List of bioluminescent fungus species

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Panellus stipticus, one of about 109 known species of bioluminescent fungi

Found largely in temperate and tropical climates, currently there are more than 109 known species of bioluminescent fungi, all of which are members of the order Agaricales (Basidiomycota) with one exceptional ascomycete belonging to the order Xylariales.[1] All known bioluminescent Agaricales are mushroom-forming, white-spored agarics that belong to four distinct evolutionary lineages. The Omphalotus lineage (comprising the genera Omphalotus and Neonothopanus) contains 12 species, the Armillaria lineage has 10 known species, while the Mycenoid lineage (Favolachia, Mycena, Panellus, Prunulus, Roridomyces) has more than 50 species. The recently discovered Lucentipes lineage contains two species, Mycena lucentipes and Gerronema viridilucens, which belong to a family that has not yet been formally named.[2] Armillaria mellea is the most widely distributed of the luminescent fungi, found across Asia, Europe, North America, and South Africa.[3]

Bioluminescent fungi emit a greenish light at a wavelength of 520–530 nm. The light emission is continuous and occurs only in living cells.[4] No correlation of fungal bioluminescence with cell structure has been found. Bioluminescence may occur in both mycelia and fruit bodies, as in Panellus stipticus and Omphalotus olearius, or only in mycelia and young rhizomorphs, as in Armillaria mellea.[5] In Roridomyces roridus luminescence occurs only in the spores, while in Collybia tuberosa, it is only in the sclerotia.[6]

Although the biochemistry of fungal bioluminescence has not fully been characterized, the preparation of bioluminescent, cell-free extracts has allowed researchers to characterize the in vitro requirements of fungal bioluminescence. Experimental data suggest that a two-stage mechanism is required. In the first, a light-emitting substance (called "luciferin") is reduced by a soluble reductase enzyme at the expense of NAD(P)H. In the second stage, reduced luciferin is oxidized by an insoluble luciferase that releases the energy in the form of bluish-green light. Conditions that affect the growth of fungi, such as pH, light and temperature, have been found to influence bioluminescence, suggesting a link between metabolic activity and fungal bioluminescence.[6]

All bioluminescent fungi share the same enzymatic mechanism, suggesting that there is a bioluminescent pathway that arose early in the evolution of the mushroom-forming Agaricales.[2] All known luminescent species are white rot fungi capable of breaking down lignin, found in abundance in wood. Bioluminescence is an oxygen-dependent metabolic process and therefore may provide antioxidant protection against the potentially damaging effects of reactive oxygen species produced during wood decay.

The physiological and ecological function of fungal bioluminescence has not been established with certainty. It has been suggested that in the dark beneath closed tropical forest canopies, bioluminescent fruit bodies may be at an advantage by attracting grazing animals (including insects and other arthropods) that could help disperse their spores. Conversely, where mycelium (and vegetative structures like rhizomorphs and sclerotia) are the bioluminescent tissues, the argument has been made that light emission could deter grazing.[6]

The following list of bioluminescent mushrooms is based on a 2008 literature survey by Dennis Desjardin and colleagues,[7] in addition to accounts of several new species published since then.[8][9][10][11]

Species[edit]

