List of bids for the Summer Olympics

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The Summer Olympics are the world's largest multi-sport event, and are organized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) every four years. Selection of the host city is done at an IOC Session four to seven years prior to the tournament, in which the IOC members vote between candidate cities which have submitted bids. As of the selection of the 2016 Olympics, 28 games have been held in 22 cities in 19 countries. Bids have been made by 64 cities in 34 countries.

The bid process consists of two rounds. First, cities and national Olympic committees (NOCs) may show their interest and submit a preliminary bid, becoming applicant cities. Through analysis of the questionnaires, the IOC gave a weighted-average score to each city based on the scores obtained in each of the questionnaire's eleven themes: political and social support, general infrastructure, sports venues, Olympic Village, environment, accommodation, transport, security, past experience, finance, and legacy. IOC's Executive Committee then selects a short-list of candidate cities. The candidate cities are investigated by the IOC Evaluation Committee, who make an evaluation report. These submit a more extensive bid book and are subject to additional evaluation, which is presented to the IOC members. Voting occurs as an exhaustive ballot, which may occur through multiple rounds until a single city holds a majority of the votes. IOC members from a candidate NOC may not vote in any round while their country remains in the election.

The first three games were not subject to bids; the first IOC Session, in 1894, awarded the first games to Athens (1896) and Paris (1900), respectively. The 1904 Olympics were initially awarded to Chicago, but then moved to St. Louis to be co-located with the World Fair. A system with bids was introduced ahead of the 1908 Olympics, and were awarded to Rome. After the 1906 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy returned the games to IOC, which awarded them to London. The 1916 Olympics were awarded to Berlin, but canceled due to the First World War. The 1940 Olympics were originally awarded to Tokyo, but after the 1938 break-out of the Second Sino-Japanese War, they were returned to the IOC, who awarded them to Helsinki. The games, and the 1944 Olympics awarded to London, were ultimately canceled due to the Second World War. The 1956 Olympics were awarded to Melbourne, but Australian horse quarantine rules forced the equestrian events to be held in Stockholm. Three times there have been only a single bid, Stockholm in 1912, and Los Angeles in 1932 and 1984. Starting with the 2004 Olympics, only the highest-rated cities are short-listed for the final IOC vote.[1]

London will have hosted three games in 2012, while Athens, Los Angeles and Paris have hosted two games. London, Antwerp, Munich and Sydney are the only cities to never have failed at winning a bid. St. Louis is the only city to have hosted the games without submitting a bid. Helsinki, Minneapolis, Montreal and Munich have bid for both Summer and Winter Olympics; all but Minneapolis have succeeded at winning Summer bids, but none have held Winter Olympics. Detroit is the most unsuccessful city, having failed seven times. Los Angeles has made the most bids, succeeding twice and failing six times. Amsterdam, Budapest and Lausanne have all failed five times. The United States has made the most bids, having bid for 19 games, including all games from 1944 through 1984.[1]

By year[edit]

The following is a list of bids for the Summer Olympics, sorted by year. It consists of the year the games were held or scheduled to be held, the date the decision was made, the city and country which issued the bid, the votes at the IOC Session for each voting round, and the ultimate host of the games. The bid listed first for each games is the one selected by the IOC, whether or not it ultimately hosted the games.[1]

