List of bioluminescent fungus species

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Panellus stipticus, one of about 80 known species of bioluminescent fungi

Found largely in temperate and tropical climates, currently there are known more than 75 species[1] of bioluminescent fungi, all of which are members of the order Agaricales (Basidiomycota) with one exceptional ascomycete belonging to the order Xylariales.[2] All known bioluminescent Agaricales are mushroom-forming, white-spored agarics that belong to four distinct evolutionary lineages. The Omphalotus lineage (comprising the genera Omphalotus and Neonothopanus) contains 12 species, the Armillaria lineage has 10 known species, while the Mycenoid lineage (Mycena, Panellus, Prunulus, Roridomyces) has more than 50 species. The recently discovered Lucentipes lineage contains two species, Mycena lucentipes and Gerronema viridilucens, which belong to a family that has not yet been formally named.[3] Armillaria mellea is the most widely distributed of the luminescent fungi, found across Asia, Europe, North America, and South Africa.[4]

Bioluminescent fungi emit a greenish light at a wavelength of 520–530 nm. The light emission is continuous and occurs only in living cells.[5] No correlation of fungal bioluminescence with cell structure has been found. Bioluminescence may occur in both mycelia and fruit bodies, as in Panellus stipticus and Omphalotus olearius, or only in mycelia and young rhizomorphs, as in Armillaria mellea.[6] In Roridomyces roridus luminescence occurs only in the spores, while in Collybia tuberosa, it is only in the sclerotia.[7]

Although the biochemistry of fungal bioluminescence has not fully been characterized, the preparation of bioluminescent, cell-free extracts has allowed researchers to characterize the in vitro requirements of fungal bioluminescence. Experimental data suggest that a two-stage mechanism is required. In the first, a light-emitting substance (called "luciferin") is reduced by a soluble reductase enzyme at the expense of NAD(P)H. In the second stage, reduced luciferin is oxidized by an insoluble luciferase that releases the energy in the form of bluish-green light. Conditions that affect the growth of fungi, such as pH, light and temperature, have been found to influence bioluminescence, suggesting a link between metabolic activity and fungal bioluminescence.[7]

All bioluminescent fungi share the same enzymatic mechanism, suggesting that there is a bioluminescent pathway that arose early in the evolution of the mushroom-forming Agaricales.[3] All known luminescent species are white rot fungi capable of breaking down lignin, found in abundance in wood. Bioluminescence is an oxygen-dependent metabolic process and therefore may provide antioxidant protection against the potentially damaging effects of reactive oxygen species produced during wood decay. The physiological and ecological function of fungal bioluminescence has not been established with certainty. It has been suggested that in the dark beneath closed tropical forest canopies, bioluminescent fruit bodies may be at an advantage by attracting grazing animals (including insects and other arthropods) that could help disperse their spores. Conversely, where mycelium (and vegetative structures like rhizomorphs and sclerotia) are the bioluminescent tissues, the argument has been made that light emission could deter grazing.[7]

The following list of bioluminescent mushrooms is based on a 2008 literature survey by Dennis Desjardin and colleagues,[8] in addition to accounts of several new species published since then.[9][10][11][12]


Name The binomial name of the fungal species, including the author citation—the person who first described the species using an available scientific name, using standardized abbreviations.
Luminescence Indicates which form of the fungus—mycelium or fruit body—produces luminescence.
Distribution The geographical distribution of the species. AF=Africa; AS=Asia; AU=Australasia; CA=Central America and the Caribbean; EU=Europe; NA=North America; SA=South America
References Literature sources where bioluminescence was reported.


