List of birds of Botswana
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Botswana. The avifauna of Botswana include a total of 593 species, of which 4 have been introduced by humans, and 100 are rare or accidental. Of those, 8 species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Botswana.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Botswana
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Botswana as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
The ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa. It is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.
- Ostrich, Struthio camelus
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis
- Great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- African darter, Anhinga rufa
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. There are 61 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Botswana.
- Grey heron, Ardea cinerea
- Black-headed heron, Ardea melanocephala
- Goliath heron, Ardea goliath
- Purple heron, Ardea purpurea
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Slaty egret, Egretta vinaceigula
- Black heron, Egretta ardesiaca
- Intermediate egret, Egretta intermedia
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta
- Squacco heron, Ardeola ralloides
- Rufous-bellied heron, Ardeola rufiventris
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Striated heron, Butorides striata
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- White-backed night heron, Gorsachius leuconotus
- Little bittern, Ixobrychus minutus
- Dwarf bittern, Ixobrychus sturmii
- Great bittern, Botaurus stellaris (A)
The hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is drab-brown all over.
- Hamerkop, Scopus umbretta
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Botswana.
- Yellow-billed stork, Mycteria ibis
- African openbill, Anastomus lamelligerus
- Black stork, Ciconia nigra
- Abdim's stork, Ciconia abdimii
- Woolly-necked stork, Ciconia episcopus
- White stork, Ciconia ciconia
- Saddle-billed stork, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis
- Marabou stork, Leptoptilos crumeniferus
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Sacred ibis, Threskiornis aethiopicus
- Hadada ibis, Bostrychia hagedash
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus
- African spoonbill, Platalea alba
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Botswana.
- Fulvous whistling duck, Dendrocygna bicolor
- White-faced whistling duck, Dendrocygna viduata
- White-backed duck, Thalassornis leuconotus
- Egyptian goose, Alopochen aegyptiacus
- South African shelduck, Tadorna cana
- Spur-winged goose, Plectropterus gambensis
- Comb duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos
- African pygmy goose, Nettapus auritus
- African black duck, Anas sparsa
- Cape teal, Anas capensis
- Yellow-billed duck, Anas undulata
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta (A)
- Red-billed teal, Anas erythrorhyncha
- Hottentot teal, Anas hottentota
- Garganey, Anas querquedula (A)
- Cape shoveler, Anas smithii
- Southern pochard, Netta erythrophthalma
- Maccoa duck, Oxyura maccoa
The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 47 species which occur in Botswana.
- African cuckoo-hawk, Aviceda cuculoides (A)
- European honey buzzard, Pernis apivorus (A)
- Bat hawk, Macheiramphus alcinus
- Black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus
- Black kite, Milvus migrans
- African fish eagle, Haliaeetus vocifer
- Palm-nut vulture, Gypohierax angolensis (A)
- Hooded vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus
- Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus (A)
- White-backed vulture, Gyps africanus
- Cape griffon, Gyps coprotheres
- Lappet-faced vulture, Torgos tracheliotus
- White-headed vulture, Trigonoceps occipitalis
- Black-breasted snake-eagle, Circaetus pectoralis
- Brown snake eagle, Circaetus cinereus
- Banded snake-eagle, Circaetus cinerascens
- Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus
- Western marsh harrier, Circus aeruginosus
- African marsh harrier, Circus ranivorus
- Black harrier, Circus maurus (A)
- Pallid harrier, Circus macrourus
- Montagu's harrier, Circus pygargus
- African harrier-hawk, Polyboroides typus
- Lizard buzzard, Kaupifalco monogrammicus
- Dark chanting goshawk, Melierax metabates
- Pale chanting goshawk, Melierax canorus
- Gabar goshawk, Micronisus gabar
- African goshawk, Accipiter tachiro (A)
- Shikra, Accipiter badius
- Little sparrowhawk, Accipiter minullus
- Ovambo sparrowhawk, Accipiter ovampensis
- Black sparrowhawk, Accipiter melanoleucus
- Common buzzard, Buteo buteo
- Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus (A)
- Augur buzzard, Buteo augur (A)
- Jackal buzzard, Buteo rufofuscus (A)
- Lesser spotted eagle, Aquila pomarina
- Tawny eagle, Aquila rapax
- Steppe eagle, Aquila nipalensis
- Wahlberg's eagle, Aquila wahlbergi
- Verreaux's eagle, Aquila verreauxii
- African hawk-eagle, Aquila spilogaster
- Booted eagle, Aquila pennatus
- Ayres's hawk-eagle, Aquila ayresii
- Martial eagle, Polemaetus bellicosus
- Long-crested eagle, Lophaetus occipitalis
- Crowned hawk-eagle, Stephanoaetus coronatus (A)
The secretary-bird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by its long crane-like legs.
