List of birds of Cambodia
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Cambodia. The avifauna of Cambodia include a total of 553 species, of which 2 have been introduced by humans. Of these, 25 species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced species are included in the total species counts for Cambodia.
The following tag has been used to highlight introduced species. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Cambodia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
- Indian cormorant, Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
- Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo
- Little cormorant, Microcarbo niger
Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
- Oriental darter, Anhinga melanogaster
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- Grey heron, Ardea cinerea
- Great-billed heron, Ardea sumatrana
- Purple heron, Ardea purpurea
- Eastern great egret, Ardea modesta
- Intermediate egret, Ardea intermedia
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta
- Pacific reef heron, Egretta sacra
- Chinese pond heron, Ardeola bacchus
- Javan pond heron, Ardeola speciosa
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Striated heron, Butorides striata
- Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Malayan night heron, Gorsachius melanolophus
- Yellow bittern, Ixobrychus sinensis
- Cinnamon bittern, Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
- Black bittern, Ixobrychus flavicollis
- Great bittern, Botaurus stellaris
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Black-headed ibis, Threskiornis melanocephalus
- White-shouldered ibis, Pseudibis davisoni
- Giant ibis, Pseudibis gigantea
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus
- Black-faced spoonbill, Platalea minor
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
- Milky stork, Mycteria cinerea
- Painted stork, Mycteria leucocephala
- Asian openbill, Anastomus oscitans
- Woolly-necked stork, Ciconia episcopus
- Black-necked stork, Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus
- Lesser adjutant, Leptoptilos javanicus
- Greater adjutant, Leptoptilos dubius
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Greater flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
- Lesser whistling duck, Dendrocygna javanica
- White-winged duck, Cairina scutulata
- Knob-billed duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos
- Cotton pygmy goose, Nettapus coromandelianus
- Eurasian wigeon, Mareca penelope
- Eurasian teal, Anas crecca
- Spot-billed duck, Anas poecilorhyncha
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Garganey, Spatula querquedula
- Northern shoveler, Spatula clypeata
The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Eagles, kites and allies
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- Jerdon's baza, Aviceda jerdoni
- Black baza, Aviceda leuphotes
- Crested honey buzzard, Pernis ptilorhynchus
- Black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus
- Black kite, Milvus migrans
- Brahminy kite, Haliastur indus
- White-bellied sea eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster
- Pallas's fish eagle, Haliaeetus leucoryphus
- Lesser fish eagle, Ichthyophaga humilis
- Grey-headed fish eagle, Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus
- White-rumped vulture, Gyps bengalensis
- Indian vulture, Gyps indicus
- Slender-billed vulture, Gyps tenuirostris
- Cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus
- Red-headed vulture, Sarcogyps calvus
- Short-toed snake eagle, Circaetus gallicus
- Crested serpent eagle, Spilornis cheela
- Eastern marsh-harrier, Circus spilonotus
- Hen harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Pied harrier, Circus melanoleucos
- Crested goshawk, Accipiter trivirgatus
- Shikra, Accipiter badius
- Chinese goshawk, Accipiter soloensis
- Japanese sparrowhawk, Accipiter gularis
- Besra, Accipiter virgatus
- Northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
- Rufous-winged buzzard, Butastur liventer
- Grey-faced buzzard, Butastur indicus
- Eastern buzzard, Buteo japonicus
- Black eagle, Ictinaetus malaiensis
- Greater spotted eagle, Clanga clanga
- Steppe eagle, Aquila nipalensis
- Imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca
- Rufous-bellied eagle, Lophotriorchis kienerii
- Changeable hawk-eagle, Nisaetus cirrhatus
- Mountain hawk-eagle, Nisaetus nipalensis
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- White-rumped falcon, Polihierax insignis
- Collared falconet, Microhierax caerulescens
- Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus
- Oriental hobby, Falco severus
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Chinese francolin, Francolinus pintadeanus
- Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica
- Rain quail, Coturnix coromandelica
- Blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis
- Bar-backed partridge, Arborophila brunneopectus
- Orange-necked partridge, Arborophila davidi
- Chestnut-headed partridge, Arborophila cambodiana
- Scaly-breasted partridge, Arborophila chloropus
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus
- Silver pheasant, Lophura nycthemera
- Siamese fireback, Lophura diardi
- Germain's peacock-pheasant, Polyplectron germaini
- Grey peacock-pheasant, Polyplectron bicalcaratum
- Green peafowl, Pavo muticus
The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Small buttonquail, Turnix sylvatica
- Yellow-legged buttonquail, Turnix tanki
- Barred buttonquail, Turnix suscitator
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Sarus crane, Grus antigone
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Slaty-legged crake, Rallina eurizonoides
- Slaty-breasted rail, Gallirallus striatus
- White-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus
- Baillon's crake, Porzana pusilla
- Ruddy-breasted crake, Porzana fusca
- White-browed crake, Porzana cinerea
- Watercock, Gallicrex cinerea
- Black-backed swamphen, Porphyrio indicus
- Common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
- Eurasian coot, Fulica atra
Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Masked finfoot, Heliopais personata
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays.