... glowing with the lights off
Omphalotus olearius
Gills of O. olearius
Binomial Luminescence Distribution References
Mycelium Fruit body
Armillaria calvescens
Bérubé & Dessur.
Yes ? NA [13]
Armillaria cepistipes
Yes ? NA [13]
Armillaria fuscipes
Yes No Malaysia [6][14][15]
Armillaria gallica
Marxm. & Romagn.
Yes No EU, NA [16]
Armillaria gemina
Bérubé & Dessur.
Yes ? NA [13]
Armillaria mellea
(Valh.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA [16]
Armillaria nabsnona
T.J. Volk & Burds.
Yes ? NA [13]
Armillaria ostoyae
(Romagn.) Henrik
Yes No EU, NA [17]
Armillaria sinapina
Bérubé & Dessur.
Yes ? NA [13]
Armillaria tabescens
(Scop.) Emel
Yes No EU, NA [16]
Collybia tuberosa
(Bull.) P. Kumm
No Only sclerotia EU, NA, Lithuania [18][19]
Dictyopanus foliicolus
Yes Yes Japan [21][22]
Favolaschia manipularis
(Berk.) Teng[b]
? Yes Malaysia, Pacific islands [1][24]
Filoboletus hanedae
(as 'hanedai′) Kobayasi[c]
? Yes Japan [21]
Filoboletus pallescens
(Boedijn) Maas Geest.
? Yes Malaysia [26]
Filoboletus yunnanensis
? Yes China [26]
Gerronema viridilucens
Desjardin, Capelari & Stevani
Yes Yes SA [27]
Mycena asterina
Desjardin, Capelari & Stevani
Yes Yes SA [28]
Mycena cahaya
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [29]
Mycena citricolor
(Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc.
Yes No SA, CA [15][30]
Mycena chlorophos
(Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc.
Yes Yes Malaysia, Japan, Pacific Islands [24]
Mycena coralliformis
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes ? Malaysia [1]
Mycena daisyogunensis
? Yes Japan [21]
Mycena deeptha
Aravind. & Manim.
Yes No India [11]
Mycena discobasis
? Yes SA, AF [28]
Mycena epipterygia
(Scop.: Fr.) S.F.Gray
Yes No EU, NA, Japan [31]
Mycena fera
Maas Geest. & de Meijer
? Yes SA [28]
Mycena galopus
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA, Japan [15][31][32]
Mycena gombakensis
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [1]
Mycena haematopus
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes Yes EU, NA, Japan [32][33]
Mycena illuminans
Yes Yes Malaysia, Japan [1][24][34][35]
Mycena inclinata
(Fr.) Quél.
Yes No EU, NA, AF [14]
Mycena kentingensis
Y.S. Shih, C.Y. Chen, W.W. Lin & H.W. Kao
Yes Taiwan [12]
Mycena lacrimans
? Yes SA [28]
Mycena lazulina
Har. Takah., Taneyama, Terashima & Oba
? Yes Japan [36]
Mycena lucentipes
Desjardin, Capelari & Stevani
Yes Yes SA, CA [28]
Mycena lux-coeli
? Yes Japan [24]
Mycena luxaeterna
B.A.Perry & Desjardin
Yes Yes SA [9]
Mycena luxarboricola
B.A.Perry & Desjardin
No Yes SA [9]
Mycena luxperpetua
B.A. Perry & Desjardin
Yes Yes Puerto Rico [9]
Mycena maculata
Yes EU, NA, AF [32]
Mycena Nocticaelum
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [1]
Mycena Noctilucens
Kawam. ex Corner[d]
? Yes Malaysia, Pacific islands [24][35]
Mycena olivaceomarginata
(Massee apud Cooke) Massee
Yes No EU, NA [14]
Mycena polygramma
(Bull.: Fr.) S.F.Gray
Yes No AF, EU, NA, Japan [15][31][32]
Mycena pruinosoviscida
? Yes (and spores) AU, Malaysia [24][35]
Mycena pseudostylobates
Yes ? Japan [21]
Mycena pura
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA, SA, Japan [32]
Mycena rosea
(Bull.) Gramberg
Yes No EU [32]
Mycena sanguinolenta
(Alb. & Schwein.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA, Japan [31]
Mycena seminau
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [29]
Mycena silvaelucens
B.A.Perry & Desjardin
? Yes Malaysia [9]
Mycena sinar
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [29]
Mycena sinar var. tangkaisinar
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
? Yes Malaysia [1]
Mycena singeri
? No SA, CA [28]
Mycena stylobates
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No AF, EU, NA, Japan [31]
Mycena sublucens
No Yes Malaysia [24]
Mycena tintinnabulum
(Fr.) Quél.
Yes No EU [38]
Mycena zephirus
(Fr.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU [31][32]
Neonothopanus gardneri
(Berk. ex Gardner) Capelari, Desjardin, Perry, Asai & Stevani
Yes Yes SA [10][39]
Neonothopanus nambi
(Speg.) Petersen & Krisai-Greilhuber