- Secretary-bird, Sagittarius serpentarius
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Botswana.
- Pygmy falcon, Polihierax semitorquatus
- Lesser kestrel, Falco naumanni
- Rock kestrel, Falco rupicolus
- Greater kestrel, Falco rupicoloides
- Dickinson's kestrel, Falco dickinsoni
- Red-necked falcon, Falco chicquera
- Red-footed falcon, Falco vespertinus
- Amur falcon, Falco amurensis
- Sooty falcon, Falco concolor (A)
- Eurasian hobby, Falco subbuteo
- African hobby, Falco cuvierii (A)
- Lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Botswana.
- Coqui francolin, Francolinus coqui
- Crested francolin, Francolinus sephaena
- Orange River francolin, Francolinus levaillantoides
- Red-billed francolin, Francolinus adspersus
- Natal francolin, Francolinus natalensis
- Swainson's francolin, Francolinus swainsonii
- Common quail, Coturnix coturnix (A)
- Harlequin quail, Coturnix delegorguei
- Blue quail, Coturnix adansonii
Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris
The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Small buttonquail, Turnix sylvatica
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Grey crowned crane, Balearica regulorum
- Blue crane, Grus paradisea (A)
- Wattled crane, Bugeranus carunculatus
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Botswana.
- Buff-spotted flufftail, Sarothrura elegans (A)
- Red-chested flufftail, Sarothrura rufa (A)
- African rail, Rallus caerulescens
- African crake, Crecopsis egregia
- Corn crake, Crex crex (A)
- Black crake, Amaurornis flavirostris
- Baillon's crake, Porzana pusilla (A)
- Spotted crake, Porzana porzana
- Striped crake, Aenigmatolimnas marginalis (A)
- African swamphen, Porphyrio madagascariensis
- Allen's gallinule, Porphyrio alleni
- Common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
- Lesser moorhen, Gallinula angulata
- Red-knobbed coot, Fulica cristata
Sungrebe and finfoots
Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- African finfoot, Podica senegalensis
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Botswana.
- Kori bustard, Ardeotis kori
- Ludwig's bustard, Neotis ludwigii (A)
- Stanley bustard, Neotis denhami
- White-bellied bustard, Eupodotis senegalensis
- Red-crested bustard, Eupodotis ruficrista
- White-quilled bustard, Eupodotis afraoides
- Black-bellied bustard, Lissotis melanogaster
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Greater painted-snipe, Rostratula benghalensis
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Botswana.
- Burchell's courser, Cursorius rufus (A)
- Temminck's courser, Cursorius temminckii
- Double-banded courser, Smutsornis africanus
- Three-banded courser, Rhinoptilus cinctus
- Bronze-winged courser, Rhinoptilus chalcopterus
- Collared pratincole, Glareola pratincola
- Black-winged pratincole, Glareola nordmanni
- Rock pratincole, Glareola nuchalis (A)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Botswana.
- Long-toed lapwing, Vanellus crassirostris
- Blacksmith lapwing, Vanellus armatus
- Spur-winged plover, Vanellus spinosus (A)
- White-headed lapwing, Vanellus albiceps
- Senegal lapwing, Vanellus lugubris
- Crowned lapwing, Vanellus coronatus
- African wattled lapwing, Vanellus senegallus
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- Common ringed plover, Charadrius hiaticula
- Kittlitz's plover, Charadrius pecuarius
- Three-banded plover, Charadrius tricollaris
- White-fronted plover, Charadrius marginatus
- Chestnut-banded plover, Charadrius pallidus
- Greater sandplover, Charadrius leschenaultii (A)
- Caspian plover, Charadrius asiaticus
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Botswana.