- Bengal florican, Houbaropsis bengalensis
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
Painted-snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Greater painted-snipe, Rostratula benghalensis
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Black-winged stilt, Himantopus himantopus
The stone-curlews are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Cambodia.
- River lapwing, Vanellus duvaucelii
- Grey-headed lapwing, Vanellus cinereus
- Red-wattled lapwing, Vanellus indicus
- Pacific golden-plover, Pluvialis fulva
- Grey plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- Little ringed plover, Charadrius dubius
- Kentish plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
- Malaysian plover, Charadrius peronii
- Lesser sand plover, Charadrius mongolus
- Greater sand plover, Charadrius leschenaultii
- Oriental plover, Charadrius veredus
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Eurasian woodcock, Scolopax rusticola
- Pintail snipe, Gallinago stenura
- Swinhoe's snipe, Gallinago megala
- Common snipe, Gallinago gallinago
- Asian dowitcher, Limnodromus semipalmatus
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata
- Spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus
- Common redshank, Tringa totanus
- Marsh sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia
- Nordmann's greenshank, Tringa guttifer
- Green sandpiper, Tringa ochropus
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola
- Grey-tailed tattler, Tringa brevipes
- Terek sandpiper, Xenus cinereus
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis
- Temminck's stint, Calidris temminckii
- Long-toed stint, Calidris subminuta
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
- Broad-billed sandpiper, Calidris falcinellus
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Pomarine skua, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Arctic skua, Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed skua, Stercorarius longicaudus
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls, terns and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- Heuglin's gull, Larus heuglini
- Caspian gull, Larus cachinnans
- Brown-headed gull, Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Lesser crested tern, Thalasseus bengalensis
- Great crested tern, Thalasseus bergii
- River tern, Sterna aurantia
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Black-naped tern, Sterna sumatrana
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Black-bellied tern, Sterna acuticauda
- Little tern, Sternula albifrons
- Aleutian tern, Onychoprion aleuticus
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Whiskered tern, Chlidonias hybrida
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Indian skimmer, Rynchops albicollis
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- Pale-capped pigeon, Columba punicea
- Oriental turtle dove, Streptopelia orientalis
- Red collared dove, Streptopelia tranquebarica
- Spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis
- Barred cuckoo-dove, Macropygia unchall
- Emerald dove, Chalcophaps indica
- Zebra dove, Geopelia striata
- Nicobar pigeon, Caloenas nicobarica
- Pink-necked green pigeon, Treron vernans
- Orange-breasted green pigeon, Treron bicincta
- Ashy-headed green pigeon, Treron phayrei
- Thick-billed green pigeon, Treron curvirostra
- Yellow-footed green pigeon, Treron phoenicoptera
- Pin-tailed green pigeon, Treron apicauda
- Wedge-tailed green pigeon, Treron sphenura
- Green imperial pigeon, Ducula aenea
- Mountain imperial pigeon, Ducula badia
- Pied imperial pigeon, Ducula bicolor
- Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria
- Rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri (I)
- Grey-headed parakeet, Psittacula finschii
- Blossom-headed parakeet, Psittacula roseata
- Red-breasted parakeet, Psittacula alexandri
- Vernal hanging parrot, Loriculus vernalis
- Chestnut-winged cuckoo, Clamator coromandus
- Large hawk-cuckoo, Hierococcyx sparverioides
- Hodgson's hawk-cuckoo, Hierococcyx nisicolor
- Indian cuckoo, Cuculus micropterus
- Himalayan cuckoo, Cuculus saturatus
- Oriental cuckoo, Cuculus optatus
- Lesser cuckoo, Cuculus poliocephalus
- Banded bay cuckoo, Cacomantis sonneratii
- Plaintive cuckoo, Cacomantis merulinus
- Little bronze-cuckoo, Chrysococcyx minutillus
- Asian emerald cuckoo, Chrysococcyx maculatus
- Violet cuckoo, Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus
- Fork-tailed drongo-cuckoo, Surniculus dicruroides
- Asian koel, Eudynamys scolopacea
- Green-billed malkoha, Phaenicophaeus tristis
- Coral-billed ground cuckoo, Carpococcyx renauldi
- Greater coucal, Centropus sinensis
- Lesser coucal, Centropus bengalensis
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Mountain scops owl, Otus spilocephalus
- Collared scops owl, Otus lettia
- Oriental scops owl, Otus sunia
- Spot-bellied eagle-owl, Bubo nipalensis
- Brown fish owl, Ketupa zeylonensis
- Buffy fish owl, Ketupa ketupu
- Spotted wood owl, Strix seloputo
- Brown wood owl, Strix leptogrammica
- Collared owlet, Glaucidium brodiei
- Asian barred owlet, Glaucidium cuculoides
- Spotted owlet, Athene brama
- Brown hawk-owl, Ninox scutulata
The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bill and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects. There is one species that has been recorded in Cambodia.