Yes Yes AU, SA, CA, Malaysia [1][40]
Nothopanus eugrammus
(Mont.) Singer[f]
No Yes Japan, Malaysia [40]
Nothopanus Noctilucens
(Lév.) Singer
? Yes Japan [42][43]
Omphalotus flagelliformis
Zhu L. Yang & B. Feng
Yes Yes China [44]
Omphalotus illudens
(Schwein.) Bresinsky & Besl.
Yes Yes EU, NA [6][14][15]
Omphalotus japonicus
(Kawam.) Kirchm. & O.K.Mill.[g]
Yes no China, Korea [33][46][47][48]
Omphalotus mangensis
(J.Li & X.Hu) Kirchm. & O.K.Mill.
? Yes China [49]
Omphalotus nidiformis
(Berk.) O.K.Mill.
? Yes AU [50][51]
Omphalotus olearius
(DC.: Fr.) Singer
Yes Yes EU, US [14]
Omphalotus olivascens
H.E.Bigelow, O.K.Mill. & Thiers
No Yes NA [52]
Panellus luminescens
(Corner) Corner
Yes Yes Malaysia [1][53][54]
Panellus luxfilamentus
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes ? Malaysia [1]
Panellus pusillus
(Pers. ex Lév.) Burdsall & O.K.Mill.[h]
Yes Yes AF, AU, NA, SA, Malaysia, Japan [22][24][43][54][56]
Panellus stipticus
(Bull.: Fr.) P.Karst.
Yes Yes AU, AF, EU, NA, SA, Japan [15][57]
Pleurotus decipiens
? Yes Malaysia [40]
Roridomyces irritans
(E.Horak) Rexer
No Yes AU [58]
Roridomyces pruinosoviscidus
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [1]
Roridomyces lamprosporus
(Corner) Rexer[i]
No Yes (spores) Malaysia, AU [35][53][58]
Roridomyces roridus
(Fr.) Rexer[j]
Yes No EU, NA, SA, Japan [62]
Tricholoma margarita
(Murrill) Murrill[k]
? Yellowish green light in all parts of the basidiome, or nonluminescent in some populations. Belize, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, US (Florida) [9]
Tricholoma sciodes
(Pers.) C. Martín
? Glowing young mycelium Lithuania [19]
Xylaria hypoxylon
(L.) Grev.
? Yes EU [64][65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Apparently it is the same species as given in Index Fungorum with a current name as Dictyopanus foliicola Kobayasi.[20]
  2. ^ This species is given in Audrey et al. (2015) as Filoboletus manipularis and in Corner (1954) as Mycena manipularis var. microporus, but Index Fungorum indicates that Favolaschia manipularis is the current name.[23]
  3. ^ This species is given in Kobayasi (1951) as Poromycena hanedae (as ′hanedai′) but Index Fungorum indicates that Filoboletus hanedae (as ′hanedai′) is the current name.[25]
  4. ^ This species is presumably given in Corner (1994) as Mycena Noctilucens var. magnispora but Index Fungorum indicates that Mycena Noctilucens is the current name.
  5. ^ This species is given in Corner (1954) and presumably in Corner (1994) as Mycena pruinoso-viscida and Mycena pruinoso-viscida var. rabaulensis but Index Fungorum indicates that Mycena pruinosoviscida is the current name.[37]
  6. ^ This species is given in Corner (1981) as Pleurotus eugrammus var. radicicolus, but Index Fungorum indicates that Nothopanus eugrammus is the current name.[41]
  7. ^ This species is given in Zang (1979) as Lampteromyces luminescens, but Index Fungorum indicates that Omphalotus japonicus is the current name.[45]
  8. ^ This species is given in Corner (1954) as Dictyopanus pusillus var. sublamellatus and in Kobayasi (1963), Corner (1954), Corner (1986) as Panellus gloeocystidiatus but Index Fungorum indicates that Panellus pusillus is the current name.[55]
  9. ^ This species is given in Corner (1994), Corner (1950), Horak (1978) as Mycena lamprospora, but Index Fungorum indicates that Roridomyces lamprosporus is the current name.[59]
  10. ^ This species is given in Desjardin et al. (2008) as Mycena rorida, but both Index Fungorum and MycoBank indicate that Roridomyces roridus is the current name.[60][61]
  11. ^ This species is given in Desjardin et al. (2010) as Mycena margarita, but Index Fungorum indicates that Tricholoma margarita is the current name.[63]


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  29. ^ a b c Chew AL, Tan Y-S, Desjardin DE, Musa MY, Sabaratnam V (2014). "Four new bioluminescent taxa of Mycena sect. Calodontes from Peninsular Malaysia". Mycologia. 106 (5): 976–988. doi:10.3852/13-274. PMID 24891424.
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External links[edit]