- African snipe, Gallinago nigripennis
- Great snipe, Gallinago media (A)
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (A)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata
- Spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus (A)
- Common redshank, Tringa totanus (A)
- Marsh sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca (A)
- Green sandpiper, Tringa ochropus
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola
- Terek sandpiper, Xenus cinereus (A)
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Little stint, Calidris minuta
- Temminck's stint, Calidris temminckii (A)
- Long-toed stint, Calidris subminuta (A)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos (A)
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
- Ruff, Philomachus pugnax
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius (A)
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus (A)
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus (A)
- Grey-headed gull, Larus cirrocephalus
- Black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus (A)
Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Botswana.
- Gull-billed tern, Sterna nilotica (A)
- Caspian tern, Sterna caspia
- Whiskered tern, Chlidonias hybridus
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- African skimmer, Rynchops flavirostris
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Namaqua sandgrouse, Pterocles namaqua
- Yellow-throated sandgrouse, Pterocles gutturalis
- Double-banded sandgrouse, Pterocles bicinctus
- Burchell's sandgrouse, Pterocles burchelli
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- Speckled pigeon, Columba guinea
- European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur (A)
- Mourning collared dove, Streptopelia decipiens
- Red-eyed dove, Streptopelia semitorquata
- Ring-necked dove, Streptopelia capicola
- Laughing dove, Streptopelia senegalensis
- Emerald-spotted wood dove, Turtur chalcospilos
- Namaqua dove, Oena capensis
- African green pigeon, Treron calva
Parrots, macaws and allies
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back. There are 335 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Peach-faced lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis (A)
- Brown-necked parrot, Poicephalus robustus (A)
- Meyer's parrot, Poicephalus meyeri
The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away-birds make up the bird family Musophagidae. They are medium-sized arboreal birds. The turacos and plantain eaters are brightly coloured, usually in blue, green or purple. The go-away birds are mostly grey and white. There are 23 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Schalow's turaco, Tauraco schalowi (A)
- Purple-crested turaco, Tauraco porphyreolophus (A)
- Ross's turaco, Musophaga rossae (A)
- Grey go-away-bird, Corythaixoides concolor
Cuckoos and anis
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. There are 138 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Botswana.
- Pied cuckoo, Clamator jacobinus
- Levaillant's cuckoo, Clamator levaillantii
- Great spotted cuckoo, Clamator glandarius
- Thick-billed cuckoo, Pachycoccyx audeberti (A)
- Red-chested cuckoo, Cuculus solitarius
- Black cuckoo, Cuculus clamosus
- Common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus
- African cuckoo, Cuculus gularis
- Klaas's cuckoo, Chrysococcyx klaas
- African emerald cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus (A)
- Dideric cuckoo, Chrysococcyx caprius
- Black coucal, Centropus grillii
- Coppery-tailed coucal, Centropus cupreicaudus
- Senegal coucal, Centropus senegalensis
- White-browed coucal, Centropus superciliosus
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Botswana.
- African scops owl, Otus senegalensis
- Southern white-faced owl, Ptilopsis granti
- Spotted eagle-owl, Bubo africanus
- Verreaux's eagle-owl, Bubo lacteus
- Pel's fishing owl, Scotopelia peli
- African wood owl, Strix woodfordii
- Pearl-spotted owlet, Glaucidium perlatum
- African barred owlet, Glaucidium capense
- Marsh owl, Asio capensis
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Botswana.
- Eurasian nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus (A)
- Rufous-cheeked nightjar, Caprimulgus rufigena
- Fiery-necked nightjar, Caprimulgus pectoralis
- Swamp nightjar, Caprimulgus natalensis
- Freckled nightjar, Caprimulgus tristigma
- Square-tailed nightjar, Caprimulgus fossii
- Pennant-winged nightjar, Macrodipteryx vexillarius
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Botswana.