Year Session Bid(s) Vote Host
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Round 5
1896 Kingdom of Greece Athens
1900 France Paris
1904 Chicago United States United States St. Louis
1908 Rome Italy United Kingdom London
London Great Britain
Milan Italy
Berlin Germany
1912 Stockholm Sweden Sweden Stockholm
1916 Berlin Germany German Empire Berlin (cancelled)
Alexandria Egypt
Amsterdam Netherlands
Brussels Belgium
Budapest Hungary
Cleveland United States
1920 Antwerp Belgium Belgium Antwerp
Amsterdam Netherlands
Lyon France
Atlanta United States
Budapest Hungary
Cleveland United States
Havana Cuba
Lyon France
Philadelphia United States
1924 Paris France France Paris
Amsterdam Netherlands
Barcelona Spain
Los Angeles United States
Prague Czechoslovakia
Rome Italy
1928 Amsterdam Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam
Los Angeles United States
1932 4 October 1929 Los Angeles United States United States Los Angeles
1936 Berlin Germany 43 Nazi Germany Berlin
Barcelona Spain 16
Alexandria Egypt
Budapest Hungary
Buenos Aires Argentina
Cologne Germany
Dublin Ireland
Frankfurt Germany
Helsinki Finland
Lausanne Switzerland
Nuremberg Germany
Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Rome Italy
1940 31 August 1936 Tokyo Japan Japan Tokyo (cancelled)
Helsinki Finland
1944 London Great Britain United Kingdom London (cancelled)
Rome Italy
Detroit United States
Lausanne Switzerland
Athens Greece
Budapest Hungary
Helsinki Finland
Montreal Canada
1948 London Great Britain United Kingdom London
Baltimore United States
Lausanne Switzerland
Los Angeles United States
Minneapolis United States
Philadelphia United States
1952 21 June 1947 Helsinki Finland 14 15 Finland Helsinki
Los Angeles United States 4 5
Minneapolis United States 4 5
Amsterdam Netherlands 3 3
Detroit United States 2
Chicago United States 1
Philadelphia United States 0
Athens Greece 0
Lausanne Switzerland 0
Stockholm Sweden 0
1956 28 April 1949 Australia Melbourne Australia 14 18 19 21 Australia Melbourne
Argentina Buenos Aires Argentina 9 12 13 20
United States Los Angeles United States 5 4 5
United States Detroit United States 2 4 4
Mexico Mexico City Mexico 9 3
United States Chicago United States 1
United States Minneapolis United States 1
United States Philadelphia United States 1
United States San Francisco United States 0
Canada Montreal Canada 0
1960 15 June 1955 Italy Rome Italy 15 26 35 Italy Rome
Switzerland Lausanne Switzerland 14 21 24
United States Detroit United States 6 11
Hungary Budapest Hungary 8 1
Belgium Brussels Belgium 6
Mexico Mexico City Mexico 6
Japan Tokyo Japan 6
1964 26 May 1959 Japan Tokyo Japan 30 Japan Tokyo
United States Detroit United States 10
Austria Vienna Austria 9
Belgium Brussels Belgium 5
1968 18 October 1963 Mexico Mexico City Mexico 30 Mexico Mexico City
United States Detroit United States 14
France Lyon France 12
Argentina Buenos Aires Argentina 2
1972 25 April 1966 West Germany Munich West Germany 29 31 West Germany Munich
Spain Madrid Spain 16 16
Canada Montreal Canada 6 13
United States Detroit United States 6
1976 12 May 1970 Canada Montreal Canada 25 41 Canada Montreal
Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union 28 28
United States Los Angeles United States 17
1980 13 October 1974 Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union 39 Soviet Union Moscow
United States Los Angeles United States 20
1984 18 May 1978 United States Los Angeles United States United States Los Angeles
1988 30 September 1981 South Korea Seoul South Korea 52 South Korea Seoul
Japan Nagoya Japan 27
1992 16 October 1986 Spain Barcelona Spain 29 37 47 Spain Barcelona
France Paris France 19 20 23
Australia Brisbane Australia 11 9 10
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade Yugoslavia 13 11 5
United Kingdom Birmingham United Kingdom 8 8
Netherlands Amsterdam Netherlands 5
1996 18 September 1990 United States Atlanta United States 19 20 26 34 51 United States Atlanta
Greece Athens Greece 23 23 26 30 35
Canada Toronto Canada 14 17 18 22
Australia Melbourne Australia 12 21 16
United Kingdom Manchester United Kingdom 11 5
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade Yugoslavia 7
2000 23 September 1993 Australia Sydney Australia 30 30 37 45 Australia Sydney
China Beijing China 32 37 40 43
United Kingdom Manchester United Kingdom 11 13 11
Germany Berlin Germany 9 9
Turkey Istanbul Turkey 7
2004 5 September 1997 Greece Athens Greece 32 38 52 66 Greece Athens
Italy Rome Italy 23 28 35 41
South Africa Cape Town South Africa 16 62 22 20
Sweden Stockholm Sweden 20 19
Argentina Buenos Aires Argentina 16 44
Turkey Istanbul Turkey
France Lille France
Brazil Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Russia Saint Petersburg Russia
Puerto Rico San Juan Puerto Rico
Spain Seville Spain
2008 13 July 2001 China Beijing China 44 56 China Beijing
Canada Toronto Canada 20 22
France Paris France 15 18
Turkey Istanbul Turkey 17 9
Japan Osaka Japan 6
Thailand Bangkok Thailand
Egypt Cairo Egypt
Cuba Havana Cuba
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Spain Seville Spain
2012 6 July 2005 United Kingdom London United Kingdom 22 27 39 54 United Kingdom London
France Paris France 21 25 33 50
Spain Madrid Spain 20 32 31
United States New York City United States 19 16
Russia Moscow Russia 15
Cuba Havana Cuba
Turkey Istanbul Turkey
Germany Leipzig Germany
Brazil Rio de Janeiro Brazil
2016 2 October 2009 Brazil Rio de Janeiro Brazil 26 46 66 Brazil Rio de Janeiro
Spain Madrid Spain 28 29 32
Japan Tokyo Japan 22 20
United States Chicago United States 18
Azerbaijan Baku Azerbaijan
Qatar Doha Qatar
Czech Republic Prague Czech Republic
2020 7 September 2013 Japan Tokyo Japan 42 60 Japan Tokyo
Turkey Istanbul Turkey 26 49 36
Spain Madrid Spain 26 45
Azerbaijan Baku Azerbaijan
Qatar Doha Qatar
Italy Rome Italy