Key

Binomial
The binomial name of the fungal species, including the author citation—the person who first described the species using an available scientific name, using standardized abbreviations.
Luminescence
Indicates which form of the fungus—mycelium or fruit body—produces luminescence.
Distribution
The geographical distribution of the species. AF = Africa; AS = Asia; AU = Australasia; CA = Central America and the Caribbean; EU = Europe; NA = North America; SA = South America.
References
Literature sources where bioluminescence was reported.
Omphalotus olearius
Gills of O. olearius
Binomial Luminescence Distribution References
Mycelium Fruit body
Armillaria calvescens
Bérubé & Dessur.
Yes ? Eastern NA [13]
Armillaria cepistipes
Velen.
Yes ? NA, Eurasia [13]
Armillaria fuscipes
Petch
Yes No Malaysia, Africa [5][14][15]
Armillaria gallica
Marxm. & Romagn.
Yes No EU, NA, Africa, Japan [16]
Armillaria gemina
Bérubé & Dessur.
Yes ? Eastern NA [13]
Armillaria limonea
(G.Stev.) Boesew.
No Yes Australasia, SA [12]
Armillaria mellea
(Valh.) P.Kumm.
Yes No Eurasia, NA [16]
Armillaria nabsnona
T.J. Volk & Burds.
Yes ? Western NA, Asia [13]
Armillaria novae-zelandiae
(G.Stev.) Boesew.
No Yes NZ, Australia, New Guinea, SA [12]
Armillaria ostoyae
(Romagn.) Henrik
Yes No EU, NA [17]
Armillaria sinapina
Bérubé & Dessur.
Yes ? NA, Asia [13]
Armillaria tabescens
(Scop.) Emel
Yes No EU, NA [16]
Collybia tuberosa
(Bull.) P. Kumm
No Only sclerotia EU, NA, Lithuania [18][19]
Cruentomycena orientalis
Har. Takah., Taneyama & Hadano
Yes Yes Japan, Taiwan [20]
Desarmillaria ectypa
(Fr.) R.A. Koch & Aime
Yes Yes (gills) EU [21]
Dictyopanus foliicolus
Kobayasi[a]
Yes Yes Japan [23][24]
Favolaschia manipularis
(Berk.) Teng[b]
? Yes Malaysia, Pacific islands [26][27]
Favolaschia tonkinensis
(Pat.) Kuntze, 1898
No Yes Eastern India, China (Yunnan) [28]
Filoboletus hanedae
(as 'hanedai′) Kobayasi[c]
? Yes Japan [23]
Filoboletus pallescens
(Boedijn) Maas Geest.
? Yes Malaysia, Indonesia (Krakatoa) [30]
Favolaschia peziziformis
(Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc.
? Yes Japan [31]
Filoboletus yunnanensis
P.G.Liu
? Yes China [30]
Gerronema viridilucens
Desjardin, Capelari & Stevani
Yes Yes SA [32]
Marasmiellus venosus
Har. Takah., Taneyama & Hadano
No Yes Japan [33]
Mycena aspratilis
Maas Geest. & de Meijer
? Yes (Hymenophore) SA [8]
Mycena asterina
Desjardin, Capelari & Stevani
Yes Yes SA [34]
Mycena cahaya
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [35]
Mycena citricolor
(Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc.
Yes No SA, CA, Jamaica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico [15][36]
Mycena chlorophos
(Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc.
Yes Yes Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, Pacific Islands [27]
Mycena cristinae
J.S. Oliveira
Yes Yes Brazil [1]
Mycena coralliformis
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes ? Malaysia [26]
Mycena daisyogunensis
Kobayasi
? Yes Japan [23]
Mycena deeptha
Aravind. & Manim.
Yes No India [10]
Mycena deformis
Maas Geest. & de Meijer
Yes No Brazil [37]
Mycena deusta
Maas Geest. & de Meijer
? Yes Brazil [38]
Mycena discobasis
Metrod
? Yes SA, AF [34]
Mycena sp. 'Erua' Yes Yes NZ [39]
Mycena epipterygia
(Scop.: Fr.) S.F.Gray
Yes No EU, NA, Japan [37]
Mycena fera
Maas Geest. & de Meijer
? Yes SA [34]
Mycena flammifera
Har. Takah. & Taneyama
? Yes Japan [40]
Mycena fulgoris
Cortés-Pérez, Desjardin
No Yes (stipe) Mexico [41]
Mycena fusca
Cleland
? ? South Australia [42]
Mycena galopus