- Blyth's frogmouth, Batrachostomus affinis
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
- Great eared-nightjar, Eurostopodus macrotis
- Grey nightjar, Caprimulgus jotaka
- Large-tailed nightjar, Caprimulgus macrurus
- Indian nightjar, Caprimulgus asiaticus
- Savanna nightjar, Caprimulgus affinis
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 9 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Edible-nest swiftlet, Aerodramus fuciphagus
- German's swiftlet, Aerodramus germani
- White-throated needletail, Hirundapus caudacutus
- Silver-backed needletail, Hirundapus cochinchinensis
- Brown-backed needletail, Hirundapus giganteus
- Asian palm-swift, Cypsiurus balasiensis
- Pacific swift, Apus pacificus
- Cook's swift, Apus cooki
- House swift, Apus nipalensis
The treeswifts, also called crested swifts, are closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the other swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and softer plumage. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Crested treeswift, Hemiprocne coronata
The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis
- Blue-eared kingfisher, Alcedo meninting
- Black-backed kingfisher, Ceyx erithacus
- Banded kingfisher, Lacedo pulchella
- Stork-billed kingfisher, Pelargopsis capensis
- Ruddy kingfisher, Halcyon coromanda
- White-throated kingfisher, Halcyon smyrnensis
- Black-capped kingfisher, Halcyon pileata
- Collared kingfisher, Todirhamphus chloris
- Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Blue-bearded bee-eater, Nyctyornis athertoni
- Green bee-eater, Merops orientalis
- Blue-throated bee-eater, Merops viridis
- Blue-tailed bee-eater, Merops philippinus
- Chestnut-headed bee-eater, Merops leschenaulti
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Hoopoe, Upupa epops
Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured.
- Oriental pied-hornbill, Anthracoceros albirostris
- Great hornbill, Buceros bicornis
- Austen's brown hornbill, Anorrhinus austeni
- White-crowned hornbill, Berenicornis comatus
- Wreathed hornbill, Rhyticeros undulatus
The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured.
- Red-vented barbet, Psilopogon lagrandieri
- Lineated barbet, Psilopogon lineatus
- Green-eared barbet, Psilopogon faiostrictus
- Necklaced barbet, Psilopogon auricularis
- Indochinese barbet, Psilopogon annamensis
- Moustached barbet, Psilopogon incognitus
- Blue-eared barbet, Psilopogon duvaucelii
- Coppersmith barbet, Psilopogon haemacephalus
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Speckled piculet, Picumnus innominatus
- White-browed piculet, Sasia ochracea
- Grey-capped pygmy woodpecker, Yungipicus canicapillus
- Fulvous-breasted woodpecker, Dendrocopos macei
- Rufous-bellied woodpecker, Dendrocopos hyperythrus
- Yellow-crowned woodpecker, Leiopicus mahrattensis
- Rufous woodpecker, Micropternus brachyurus
- White-bellied woodpecker, Dryocopus javensis
- Greater yellownape, Chrysophlegma flavinucha
- Lesser yellownape, Picus chlorolophus
- Laced woodpecker, Picus vittatus
- Streak-throated woodpecker, Picus xanthopygaeus
- Red-collared woodpecker, Picus rabieri
- Black-headed woodpecker, Picus erythropygius
- Grey-faced woodpecker, Picus canus
- Common flameback, Dinopium javanense
- Greater flameback, Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus
- Pale-headed woodpecker, Gecinulus grantia
- Bay woodpecker, Blythipicus pyrrhotis
- Black-and-buff woodpecker, Meiglyptes jugularis
- Heart-spotted woodpecker, Hemicircus canente
- Great slaty woodpecker, Mulleripicus pulverulentus
The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Dusky broadbill, Corydon sumatranus
- Black-and-red broadbill, Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos
- Banded broadbill, Eurylaimus javanicus
- Long-tailed broadbill, Psarisomus dalhousiae
- Silver-breasted broadbill, Serilophus lunatus
Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards and are stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates.