- Bat-like spinetail, Neafrapus boehmi
- African palm swift, Cypsiurus parvus
- Alpine swift, Tachymarptis melba
- Common swift, Apus apus
- African swift, Apus barbatus
- Bradfield's swift, Apus bradfieldi (A)
- Little swift, Apus affinis
- Horus swift, Apus horus
- White-rumped swift, Apus caffer
The mousebirds are slender greyish or brown birds with soft, hairlike body feathers and very long thin tails. They are arboreal and scurry through the leaves like rodents in search of berries, fruit and buds. They are acrobatic and can feed upside down. All species have strong claws and reversible outer toes. They also have crests and stubby bills. There are 6 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Speckled mousebird, Colius striatus
- White-backed mousebird, Colius colius
- Red-faced mousebird, Urocolius indicus
Trogons and quetzals
The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Narina trogon, Apaloderma narina (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Botswana.
- Half-collared kingfisher, Alcedo semitorquata (A)
- Malachite kingfisher, Corythornis cristatus
- African pygmy kingfisher, Ispidina picta
- Grey-headed kingfisher, Halcyon leucocephala
- Woodland kingfisher, Halcyon senegalensis
- Brown-hooded kingfisher, Halcyon albiventris
- Striped kingfisher, Halcyon chelicuti
- Giant kingfisher, Megaceryle maximus
- Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Botswana.
- White-fronted bee-eater, Merops bullockoides
- Little bee-eater, Merops pusillus
- Swallow-tailed bee-eater, Merops hirundineus
- Blue-cheeked bee-eater, Merops persicus
- Madagascar bee-eater, Merops superciliosus (A)
- European bee-eater, Merops apiaster
- Southern carmine bee-eater, Merops nubicoides
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Botswana.
- European roller, Coracias garrulus
- Lilac-breasted roller, Coracias caudata
- Racket-tailed roller, Coracias spatulata
- Rufous-crowned roller, Coracias naevia
- Broad-billed roller, Eurystomus glaucurus
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Hoopoe, Upupa epops
The woodhoopoes are related to the kingfishers, rollers and hoopoes. They most resemble the hoopoes with their long curved bills, used to probe for insects, and short rounded wings. However, they differ in that they have metallic plumage, often blue, green or purple, and lack an erectile crest. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Botswana.
- Red-billed hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus
- Southern yellow-billed hornbill, Tockus leucomelas
- Crowned hornbill, Tockus alboterminatus (A)
- Bradfield's hornbill, Tockus bradfieldi
- African grey hornbill, Tockus nasutus
- Trumpeter hornbill, Ceratogymna bucinator
- Southern ground-hornbill, Bucorvus leadbeateri
The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Yellow-fronted tinkerbird, Pogoniulus chrysoconus
- Acacia pied barbet, Tricholaema leucomelas
- Black-collared barbet, Lybius torquatus
- Crested barbet, Trachyphonus vaillantii
Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey-hunters to bees' nests and, after the hunters have harvested the honey, feeds on the remaining contents of the hive. There are 17 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Greater honeyguide, Indicator indicator
- Lesser honeyguide, Indicator minor
- Green-backed honeyguide, Prodotiscus zambesiae (A)
- Wahlberg's honeyguide, Prodotiscus regulus
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Botswana.
- Bennett's woodpecker, Campethera bennettii
- Golden-tailed woodpecker, Campethera abingoni
- Cardinal woodpecker, Dendropicos fuscescens
- Bearded woodpecker, Dendropicos namaquus
- Olive woodpecker, Dendropicos griseocephalus (A)
The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- African broadbill, Smithornis capensis (A)
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Botswana.
- Monotonous lark, Mirafra passerina
- Latakoo lark, Mirafra cheniana (A)
- Rufous-naped lark, Mirafra africana
- Flappet lark, Mirafra rufocinnamomea
- Eastern clapper lark, Mirafra fasciolata
- Sabota lark, Calendulauda sabota
- Fawn-coloured lark, Calendulauda africanoides
- Dusky lark, Pinarocorys nigricans
- Short-clawed lark, Certhilauda chuana
- Spike-heeled lark, Chersomanes albofasciata
- Black-eared sparrow-lark, Eremopterix australis (A)
- Chestnut-backed sparrow-lark, Eremopterix leucotis
- Grey-backed sparrow-lark, Eremopterix verticalis
- Red-capped lark, Calandrella cinerea
- Pink-billed lark, Spizocorys conirostris
- Stark's lark, Spizocorys starki
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Botswana.
