Angeles Times.
  4. ^ Unnamed (24 January 1993). "Tashkent withdraws bid for 2000 Olympics". UPI International.