- Eared pitta, Hydrornis phayrei
- Blue-rumped pitta, Hydrornis soror
- Blue pitta, Hydrornis cyanea
- Bar-bellied pitta, Hydrornis elliotii
- Hooded pitta, Pitta sordida
- Blue-winged pitta, Pitta moluccensis
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Australasian bushlark, Mirafra javanica
- Indochinese bushlark, Mirafra erythrocephala
- Oriental skylark, Alauda gulgula
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Sand martin, Riparia riparia
- Grey-throated martin, Riparia chinensis
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Pacific swallow, Hirundo tahitica
- Wire-tailed swallow, Hirundo smithii
- Red-rumped swallow, Cecropis daurica
- Striated swallow, Cecropis striolata
- Common house martin, Delichon urbica
- Asian house martin, Delichon dasypus
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Forest wagtail, Dendronanthus indicus
- White wagtail, Motacilla alba
- Mekong wagtail, Motacilla samveasnae
- Black-backed wagtail, Motacilla lugens
- Yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava
- Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea
- Oriental pipit, Anthus rufulus
- Olive-backed pipit, Anthus hodgsoni
- Red-throated pipit, Anthus cervinus
The cuckooshrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Large cuckooshrike, Coracina macei
- Indochinese cuckooshrike, Coracina polioptera
- Black-winged cuckooshrike, Coracina melaschistos
- Rosy minivet, Pericrocotus roseus
- Brown-rumped minivet, Pericrocotus cantonensis
- Ashy minivet, Pericrocotus divaricatus
- Small minivet, Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
- Short-billed minivet, Pericrocotus brevirostris
- Scarlet minivet, Pericrocotus flammeus
- Grey-chinned minivet, Pericrocotus solaris
Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.
- Black-headed bulbul, Pycnonotus atriceps
- Black-crested bulbul, Pycnonotus flaviventris
- Red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus
- Sooty-headed bulbul, Pycnonotus aurigaster
- Stripe-throated bulbul, Pycnonotus finlaysoni
- Yellow-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus goiavier
- Streak-eared bulbul, Pycnonotus conradi
- Puff-throated bulbul, Alophoixus pallidus
- Ochraceous bulbul, Alophoixus ochraceus
- Grey-eyed bulbul, Iole propinqua
- Ashy bulbul, Hemixos flavala
- Mountain bulbul, Ixos mcclellandii
- Black bulbul, Hypsipetes leucocephalus
The leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens. There are 4 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Orange-headed thrush, Geokichla citrina
- Scaly thrush, Zoothera dauma
- Dark-sided thrush, Zoothera marginata
- Blackbird, Turdus merula
- Eyebrowed thrush, Turdus obscurus
Cisticolas and allies
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Zitting cisticola, Cisticola juncidis
- Golden-headed cisticola, Cisticola exilis
- Brown prinia, Prinia polychroa
- Rufescent prinia, Prinia rufescens
- Grey-breasted prinia, Prinia hodgsonii
- Yellow-bellied prinia, Prinia flaviventris
- Plain prinia, Prinia inornata
- Common tailorbird, Orthotomus sutorius
- Dark-necked tailorbird, Orthotomus atrogularis
- Cambodian tailorbird, Orthotomus chaktomuk
- Grey-bellied tesia, Tesia cyaniventer
- Asian stubtail, Urosphena squameiceps
- Mountain tailorbird, Phyllergates cuculatus
- Yellow-bellied warbler, Abroscopus superciliaris
- Lanceolated warbler, Locustella lanceolata
- Pallas's grasshopper warbler, Locustella certhiola
- Striated grassbird, Megalurus palustris
- Black-browed reed warbler, Acrocephalus bistrigiceps
- Paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola
- Oriental reed warbler, Acrocephalus orientalis
- Thick-billed warbler, Iduna aedon
- Dusky warbler, Phylloscopus fuscatus
- Radde's warbler, Phylloscopus schwarzi
- Pale-rumped warbler, Phylloscopus chloronotus
- Yellow-browed warbler, Phylloscopus inornatus
- Arctic warbler, Phylloscopus borealis
- Greenish warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides
- Pale-legged leaf warbler, Phylloscopus tenellipes
- Sakhalin leaf warbler, Phylloscopus borealoides
- Eastern crowned leaf warbler, Phylloscopus coronatus
- Davison's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus davisoni
- Kloss's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus ogilviegranti
- Chestnut-crowned warbler, Seicercus castaniceps
- Plain-tailed warbler, Seicercus soror
Old World warblers
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.