- Sand martin, Riparia riparia
- Brown-throated martin, Riparia paludicola
- Banded martin, Riparia cincta
- Grey-rumped swallow, Pseudhirundo griseopyga
- Rock martin, Ptyonoprogne fuligula
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Angolan swallow, Hirundo angolensis (A)
- White-throated swallow, Hirundo albigularis
- Wire-tailed swallow, Hirundo smithii
- Pearl-breasted swallow, Hirundo dimidiata
- Greater striped swallow, Cecropis cucullata
- Lesser striped swallow, Cecropis abyssinica
- Rufous-chested swallow, Cecropis semirufa
- Mosque swallow, Cecropis senegalensis
- South African swallow, Petrochelidon spilodera
- Common house martin, Delichon urbicum
- Blue saw-wing, Psalidoprocne pristoptera
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Botswana.
- African pied wagtail, Motacilla aguimp
- Cape wagtail, Motacilla capensis
- Yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava
- Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea (A)
- Mountain wagtail, Motacilla clara (A)
- Orange-throated longclaw, Macronyx capensis (A)
- Rosy-throated longclaw, Macronyx ameliae
- Striped pipit, Anthus lineiventris
- Mountain pipit, Anthus hoeschi
- Woodland pipit, Anthus nyassae (A)
- Plain-backed pipit, Anthus leucophrys
- Buffy pipit, Anthus vaalensis
- African pipit, Anthus cinnamomeus
- Long-billed pipit, Anthus similis
- Bush pipit, Anthus caffer (A)
- Tree pipit, Anthus trivialis (A)
The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Common bulbul, Pycnonotus barbatus
- Black-fronted bulbul, Pycnonotus nigricans
- Yellow-bellied greenbul, Chlorocichla flaviventris
- Terrestrial brownbul, Phyllastrephus terrestris
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Groundscraper thrush, Psophocichla litsipsirupa
- Olive thrush, Turdus olivaceus
- Kurrichane thrush, Turdus libonyanus
Cisticolas and allies
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Botswana.
- Red-faced cisticola, Cisticola erythrops
- Lazy cisticola, Cisticola aberrans
- Rattling cisticola, Cisticola chiniana
- Grey cisticola, Cisticola rufilatus
- Chirping cisticola, Cisticola pipiens
- Tinkling cisticola, Cisticola tinniens (A)
- Croaking cisticola, Cisticola natalensis (A)
- Piping cisticola, Cisticola fulvicapillus
- Zitting cisticola, Cisticola juncidis
- Desert cisticola, Cisticola aridulus
- Pale-crowned cisticola, Cisticola cinnamomeus
- Tawny-flanked prinia, Prinia subflava
- Black-chested prinia, Prinia flavicans
- Rufous-eared warbler, Malcorus pectoralis
- Bar-throated apalis, Apalis thoracica
- Yellow-breasted apalis, Apalis flavida
- Green-backed camaroptera, Camaroptera brachyura
- Miombo wren-warbler, Calamonastes undosus
- Barred wren-warbler, Calamonastes fasciolatus
- Yellow-bellied eremomela, Eremomela icteropygialis
- Greencap eremomela, Eremomela scotops
- Burnt-necked eremomela, Eremomela usticollis
- Cape crombec, Sylvietta rufescens
- Sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
- Eurasian reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus
- African reed warbler, Acrocephalus baeticatus
- Marsh warbler, Acrocephalus palustris
- Great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus
- Basra reed warbler, Acrocephalus griseldis (A)
- Greater swamp warbler, Acrocephalus rufescens
- Lesser swamp warbler, Acrocephalus gracilirostris
- Olive-tree warbler, Hippolais olivetorum
- Icterine warbler, Hippolais icterina
- African yellow warbler, Iduna natalensis
- Willow warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus
Old World warblers
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.