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA, Japan [15][37][43]
Mycena globulispora
Maas Geest. & de Meijer
Yes Yes (basidiomes) Brazil [44]
Mycena gombakensis
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [26]
Mycena guzmanii
Cortés-Pérez, Desjardin
Yes Yes Mexico [41]
Mycena haematopus
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes Yes EU, NA, Japan [43][45]
Mycena illuminans
Henn.
Yes Yes Malaysia, Japan [26][27][46][47]
Mycena inclinata
(Fr.) Quél.
Yes No EU, NA, AF [14]
Mycena kentingensis
Y.S. Shih, C.Y. Chen, W.W. Lin & H.W. Kao
? Yes Taiwan [11]
Mycena lacrimans
Singer
? Yes SA (Brazil) [34]
Mycena lazulina
Har. Takah., Taneyama, Terashima & Oba
? Yes Japan, AU [48]
Mycena lucentipes
Desjardin, Capelari & Stevani
Yes Yes SA, CA [34]
Mycena lumina
Cortés-Pérez, Desjardin
No Yes Mexico [41]
Mycena lux-coeli
Corner
? Yes Japan [27]
Mycena luxaeterna
B.A.Perry & Desjardin
Yes Yes SA [8]
Mycena luxarboricola
B.A.Perry & Desjardin
No Yes SA [8]
Mycena luxfoliata
Har. Takah., Taneyama & Terashima
Yes No Japan [44]
Mycena luxfoliicola
Cortés-Pérez, Desjardin & Ram.-Cruz
Yes Yes Mexico [41]
Mycena luxperpetua
B.A. Perry & Desjardin
Yes Yes Puerto Rico [8]
Mycena maculata
P.Karst.
Yes ? EU, NA, AF [43]
Mycena margarita
(Murrill) Murrill
? Yes (yellowish green light in all parts of the basidiome, or nonluminescent in some populations) Caribbean - Florida (USA), Belize, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Venezuela, Brazil [49] [8]
Mycena nebula
Cortés-Pérez, Desjardin & Rockefeller
No Yes Mexico [41]
Mycena nocticaelum
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [26]
Mycena noctilucens
Kawam. ex Corner[d]
? Yes Malaysia, Pacific islands, South Solomons [27][47]
Mycena olivaceomarginata
(Massee apud Cooke) Massee
Yes No EU, NA [14]
Mycena oculisnymphae
Desjardin, B.A. Perry & Stevanir
? Yes (basidiome) Brazil [44]
Mycena perlae
Cortés-Pérez, Desjardin & Rockefeller
No Yes Mexico [41]
Mycena polygramma
(Bull.: Fr.) S.F.Gray
Yes No AF, EU, NA, Japan [15][37][43]
Mycena pruinosoviscida
Corner[e]
? Yes (and spores) AU, Malaysia, Japan (Hachijō-jima) [27][47]
Mycena pseudostylobates
Kobayasi
Yes ? Japan [23]
Mycena pura
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA, SA, Japan [43]
Mycena rosea
(Bull.) Gramberg
Yes No EU [43]
Mycena roseoflava
(G.Stev.)
Yes Yes NZ [12]
Mycena sanguinolenta
(Alb. & Schwein.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU, NA, Japan [37]
Mycena seminau
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [35]
Mycena silvaelucens
B.A.Perry & Desjardin
? Yes (pileus, lamellae, stipe) Malaysia [8]
Mycena sinar
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia [35]
Mycena sinar var. tangkaisinar
A.L.C.Chew & Desjardin
? Yes Malaysia [26]
Mycena singeri
Lodge
? No SA, CA [34]
Mycena stellaris
Har.Takah., Taneyama & Hadano
? Yes Taiwan [51]
Mycena stylobates
(Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No AF, EU, NA, Japan [37]
Mycena sublucens
Corner
No Yes Malaysia [27]
Mycena tintinnabulum
(Fr.) Quél.
Yes No EU [52]
Mycena vinacea
Cleland
? Yes (basidiomes) AU, NZ [12]
Mycena zephirus
(Fr.: Fr.) P.Kumm.
Yes No EU [37][43]
Neonothopanus gardneri
(Berk. ex Gardner) Capelari, Desjardin, Perry, Asai & Stevani
Yes Yes SA [9][53]
Neonothopanus nambi
(Speg.) Petersen & Krisai-Greilhuber
Yes Yes AU, SA, CA, Malaysia [26][54]
Nothopanus eugrammus
(Mont.) Singer[f]
No Yes Japan, Malaysia, Singapore [54]
Nothopanus noctilucens
(Lév.) Singer
? Yes Japan [56][57]
Omphalotus flagelliformis
Zhu L. Yang & B. Feng
