List of birds

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King penguins
Ostriches

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that[1].

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

Phylogeny[edit]

Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014)[2] with some clade names after Yury, T. et al. (2013).[3]

Aves
Palaeognathae
Struthionimorphae

Struthioniformes (ostriches)[4]

Notopalaeognathae
Rheimorphae

Rheiformes (rheas)

Novaeratitae

Casuariiformes (cassowaries & emus)

Apterygiformes (kiwi)

Aepyornithiformes (elephant birds)

Tinamomorphae

Dinornithiformes (moas)

Lithornithiformes (false tinamous)

Tinamiformes (tinamous)

Neognathae
Galloanserae
Gallomorphae

Galliformes (landfowl)

Odontoanserae

Odontopterygiformes

Anserimorphae

Vegaviiformes[5]

Gastornithiformes

Anseriformes (waterfowl)

Neoaves
Columbea
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingoes)

Podicipediformes (grebes)

Columbimorphae

Mesitornithiformes (mesites)

Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouse)

Columbiformes (pigeons)

Passerea
Otidae
Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)

Otidiformes (bustards)

Musophagiformes (turacos)

Cypselomorphae

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars)

Nyctibiiformes (oilbirds & potoos)

Podargiformes (frogmouths)

Aegotheliformes (owlet-nightjars)

Apodiformes (hummingbirds & swifts)

Gruae

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)

Cursorimorphae

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)

Charadriiformes (shorebirds)

Ardeae
Phaethontimorphae

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu)

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons)

Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatross and petrels)

Sphenisciformes (penguins)

Ciconiiformes (storks)

Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.)

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons & egrets)

Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (condors and New World vultures)

Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, vultures, etc.)

Strigiformes (owls)

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)

Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)

Picodynastornithes

Coraciformes (kingfishers etc.)

Piciformes (woodpeckers etc.)

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)

Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)

Paleognathae[edit]

The flightless and mostly giant Struthioniformes lack a keeled sternum and are collectively known as ratites. Together with the Tinamiformes, they form the Paleognathae or "old jaws", one of the two superorders recognized within the taxonomic class Aves.

Struthioniformes[edit]

Greater rhea pair

Africa; 2 species

Notopalaeognathae[edit]

Rheiformes[edit]

South America; 2 species

Casuariiformes[edit]

Australasia; 4 species

Apterygiformes[edit]

Australasia; 5 species

Aepyornithiformes[edit]

Madagascar

Dinornithiformes[edit]

New Zealand

Tinamiformes[edit]

South America; 45 species

Neognathae[edit]

Nearly all living birds belong to the superorder Neognathae or "new jaws". With their keeled sternum (breastbone), unlike the ratites, they are known as carinatae.

Galloanserae[edit]

Galliformes[edit]

Australian brush turkey

Worldwide; 250 species

Gastornithiformes[edit]

Anseriformes[edit]

Worldwide; 150 species

Mirandornithes[edit]

Podicipediformes[edit]

Worldwide; 19 species

Phoenicopteriformes[edit]

Worldwide; 6 species

Columbimorphae[edit]

Columbiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 300 species

Pteroclidiformes[edit]

Africa, Europe, Asia; 16 species

Mesitornithiformes[edit]

Madagascar; 3 species

Cypselomorphae[edit]

Caprimulgiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 500 species

Tawny frogmouth

Otidimorphae[edit]

Cuculiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 126 species

Musophagiformes[edit]

Africa; 23 species

Otidiformes[edit]

Africa and Eurasia; 27 species

Gruae[edit]

Opisthocomiformes[edit]

South America; 1 species

Gruiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 164 species

Charadriiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 350 species

Phaethontimorphae[edit]

Eurypygiformes[edit]

Neotropics and New Caledonia; 2 species

Phaethontiformes[edit]

Oceanic; 3 species

Aequornithes[edit]

Gaviiformes[edit]

North America, Eurasia; 5 species

Sphenisciformes[edit]

Antarctic and southern waters; 17 species

Procellariiformes[edit]

Pan-oceanic; 120 species

Ciconiiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 19 species

White stork

Suliformes[edit]

Worldwide; 59 species

Pelecaniformes[edit]

Worldwide; 108 species

Afroaves[edit]

Accipitriformes[edit]

Worldwide; 200 species

Strigiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 130 species

Coliiformes[edit]

Sub-Saharan Africa; 6 species

Leptosomatiformes[edit]

Madagascar; 1 species

Trogoniformes[edit]

Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, Asia; 35 species

Bucerotiformes[edit]

Old World, New Guinea; 64 species

Coraciiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 144 species

Kingfisher

Piciformes[edit]

Worldwide except Australasia; 400 species

Australaves[edit]

Cariamiformes[edit]

South America; 2 species

Falconiformes[edit]

Worldwide; 60 species

Psittaciformes[edit]

Pan-tropical, southern temperate zones; 330 species

Passeriformes[edit]

Worldwide; 5000 species

See also[edit]

For regions smaller than continents see:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barrowclough GF, Cracraft J, Klicka J, Zink RM (2016) How Many Kinds of Birds Are There and Why Does It Matter? PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166307. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166307
  2. ^ Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904Freely accessible. PMID 25504713. 
  3. ^ Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology. 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. PMC 4009869Freely accessible. PMID 24832669. 
  4. ^ Boyd, John (2007). "NEORNITHES: 46 Orders" (PDF). John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2017. 
  5. ^ Worthy, T.H.; Degrange, F.J.; Handley, W.D.; Lee, M.S.Y. (2017). "The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres)". Royal Society Open Science. 11.