- Garden warbler, Sylvia borin
- Greater whitethroat, Sylvia communis
- Barred warbler, Sylvia nisoria
- Chestnut-vented warbler, Sylvia subcaerulea
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
- Cape rock thrush, Monticola rupestris
- Short-toed rock thrush, Monticola brevipes
- Miombo rock thrush, Monticola angolensis (A)
- Pale flycatcher, Bradornis pallidus
- African dusky flycatcher, Muscicapa adusta
- Chat flycatcher, Bradornis infuscatus
- Mariqua flycatcher, Bradornis mariquensis
- Southern black flycatcher, Melaenornis pammelaina
- Fiscal flycatcher, Sigelus silens
- Spotted flycatcher, Muscicapa striata
- Ashy flycatcher, Muscicapa caerulescens
- Grey tit-flycatcher, Myioparus plumbeus
- Fairy flycatcher, Stenostira scita
- Thrush nightingale, Luscinia luscinia
- Cape robin-chat, Cossypha caffra (A)
- White-throated robin-chat, Cossypha humeralis
- White-browed robin-chat, Cossypha heuglini
- Red-capped robin-chat, Cossypha natalensis (A)
- Collared palm thrush, Cichladusa arquata (A)
- Bearded scrub robin, Cercotrichas quadrivirgata (A)
- Red-backed scrub-robin, Cercotrichas leucophrys
- Kalahari scrub robin, Cercotrichas paena
- Whinchat, Saxicola rubetra (A)
- African stonechat, Saxicola torquata
- Mountain wheatear, Oenanthe monticola (A)
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe (A)
- Capped wheatear, Oenanthe pileata
- Sickle-winged chat, Cercomela sinuata (A)
- Familiar chat, Cercomela familiaris
- Southern anteater-chat, Myrmecocichla formicivora
- White-headed black-chat, Myrmecocichla arnotti
- Mocking cliff chat, Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris
- Boulder chat, Pinarornis plumosus
The wattle-eyes, or puffback flycatchers, are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- African paradise flycatcher, Terpsiphone viridis
- Black-faced babbler, Turdoides melanops
- Hartlaub's babbler, Turdoides hartlaubii
- Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor
- Arrow-marked babbler, Turdoides jardineii
Chickadees and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are 59 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Southern black tit, Melaniparus niger
- Rufous-bellied tit, Melaniparus rufiventris (A)
- Ashy tit, Melaniparus cinerascens
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Spotted creeper, Salpornis salvadori (A)
The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Sunbirds and spiderhunters
The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Botswana.
- Collared sunbird, Hedydipna collaris
- Amethyst sunbird, Chalcomitra amethystina
- Scarlet-chested sunbird, Chalcomitra senegalensis
- Miombo double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris manoensis
- Mariqua sunbird, Cinnyris mariquensis
- Purple-banded sunbird, Cinnyris bifasciatus (A)
- White-breasted sunbird, Cinnyris talatala
- Dusky sunbird, Cinnyris fuscus
- Copper sunbird, Cinnyris cupreus (A)
The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. There are 96 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
Old World orioles
The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
- Eurasian golden oriole, Oriolus oriolus
- African golden oriole, Oriolus auratus
- African black-headed oriole, Oriolus larvatus
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Botswana.
- Red-backed shrike, Lanius collurio
- Souza's shrike, Lanius souzae (A)
- Lesser grey shrike, Lanius minor
- Common fiscal, Lanius collaris
- Magpie shrike, Corvinella melanoleuca
- Southern white-crowned shrike, Eurocephalus anguitimens
Bushshrikes and allies
Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Botswana.
- Brubru, Nilaus afer
- Black-backed puffback, Dryoscopus cubla
- Black-crowned tchagra, Tchagra senegala
- Brown-crowned tchagra, Tchagra australis
- Tropical boubou, Laniarius aethiopicus
- Gabon boubou, Laniarius bicolor
- Southern boubou, Laniarius ferrugineus
- Crimson-breasted gonolek, Laniarius atrococcineus
- Bokmakierie, Telophorus zeylonus (A)
- Sulphur-breasted bushshrike, Telophorus sulfureopectus
- Grey-headed bushshrike, Malaconotus blanchoti
The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Botswana.
The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Botswana.
- Fork-tailed drongo, Dicrurus adsimilis
Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Botswana.
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Botswana.