Yes Yes China [58]
Omphalotus illudens
(Schwein.) Bresinsky & Besl.
Yes Yes EU, NA [5][14][15]
Omphalotus japonicus
(Kawam.) Kirchm. & O.K.Mill.[g]
Yes No China, Korea, Japan [45][60][61][62]
Omphalotus mangensis
(J.Li & X.Hu) Kirchm. & O.K.Mill.
? Yes China [63]
Omphalotus nidiformis
(Berk.) O.K.Mill.
? Yes AU [64][65]
Omphalotus olearius
(DC.: Fr.) Singer
Yes Yes EU, US [14]
Omphalotus olivascens
H.E.Bigelow, O.K.Mill. & Thiers
No Yes NA [66]
Omphalotus subilludens
(Murrill) H.E.Bigelow
Yes Yes US [67]
Panellus luminescens
(Corner) Corner
Yes Yes Malaysia [26][68][69]
Panellus luxfilamentus
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes ? Malaysia [26]
Panellus pusillus
(Pers. ex Lév.) Burdsall & O.K.Mill.[h]
Yes Yes AF, AU, NA, SA, Malaysia, Japan [24][27][57][69][71]
Panellus stipticus
(Bull.: Fr.) P.Karst.
Yes Yes AU, AF, EU, NA, SA, Japan [15][72]
Pleurotus decipiens
Corner
? Yes Malaysia [54]
Resinomycena petarensis
Desjardin, B.A. Perry & Stevani
Yes No Brazil [44]
Roridomyces irritans
(E.Horak) Rexer
No Yes AU [73]
Roridomyces phyllostachydis
Karun., Mortimer and Axford
No Yes India [74]
Roridomyces pruinosoviscidus
A.L.C. Chew & Desjardin
Yes Yes Malaysia, Bismark Archipelago [26]
Roridomyces lamprosporus
(Corner) Rexer[i]
No Yes (spores) Malaysia, AU [47][68][73]
Roridomyces roridus
(Fr.) Rexer[j]
Yes No EU, NA, SA, Japan [78]
Roridomyces viridiluminus
L.A.P. Dauner, Karunarathna & P.E. Mortimer
Yes Yes China (Yunnan) [79]
Tricholoma sciodes
(Pers.) C. Martín
? Glowing young mycelium Lithuania [19]
Xylaria hypoxylon
(L.) Grev.
? Yes EU [80][81]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Apparently it is the same species as given in Index Fungorum with a current name as Dictyopanus foliicola Kobayasi.[22]
  2. ^ This species is given in Audrey et al. (2015) as Filoboletus manipularis and in Corner (1954) as Mycena manipularis var. microporus, but Index Fungorum indicates that Favolaschia manipularis is the current name.[25]
  3. ^ This species is given in Kobayasi (1951) as Poromycena hanedae (as ′hanedai′) but Index Fungorum indicates that Filoboletus hanedae (as ′hanedai′) is the current name.[29]
  4. ^ This species is presumably given in Corner (1994) as Mycena Noctilucens var. magnispora but Index Fungorum indicates that Mycena Noctilucens is the current name.
  5. ^ This species is given in Corner (1954) and presumably in Corner (1994) as Mycena pruinoso-viscida and Mycena pruinoso-viscida var. rabaulensis but Index Fungorum indicates that Mycena pruinosoviscida is the current name.[50]
  6. ^ This species is given in Corner (1981) as Pleurotus eugrammus var. radicicolus, but Index Fungorum indicates that Nothopanus eugrammus is the current name.[55]
  7. ^ This species is given in Zang (1979) as Lampteromyces luminescens, but Index Fungorum indicates that Omphalotus japonicus is the current name.[59]
  8. ^ This species is given in Corner (1954) as Dictyopanus pusillus var. sublamellatus and in Kobayasi (1963), Corner (1954), Corner (1986) as Panellus gloeocystidiatus but Index Fungorum indicates that Panellus pusillus is the current name.[70]
  9. ^ This species is given in Corner (1994), Corner (1950), Horak (1978) as Mycena lamprospora, but Index Fungorum indicates that Roridomyces lamprosporus is the current name.[75]
  10. ^ This species is given in Desjardin et al. (2008) as Mycena rorida, but both Index Fungorum and MycoBank indicate that Roridomyces roridus is the current name.[76][77]

References[edit]

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