List of bilateral animal orders

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The relative number of species contributed to the total by each phylum of animals. Arthropoda is the phylum with the most individual organisms.
Superb fairy-wren, Malurus cyaneus
Differences between Deuterostomes and Protostomes
Yellow-winged darter, Sympetrum flaveolum
Pseudobiceros bedfordi, (Bedford's flatworm)
The use of love darts by the land snail Monachoides vicinus is a form of sexual selection

List of bilateral animal orders contains the Bilateria of the animal subkingdom Eumetazoa, divided into four superphyla, Deuterostomia, and the three Protostome superphyla, Ecdysozoa, and the two Spiralia superphyla, Platyzoa and Lophotrochozoa.

Xenoturbellida

Acoelomorpha

Nemertodermatida

Acoela

Nephrozoa*
Deuterostomia*
Chordata

Cephalochordata

Olfactores

Urochordata

Craniata (including Vertebrata)

Ambulacraria

Echinodermata

Hemichordata

Protostomia*

Chaetognatha

Ecdysozoa*
Nematozoa

Nematoda

Nematomorpha

Tardigrada

Onychophora

Arthropoda

Scalidophora

Priapulida

Loricifera

Kinorhyncha

Spiralia*
Polyzoa

Bryozoa

Entoprocta

Cycliophora

Trochozoa*

Annelida

Mollusca

Nemertea

Brachiopoda

Phoronida

Platyzoa*

Gastrotricha

Platyhelminthes

Gnathifera

Gnathostomulida

Micrognathozoa

Rotifera

Phylum Xenacoelomorpha[edit]

Subphylum Xenoturbella
Subphylum Acoelomorpha

Nephrozoa (unranked)[edit]

Infrakingdom Deuterostomia[edit]

Phylum Chordata[edit]

Ambulacraria[edit]

Phylum Hemichordata[edit]

Acorn worm
Class Enteropneusta (Acorn worms)
  • Order Enteropneusta
Class Graptolithina
Class Planctosphaeroidea

No order, one genus, one species Planctosphaera pelagica

Class Pterobranchia

Phylum Echinodermata[edit]

Infrakingdom Protostomia[edit]

Superphylum Ecdysozoa[edit]

Cycloneuralia (unranked)[edit]

Scalidophora (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Kinorhyncha[edit]

No class, 2 orders, called mud dragons, very common in mud or sand

Phylum Loricifera[edit]

No class, one order Nanaloricida

Phylum Priapulida[edit]
Class Priapulimorpha
Class Halicryptomorpha
  • Order Halicryptomorphida
Class Seticoronaria
Nematoida (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Nematoda[edit]
Phylum Nematomorpha[edit]
Class Gordioidea
Class Nectonematoida

Panarthropoda (unranked)[edit]

Phylum Lobopodia[edit]
Class Dinocaridida
Class Xenusia

These taxa are only known from the Chengjiang (Cambrian Stage 2 Series 3).

  • Order Protonychophora
  • Protonychophora Hutchinson, 1930 - Spiny legs, reduced tail
  • Aysheaiidae Walcott, 1911 - many claws on each leg. Anterior grasping appendages with long spines.
  • Xenusiidae Dzik & Krumbiegel, 1989 - >20 leg-bearing segments; paired, rounded sclerites on each segment; spiny legs.
    • Xenusion Pompeckj, 1927
    • Jianshanopodia Liu et al.[4] - from Chengjiang; two rows of tubercles but no obvious sclerites
    • Hadranax Budd & Peel 1998 — from the Sirius Passet. Lacks obvious dorsal armature, but bears four 'nodes' per row.
  • Order Scleronychophora
  • Scleronychophora Hou & Bergstrom, 1995 - paired sclerites; elongated head sclerites
  • Eoconchariidae Hou & Shu, 1987 - ~10 leg-bearing segments, small head, sieve-like sclerites, varying in shape along body; curved claws on annulated legs; terminal mouth and anus.
  • Hallucigeniidae Conway Morris, 1977 - ~10 leg-bearing segments; large sclerites covering head; sclerites on each segment are long spines.
    • Hallucigenia Conway Morris 1977 - From the Chengjiang, Kaili and Burgess Shale[5]
  • Cardiodictyidae Hou & Bergstrom, 1995 - many segments (~23); large sclerites cover head; hexagonal sclerite on each body segment.
  • Order Paronychophora
  • Paronychophora Hou & Bergstrom, 1995 - short, downwards facing head; papillae on body and legs, some arranged in rows; shield-like sclerites on head; dorsal armature of spines;[6] claw-like jaws; annulated legs [ Note - diagnosis modified in [2] ]
  • Onychodictyidae Hou & Bergstrom, 1995
  • Order unassigned
  • Orstenotubulus Maas et al. 2007 from the Furongian Orsten deposits - with retractable dorsal spines[7]
  • Carbotubulus Haug et al. 2012 [8] - from the Mazon creek. Dorwal armature uncertain. Few segments, long limbs.
  • Mureropodia,[9] from the Stage 2 Murero lagerstatten, Spain
Class Siberion
    • Family Xenusiidae
      • Genus Siberion
Class Hadranax
  • Order Protonychophora
  • Order Archonychophora Hou & Bergstrom, 1995[1] - Undifferentiated appendages; each segment the same as each other. See [2]
  • Order Protonychophora Hutchinson, 1930 - Spiny legs, reduced tail
  • Order Scleronychophora Hou & Bergstrom, 1995 - paired sclerites; elongated head sclerites
    • Eoconchariidae Hou & Shu, 1987 - ~10 leg-bearing segments, small head, sieve-like sclerites, varying in shape along body; curved claws on annulated legs; terminal mouth and anus.
    • Hallucigeniidae Conway Morris, 1977 - ~10 leg-bearing segments; large sclerites covering head; sclerites on each segment are long spines.
      • Hallucigenia Conway Morris 1977 - From the Chengjiang, Kaili and Burgess Shale[5]
    • Cardiodictyidae Hou & Bergstrom, 1995 - many segments (~23); large sclerites cover head; hexagonal sclerite on each body segment.
  • Order Paronychophora Hou & Bergstrom, 1995 - short, downwards facing head; papillae on body and legs, some arranged in rows; shield-like sclerites on head; dorsal armature of spines;[6] claw-like jaws; annulated legs [ Note - diagnosis modified in [2] ]
  • Order unassigned
  • Orstenotubulus Maas et al. 2007 from the Furongian Orsten deposits - with retractable dorsal spines[7]
  • Carbotubulus Haug et al. 2012 [8] - from the Mazon creek. Dorwal armature uncertain. Few segments, long limbs.
  • Mureropodia,[9] from the Stage 2 Murero lagerstatten, Spain
Phylum Onychophora[edit]
Tactopoda (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Tardigrada[edit]
Echiniscus
Class Eutardigrada
Class Heterotardigrada
Class Mesotardigrada
  • Order Thermozodia
    • Family Thermozodiidae
      • Genus Thermozodium
Phylum Arthropoda[edit]