- Black-headed parrotbill, Psittiparus margaritae
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
- White-throated rock thrush, Monticola gularis
- Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius
- Blue whistling thrush, Myophonus caeruleus
- Lesser shortwing, Brachypteryx leucophrys
- Siberian flycatcher, Muscicapa sibirica
- Asian brown flycatcher, Muscicapa dauurica
- Brown-streaked flycatcher, Muscicapa williamsoni
- Ferruginous flycatcher, Muscicapa ferruginea
- Mugimaki flycatcher, Ficedula mugimaki
- Slaty-backed flycatcher, Ficedula hodgsonii
- Taiga flycatcher, Ficedula albicilla
- Snowy-browed flycatcher, Ficedula hyperythra
- Little pied flycatcher, Ficedula westermanni
- Blue-and-white flycatcher, Cyanoptila cyanomelana
- Verditer flycatcher, Eumyias thalassina
- Large niltava, Niltava grandis
- Small niltava, Niltava macgrigoriae
- Fujian niltava, Niltava davidi
- Hainan blue flycatcher, Cyornis hainanus
- Pale blue flycatcher, Cyornis unicolor
- Blue-throated flycatcher, Cyornis rubeculoides
- Hill blue flycatcher, Cyornis banyumas
- Tickell's blue flycatcher, Cyornis tickelliae
- Siberian rubythroat, Calliope calliope
- Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica
- Siberian blue robin, Luscinia cyane
- Oriental magpie-robin, Copsychus saularis
- White-rumped shama, Copsychus malabaricus
- White-tailed robin, Cinclidium leucurum
- Slaty-backed forktail, Enicurus schistaceus
- Green cochoa, Cochoa viridis
- Siberian stonechat, Saxicola maurus
- Pied bushchat, Saxicola caprata
- Grey bushchat, Saxicola ferreus
The fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders. There are 44 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Cambodia.
- White-throated fantail, Rhipidura albicollis
- White-browed fantail, Rhipidura aureola
- Pied fantail, Rhipidura javanica
- Grey-headed canary-flycatcher, Culicicapa ceylonensis
The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Cambodia.
The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and crested bellbird. There are 57 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Mangrove whistler, Pachycephala cinerea
- White-crested laughingthrush, Garrulax leucolophus
- Lesser necklaced laughingthrush, Garrulax monileger
- Black-throated laughingthrush, Garrulax chinensis
- White-cheeked laughingthrush, Garrulax vassali
- Cambodian laughingthrush, Garrulax ferrarius
- Silver-eared mesia, Leiothrix argentauris
- Blue-winged minla, Minla cyanouroptera
- Abbott's babbler, Malacocincla abbotti
- Buff-breasted babbler, Pellorneum tickelli
- Spot-throated babbler, Pellorneum albiventre
- Puff-throated babbler, Pellorneum ruficeps
- Scaly-crowned babbler, Malacopteron cinereum
- Streaked wren-babbler, Napothera brevicaudata
- Rufous-throated fulvetta, Alcippe rufogularis
- Mountain fulvetta, Alcippe peracensis
- Black-browed fulvetta, Alcippe grotei
The babblers, or timaliids, are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage.
- Large scimitar babbler, Pomatorhinus hypoleucos
- White-browed scimitar babbler, Pomatorhinus schisticeps
- Red-billed scimitar babbler, Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps
- Rufous-capped babbler, Stachyridopsis ruficeps
- Pin-striped tit-babbler, Macronus gularis
- Grey-faced tit-babbler, Macronus kelleyi
- Chestnut-capped babbler, Timalia pileata
- Pygmy wren-babbler, Pnoepyga pusilla
Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Black-throated tit, Aegithalos concinnus
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.