- Common myna, Acridotheres tristis (I)
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris (I)
- Wattled starling, Creatophora cinerea
- Cape glossy-starling, Lamprotornis nitens
- Greater blue-eared glossy-starling, Lamprotornis chalybaeus
- Lesser blue-eared glossy-starling, Lamprotornis chloropterus
- Meves's glossy-starling, Lamprotornis mevesii
- Burchell's glossy-starling, Lamprotornis australis
- Sharp-tailed glossy-starling, Lamprotornis acuticaudus (A)
- Violet-backed starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
- Red-winged starling, Onychognathus morio
- Pale-winged starling, Onychognathus nabouroup (A)
- Red-billed oxpecker, Buphagus erythrorhynchus
- Yellow-billed oxpecker, Buphagus africanus
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Botswana.
- Red-billed buffalo weaver, Bubalornis niger
- Scaly-feathered weaver, Sporopipes squamifrons
- White-browed sparrow-weaver, Plocepasser mahali
- Social weaver, Philetairus socius
- Lesser masked weaver, Ploceus intermedius
- Spectacled weaver, Ploceus ocularis
- Holub's golden weaver, Ploceus xanthops
- Southern brown-throated weaver, Ploceus xanthopterus
- Southern masked weaver, Ploceus velatus
- Village weaver, Ploceus cucullatus
- Chestnut weaver, Ploceus rubiginosus
- Red-headed weaver, Anaplectes rubriceps
- Parasitic weaver, Anomalospiza imberbis (A)
- Red-headed quelea, Quelea erythrops (A)
- Red-billed quelea, Quelea quelea
- Yellow-crowned bishop, Euplectes afer
- Red bishop, Euplectes orix
- Yellow bishop, Euplectes capensis
- Fan-tailed widowbird, Euplectes axillaris
- White-winged widowbird, Euplectes albonotatus
- Red-collared widowbird, Euplectes ardens (A)
- Long-tailed widowbird, Euplectes progne
- Thick-billed weaver, Amblyospiza albifrons
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns. There are 141 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Botswana.
- Orange-winged pytilia, Pytilia afra
- Green-winged pytilia, Pytilia melba
- Brown firefinch, Lagonosticta nitidula
- Red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala
- Jameson's firefinch, Lagonosticta rhodopareia
- Blue-breasted cordonbleu, Uraeginthus angolensis
- Violet-eared waxbill, Uraeginthus granatina
- Common waxbill, Estrilda astrild
- Black-faced waxbill, Estrilda erythronotos
- Orange-breasted waxbill, Sporaeginthus subflavus
- African quailfinch, Ortygospiza fuscocrissa
- Locustfinch, Paludipasser locustella (A)
- Bronze mannikin, Spermestes cucullatus
- Magpie mannikin, Spermestes fringilloides (A)
- Cut-throat, Amadina fasciata
- Red-headed finch, Amadina erythrocephala
The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finches. There are 20 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Botswana.
- Village indigobird, Vidua chalybeata
- Purple indigobird, Vidua purpurascens
- Shaft-tailed whydah, Vidua regia
- Pin-tailed whydah, Vidua macroura
- Eastern paradise whydah, Vidua paradisaea
- Broad-tailed paradise whydah, Vidua obtusa
Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Botswana.
- Lark-like bunting, Emberiza impetuani
- Cinnamon-breasted bunting, Emberiza tahapisi
- Cape bunting, Emberiza capensis (A)
- Golden-breasted bunting, Emberiza flaviventris
Siskins, crossbills and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Botswana.
- Black-throated canary, Serinus atrogularis
- Yellow-fronted canary, Serinus mozambicus
- Yellow canary, Serinus flaviventris
- Streaky-headed seedeater, Serinus gularis
- Black-eared seedeater, Serinus mennelli (A)
- Black-headed canary, Alario alario (A)
- Damara canary, Alario leucolaema
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Botswana.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)
- Great sparrow, Passer motitensis
- Cape sparrow, Passer melanurus
- Southern grey-headed sparrow, Passer diffusus
- Yellow-throated petronia, Petronia superciliaris
- Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Botswana". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
- Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.
- Birds of Botswana - World Institute for Conservation and Environment