By city[edit]

The following is a list of bids submitted by city. It lists the national Olympic committee, the city, and the games for which failed and successful bid were submitted. A parenthesis indicates that the city was awarded the games without a bidding process. A dagger (dagger) indicates that the city was awarded the games, but that they were ultimately not held in the city, either because the games were canceled or moved. An asterix (*) indicates that the bid was not shortlisted.[1]

Country City Failed bids Successful bids
Argentina Buenos Aires 1936, 1956, 1968, 2004
Australia Brisbane 1992
Australia Melbourne 1996 1956
Australia Sydney 2000
Austria Vienna 1964
Azerbaijan Baku 2016*
Belgium Antwerp 1920
Belgium Brussels 1916, 1960, 1964
Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1936, 2004*, 2012* 2016
Canada Montreal 1944, 1956, 1972 1976
Canada Toronto 1996, 2008
China Beijing 2000 2008
Cuba Havana 1920, 2008*, 2012*
Czech Republic/Czechoslovakia Prague 1924, 2016*
Egypt Alexandria 1916, 1936
Egypt Cairo 2008*
Finland Helsinki 1936, 1944 (1940)dagger 1952
France Lille 2004*
France Lyon 1920, 1968
France Paris 1992, 2008, 2012, 2024 (1900), 1924
Germany Berlin 1908, 2000 1916dagger, 1936
Germany Cologne 1936
Germany Frankfurt 1936
Germany Leipzig 2012*
(West) Germany Munich 1972
Germany Nuremberg 1936
Great Britain Birmingham 1992
Great Britain London 1908, 1948, 2012
Great Britain Manchester 1996, 2000
Greece Athens 1944, 1952, 1996 (1896), 2004
Hungary Budapest 1916, 1920, 1936, 1944, 1960, 2024
Ireland Dublin 1936
Italy Milan 1908
Italy Rome 1924, 1936, 1944, 2004, 2020, 2024 1908dagger, 1960
Japan Nagoya 1988
Japan Osaka 2008
Japan Tokyo 1960, 2016 1940dagger, 1964, 2020
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 2008*
Mexico Mexico City 1956, 1960 1968
Netherlands Amsterdam 1916, 1920, 1924, 1952, 1992 1928
Puerto Rico San Juan 2004*
Qatar Doha 2016*
Russia/Soviet Union Moscow 1976, 2012 1980
Russia Saint Petersburg 2004
South Africa Cape Town 2004
South Korea Seoul 1988
Spain Barcelona 1936 1992
Spain Madrid 1972, 2012, 2016, 2020
Spain Seville 2004, 2008*
Sweden Stockholm 1952, 2004 1912, 1956
Switzerland Lausanne 1936, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1960
Thailand Bangkok 2008*
Turkey Istanbul 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012*, 2020
United States Atlanta 1920 1996
United States Baltimore 1948
United States Chicago 1952, 1956, 2016 (1904)dagger
United States Cleveland 1916, 1920
United States Detroit 1944, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972
United States Los Angeles 1924, 1928, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1976, 2024 1932, 1984
United States Minneapolis 1948, 1952, 1956
United States New York City 2012
United States Philadelphia 1920, 1948, 1952, 1956
United States San Francisco 1956
United States St. Louis (1904)
Yugoslavia Belgrade 1992, 1996

By country[edit]

The following is a list of bids submitted by national Olympic committee, listing the country and years it bid. Only countries which submitted bids with multiple cities are included. Successful bids are in boldface. A parenthesis indicates that the city was awarded the games without a bidding process. A dagger (dagger) indicates that the city was awarded the games, but that they were ultimately not held in the city, either because the games were canceled or moved.[1]

Country Years
Australia 1956, 1992, 1996, 2000
Belgium 1916, 1920, 1960, 1964
Canada 1944, 1956, 1972, 1976, 1996, 2008
Egypt 1916, 1936, 2008
France (1900), 1920, 1924, 1968, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2024
Germany 1908, 1916dagger, 1936, 1972, 2000, 2012
Great Britain 1908, 1948, 1992 1996, 2000. 2012
Italy 1908dagger, 1924, 1936, 1944, 1960, 2004, 2020, 2024
Japan 1940dagger, 1960, 1964, 1988, 2008, 2016, 2020
Russia/Soviet Union 1976, 1980, 2004, 2012
Spain 1924, 1936, 1940, 1972, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020
United States (1904), 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984, 1996, 2012, 2016, 2024

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Retrieved 15 March 2011.