- Japanese tit, Parus minor
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.
- Chestnut-bellied nuthatch, Sitta castanea
- Velvet-fronted nuthatch, Sitta frontalis
- Burmese nuthatch, Sitta neglecta
Sunbirds and spiderhunters
The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed.
- Ruby-cheeked sunbird, Chalcoparia singalensis
- Brown-throated sunbird, Anthreptes malacensis
- Purple-naped sunbird, Hypogramma hypogrammicum
- Copper-throated sunbird, Leptocoma calcostetha
- Van Hasselt's sunbird, Leptocoma brasiliana
- Purple sunbird, Cinnyris asiaticus
- Olive-backed sunbird, Cinnyris jugularis
- Green-tailed sunbird, Aethopyga nipalensis
- Black-throated sunbird, Aethopyga saturata
- Crimson sunbird, Aethopyga siparaja
- Little spiderhunter, Arachnothera longirostra
- Streaked spiderhunter, Arachnothera magna
The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues. There are 44 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Thick-billed flowerpecker, Dicaeum agile
- Yellow-vented flowerpecker, Dicaeum chrysorrheum
- Plain flowerpecker, Dicaeum minullum
- Fire-breasted flowerpecker, Dicaeum ignipectus
- Scarlet-backed flowerpecker, Dicaeum cruentatum
The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye.
- Chestnut-flanked white-eye, Zosterops erythropleurus
- Oriental white-eye, Zosterops palpebrosus
- Black-chinned yuhina, Yuhina nigrimenta
Old World orioles
The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Black-naped oriole, Oriolus chinensis
- Black-hooded oriole, Oriolus xanthornus
- Maroon oriole, Oriolus traillii
- Silver oriole, Oriolus mellianus
The fairy-bluebirds are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Asian fairy-bluebird, Irena puella
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Tiger shrike, Lanius tigrinus
- Brown shrike, Lanius cristatus
- Burmese shrike, Lanius collurioides
- Long-tailed shrike, Lanius schach
- Grey-backed shrike, Lanius tephronotus
- Large woodshrike, Tephrodornis gularis
- Common woodshrike, Tephrodornis pondicerianus
- Bar-winged flycatcher-shrike, Hemipus picatus
The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 7 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Black drongo, Dicrurus macrocercus
- Ashy drongo, Dicrurus leucophaeus
- Crow-billed drongo, Dicrurus annectans
- Bronzed drongo, Dicrurus aeneus
- Lesser racket-tailed drongo, Dicrurus remifer
- Hair-crested drongo, Dicrurus hottentottus
- Greater racket-tailed drongo, Dicrurus paradiseus
The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Ashy woodswallow, Artamus fuscus
Crows and allies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Eurasian jay, Garrulus glandarius
- Blue magpie, Urocissa erythrorhyncha
- Green magpie, Cissa chinensis
- Yellow-breasted magpie, Cissa hypoleuca
- Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta vagabunda
- Racket-tailed treepie, Crypsirina temia
- Ratchet-tailed treepie, Temnurus temnurus
- Large-billed crow, Corvus macrorhynchos
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen..
- Golden-crested myna, Ampeliceps coronatus
- Common hill myna, Gracula religiosa
- Great myna, Acridotheres grandis
- Common myna, Acridotheres tristis
- Vinous-breasted starling, Acridotheres burmannicus
- Black-collared starling, Gracupica nigricollis
- Pied myna, Gracupica contra
- Daurian starling, Agropsar sturnina
- White-shouldered starling, Sturnia sinensis
- Chestnut-tailed starling, Sturnia malabarica
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Streaked weaver, Ploceus manyar
- Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus
- Asian golden weaver, Ploceus hypoxanthus
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns. There are 141 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Cambodia.
- Red avadavat, Amandava amandava
- Pin-tailed parrotfinch, Erythrura prasina
- White-rumped munia, Lonchura striata
- Nutmeg mannikin, Lonchura punctulata
- Chestnut munia, Lonchura atricapilla
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Cambodia.
- Yellow-breasted bunting, Emberiza aureola
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Cambodia.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus
- Plain-backed sparrow, Passer flaveolus
- Eurasian tree sparrow, Passer montanus