Spiralia (unranked)[edit]

Gnathifera (unranked)[edit]

Phylum Gnathostomulida[edit]

No classes

Phylum Micrognathozoa[edit]

Some dispute here with Micrognathozoa as the class and Limnognathia as the order

Phylum Cycliophora[edit]

This phylum was discovered in 1995.

Class Symbiida
Syndermata (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Rotifera[edit]
SEM] pictures of some Bdelloidea species of the genus Rotaria with head (red), tail (white) and trunk (blue) areas highlighted
Class Bdelloidea
Class Monogononta
Class Seisonidea
Phylum Acanthocephala[edit]
Scanning electron microscopy of proboscis of an archiacanthocephalan [10]
Class Archiacanthocephala
Class Eoacanthocephala
Class Palaeacanthocephala

Platytrochozoa (unranked)[edit]

Mesozoa (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Monoblastozoa[edit]
Phylum Orthonectida[edit]
  • Class incertae sedis (2 families)


Rouphozoa (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Platyhelminthes[edit]
Class Rhabditophora
Subphylum Neodermata
Class Cestoda
Class Monogenea
Class Trematoda
Phylum Gastrotricha[edit]

No classes

Superphylum Lophotrochozoa[edit]
Phylum Mollusca[edit]
Phylum Annelida[edit]
Kryptotrochozoa (unranked)[edit]
Phylum Nemertea
Lophophorata (unranked)

No classes, no orders, families Barentsiidae, Loxokalypodidae, Loxosomatidae, Pedicellinidae

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hou, X.; Bergström, J. A. N. (1995). "Cambrian lobopodians-ancestors of extant onychophorans?". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 114: 3–19. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1995.tb00110.x.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Ma, X.; Hou, X.; Bergström, J. (2009). "Morphology of Luolishania longicruris (Lower Cambrian, Chengjiang Lagerstätte, SW China) and the phylogenetic relationships within lobopodians". Arthropod Structure & Development. 38 (4): 271–291. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2009.03.001.
  3. ^ a b Xian-Guang Hou, Xiao-Ya Ma, Jie Zhao & Jan Bergström; Ma; Zhao; Bergström (2004). "The lobopodian Paucipodia inermis from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, Yunnan, China". Lethaia. 37 (3): 235–244. doi:10.1080/00241160410006555.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Jianni Liu; Degan Shu; Jian Han; Zhifei Zhang & Xingliang Zhang (2006). "A large xenusiid lobopod with complex appendages from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte" (PDF). Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 51 (2): 215–222. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d Whittle, R. J.; Gabbott, S. E.; Aldridge, R. J.; Theron, J. (2009). "An Ordovician Lobopodian from the Soom Shale Lagerstätte, South Africa". Palaeontology. 52 (3): 561–567. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00860.x.
  6. ^ a b Liu, J.; Shu, D.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. (2008). "The LobopodOnychodictyonfrom the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte Revisited". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53 (2): 285–292. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0209.
  7. ^ a b Maas, A.; Mayer, G.; Kristensen, R. M.; Waloszek, D. (2007). "A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction". Chinese Science Bulletin. 52 (24): 3385–3392. doi:10.1007/s11434-007-0515-3.
  8. ^ a b Haug, J. T.; Mayer, G.; Haug, C.; Briggs, D. E. G. (2012). "A Carboniferous Non-Onychophoran Lobopodian Reveals Long-Term Survival of a Cambrian Morphotype". Current Biology. 22: 1673–1675. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.066. PMID 22885062.
  9. ^ a b Gámez Vintaned, J. A.; Liñán, E.; Zhuravlev, A. (2011). "A New Early Cambrian Lobopod-Bearing Animal (Murero, Spain) and the Problem of the Ecdysozoan Early Diversification". Evolutionary Biology – Concepts, Biodiversity, Macroevolution and Genome Evolution. p. 193. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20763-1_12. ISBN 978-3-642-20762-4.
  10. ^ Amin, O. A; Heckmann, R. A; Ha, N. V. (2014). "Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species. '". Parasite. 21: 53. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014052. PMC 4204126. PMID 25331738.