List of birds of Bermuda
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bermuda. The avifauna of Bermuda include a total of 375 species, a remarkable number considering that the island is a mere 53.3 square kilometres. Ten of these have been introduced by humans; the mallard also occurs naturally as a non-breeding migrant. 207 are rare or accidental. Two species listed are extirpated in Bermuda; Audubon's shearwater formerly bred but is now only a vagrant while there are a few old records of Eskimo curlew occurring on migration but none since 1930. Seven species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the American Ornithologists' Union checklist (7th edition and supplements). The species counts found in each family account reflect this taxonomy. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Bermuda. Species marked accidental are those listed as "rare" or "very rare" in Dobson (2002).
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bermuda
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bermuda as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
- (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Bermuda although populations exist elsewhere
- (E) Extinct -a species that is extinct globally
- 1 Ducks, geese and swans
- 2 Loons
- 3 Grebes
- 4 Shearwaters and petrels
- 5 Storm petrels
- 6 Tropicbirds
- 7 Boobies and gannets
- 8 Cormorants
- 9 Frigatebirds
- 10 Pelicans
- 11 Bitterns, herons and egrets
- 12 Ibises
- 13 Flamingos
- 14 New World vultures
- 15 Osprey
- 16 Hawks, kites and eagles
- 17 Falcons
- 18 Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
- 19 Cranes
- 20 Plovers and lapwings
- 21 Avocets and stilts
- 22 Sandpipers and allies
- 23 Gulls, terns and skimmers
- 24 Skuas and jaegers
- 25 Auks and puffins
- 26 Pigeons and doves
- 27 Cuckoos
- 28 Barn owls
- 29 Typical owls
- 30 Nightjars
- 31 Swifts
- 32 Hummingbirds
- 33 Kingfishers
- 34 Woodpeckers and allies
- 35 Tyrant flycatchers
- 36 Shrikes
- 37 Vireos
- 38 Crows and jays
- 39 Larks
- 40 Swallows and martins
- 41 Nuthatches
- 42 Treecreepers
- 43 Wrens
- 44 Kinglets
- 45 Old World flycatchers
- 46 Thrushes and allies
- 47 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 48 Starlings
- 49 Wagtails and pipits
- 50 Waxwings
- 51 Longspurs and snow buntings
- 52 New World warblers
- 53 American sparrows and allies
- 54 Cardinals and allies
- 55 Troupials and allies
- 56 Finches
- 57 Old World sparrows
- 58 Waxbills and allies
- 59 See also
- 60 References
Ducks, geese and swans
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
- West Indian whistling duck, Dendrocygna arborea (A)
- Fulvous whistling duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- Greater white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons (A)
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens (A)
- Brant, Branta bernicla (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis (A)
- Mute swan, Cygnus olor (A)
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (A)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A)
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope (A)
- American wigeon, Anas americana
- American black duck, Anas rubripes
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (I)
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta (A)
- Garganey, Anas querquedula (A)
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (A)
- Redhead, Aythya americana (A)
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris
- Ferruginous duck, Aythya nyroca (A)
- Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (A)
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila (A)
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis
- Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata (A)
- White-winged scoter, Melanitta fusca (A)
- Black scoter, Melanitta americana (A)
- Long-tailed duck, Clangula hyemalis (A)
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola (A)
- Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (A)
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
- Common merganser, Mergus merganser (A)
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator (A)
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (A)
Loons, known as divers in Europe, are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resemble when swimming, but to which they are completely unrelated.
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
- Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
- Horned grebe, Podiceps auritus (A)
- Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena (A)
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis (A)
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Bermuda petrel, Pterodroma cahow
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodroma hasitata (A)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea
- Great shearwater, Ardenna gravis
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus
- Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri (Ex, A)
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
Boobies and gannets
- Masked booby, Sula dactylatra (A)
- Brown booby, Sula leucogaster (A)
- Northern gannet, Morus bassanus (A)
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens (A)
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Grey heron, Ardea cinerea (A)
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta (A)
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Tricoloured heron, Egretta tricolor
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens (A)
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Striated heron, Butorides striata (A)
- Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night heron, Nyctanassa violacea
- Bermuda night heron, Nyctanassa carcinocatactes(E)
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.
- Caribbean flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (A)
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion.
- Turkey vulture, Cathartes aura (A)
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Mississippi kite, Ictinia mississippiensis (A)
- Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (A)
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii (A)
- Northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis (A)
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis (A)
- Rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus (A)
- Booted eagle, Hieraaetus pennatus (A)
- Bermuda hawk,Bermuteo avivorus(E)
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (A)
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius
- Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus (A)
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Yellow rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis (A)
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- Corn crake, Crex crex (A)
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans (A)
- Virginia rail, Rallus limicola (A)
- Sora, Porzana carolina
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".
- Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis (A)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (A)
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica
- Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva (A)
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia (A)
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
- Eurasian dotterel, Charadrius morinellus (A)
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia (A)
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola (A)
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda
- Eskimo curlew, Numenius borealis (Ex)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata (A)
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica (A)
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (A)
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis (A)
- Little stint, Calidris minuta (A)
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii (A)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata (A)
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (A)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax (A)
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata
- Common snipe Gallinago gallinago (A)
- American woodcock, Scolopax minor (A)
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius (A)
Gulls, terns and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, terns and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have webbed feet. Gulls have stout bills while terns have long dagger-like bils. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan (A)
- Little gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus (A)
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis
- California gull, Larus californicus (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus
- Iceland gull, Larus glaucoides (A)
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus
- Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus (A)
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini (A)
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A)
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus (A)
- White tern, Gygis alba (A)
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscatus (A)
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus (A)
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Large-billed tern, Phaetusa simplex (A)
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia (A)
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii (A)
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri (A)
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maximus
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis (A)
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger (A)
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
- Great skua, Stercorarius skua (A)
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki (A)
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
Auks and puffins
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins and differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest.
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica (A)
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
- Common ground dove, Columbina passerina
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Snowy owl, Bubo scandiacus (A)
- Barred owl, Strix varia (A)
- Long-eared owl, Asio otus (A)
- Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus (A)
- Northern saw-whet owl, Aegolius acadicus (A)
- Bermuda saw-whet owl, Aegolius gradyi (E)
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
- Lesser nighthawk, Chordeiles acutipennis (A)
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii (A)
- Eastern whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus (A)
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Red-headed woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (A)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
- Downy woodpecker, Picoides pubescens (A)
- Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus (A)
- Bermuda flicker, Colaptes oceanicus (E)
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Olive-sided flycatcher, Contopus cooperi (A)
- Eastern wood pewee, Contopus virens
- Yellow-bellied flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris (A)
- Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens (A)
- Alder flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum (A)
- Willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii (A)
- Least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus (A)
- Eastern phoebe, Sayornis phoebe (A)
- Say's phoebe, Sayornis saya (A)
- Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens (A)
- Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus (A)
- Great kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus (I)
- Tropical kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus (A)
- Western kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis (A)
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
- Grey kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis (A)
- Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus (A)
- Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana (A)
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons
- Blue-headed vireo, Vireo solitarius (A)
- Warbling vireo, Vireo gilvus
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus (A)
Crows and jays
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Purple martin, Progne subis
- Caribbean martin, Progne dominicensis (A)
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A)
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva (A)
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Common house martin, Delichon urbicum (A)
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.
- Brown creeper, Certhia americana (A)
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.
- House wren, Troglodytes aedon (A)
- Winter wren, Troglodytes hiemalis (A)
- Marsh wren, Cistothorus palustris (A)
The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice.
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens (A)
- Grey-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A)
- Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus
- Hermit thrush, Catharus guttatus
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (A)
- American robin, Turdus migratorius
- Varied thrush, Ixoreus naevius (A)
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull-greys and browns.
- Grey catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos (A)
- Brown thrasher, Toxostoma rufum (A)
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris (I)
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
Longspurs and snow buntings
The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that have been traditionally grouped with the Emberizeridae (New World sparrows), but differ in a number of respects and are usually found in open grassy areas.
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
- Tennessee warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned warbler, Oreothlypis celata
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens
- Townsend's warbler, Setophaga townsendi (A)
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus
- Kirtland's warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii (A)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea (A)
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosus
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis
- Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens
American sparrows and allies
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina
- Clay-coloured sparrow, Spizella pallida (A)
- Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla (A)
- Vesper sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus (A)
- Lark sparrow, Chondestes grammacus (A)
- Savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum (A)
- Le Conte's sparrow, Ammodramus lecontii (A)
- Saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus (A)
- Fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca (A)
- Song sparrow, Melospiza melodia (A)
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii
- Swamp sparrow, Melospiza georgiana (A)
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis
- White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis
- Bermuda towhee, Pipilo naufragus (E)
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (I)
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea
- Painted bunting, Passerina ciris (A)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana
Troupials and allies
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus (A)
- Eastern meadowlark, Sturnella magna (A)
- Yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (A)
- Rusty blackbird, Euphagus carolinus (A)
- Common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula (A)
- Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater (A)
- Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius (A)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Pine grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator (A)
- Purple finch, Haemorhous purpureus (A)
- Red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (A)
- White-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera (A)
- Common redpoll, Acanthis flammea (A)
- Pine siskin, Spinus pinus (A)
- American goldfinch, Spinus tristis (A)
- European goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis (I)
- Evening grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus (A)
Old World sparrows
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.
- American Ornithologist's Union. "The A.O.U. Check-list of North American Birds, Seventh Edition". Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Amos, Eric J. R. (1991). A guide to the Birds of Bermuda.
- Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.
- Dobson, Andrew (2002). A Birdwatching Guide to Bermuda. Arlequin Press, Chelmsford, Essex.
- Dobson, Andrew (2007). "Bermuda Audubon Society". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Bermuda". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Raine, André (2002). A Field Guide to the Birds of Bermuda. Macmillan, Oxford.