List of birds of Costa Rica

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Clay-colored thrush, the national bird of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018.[1] This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered.[2] Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.[3]

Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS).[4][5] Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica
  • (R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident
  • (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica
  • (E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Contents

Tinamous[edit]

Great tinamou

Order: Tinamiformes   Family: Tinamidae

Ducks, geese, and waterfowl[edit]

Black-bellied whistling-duck

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Guans, chachalacas, and curassows[edit]

Gray-headed chachalaca

Order: Galliformes   Family: Cracidae

New World quail[edit]

Buffy-crowned wood-partridge

Order: Galliformes   Family: Odontophoridae

Grebes[edit]

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Band-tailed pigeon
Pale-vented pigeon

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Cuckoos and anis[edit]

Groove-billed ani

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

Nightjars and allies[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Oilbird[edit]

Order: Steatornithiformes   Family: Steatornithidae

Potoos[edit]

Common potoo

Order: Nyctibiiformes   Family: Nyctibiidae

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae

Hummingbirds[edit]

Female gray-tailed mountain-gem
Male coppery-headed emerald, one of Costa Rica's endemics.
Female green-crowned brilliant
Male volcano hummingbird

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Trochilidae

Rails, gallinules, and coots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Finfoots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Heliornithidae

Limpkin[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Aramidae

Thick-knees[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

Stilts and avocets[edit]

Black-necked stilt

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Oystercatchers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

Jacanas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Long-billed dowitcher
Western sandpiper
Spotted sandpiper

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Skuas and jaegers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

Gulls, terns, and skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Sunbittern[edit]

Sunbittern

Order: Eurypygiformes   Family: Eurypygidae

Tropicbirds[edit]

Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Albatrosses[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Diomedeidae

Southern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

Northern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Petrels and shearwaters[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

Storks[edit]

Wood stork

Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Frigatebirds[edit]

Magnificent frigatebird

Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

Cormorants[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Anhingas[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

Pelicans[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Bitterns, herons, and egrets[edit]

Boat-billed heron

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

New World vultures[edit]

Black vulture

Order: Cathartiformes   Family: Cathartidae

Osprey[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

Hawks, eagles, and kites[edit]

Swallow-tailed kite
Gray-lined hawk

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Barn-owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owl, Tyto alba

Typical owls[edit]

Black-and-white owl

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

Trogons and quetzals[edit]

Black-throated trogon

Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

Motmots[edit]

Lesson's motmot

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Momotidae

Kingfishers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Puffbirds[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Bucconidae

Jacamars[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Galbulidae

New World barbets[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Capitonidae

Toucan-barbets[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Semnornithidae

Toucans[edit]

Northern emerald-toucanet

Order: Piciformes   Family: Ramphastidae

Woodpeckers[edit]

Black-cheeked woodpecker

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Falcons and caracaras[edit]

Crested caracara

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

New World and African parrots[edit]

Scarlet macaw

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittacidae

Typical antbirds[edit]

Bicolored antbird

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thamnophilidae

Gnateaters[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Conopophagidae

Antpittas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Grallariidae

Tapaculos[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhinocryptidae

Antthrushes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Formicariidae

Ovenbirds and woodcreepers[edit]

Streaked xenops
Spot-crowned woodcreeper

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Furnariidae

Manakins[edit]

Orange-collared manakin

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pipridae

Cotingas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cotingidae

Tityras and allies[edit]

Cinnamon becard

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tityridae

Sharpbill[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oxyruncidae

Royal-flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Onychorhynchidae

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Common tody-flycatcher
Dusky-capped flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tyrannidae

Vireos[edit]

Rufous-browed peppershrike

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

Crows, jays, and magpies[edit]

White-throated magpie-jay

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

Swallows[edit]

Mangrove swallow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

Wrens[edit]

Bay wren

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

Gnatcatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Polioptilidae

Dippers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Thrushes and allies[edit]

Sooty robin

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

Mockingbirds and thrashers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

Waxwings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

Silky-flycatchers[edit]

Long-tailed silky-flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Ptiliogonatidae

Waxbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

Old World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Finches, euphonias, and allies[edit]

Thick-billed euphonia

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Thrush-tanagers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhodinocichlidae

New World sparrows[edit]

Rufous-collared sparrow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passerellidae

Wrenthrush[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Zeledoniidae

Yellow-breasted chat[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteriidae

Troupials and allies[edit]

Great-tailed grackle
Montezuma oropendola

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

Wood-warblers[edit]

Tropical parula
Bay-breasted warbler
Hooded warbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Parulidae

Microspingid tanagers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mitrospingidae

Cardinals and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

Tanagers and allies[edit]

Blue-gray tanager
Crimson-collared tanager
Blue dacnis
Bananaquit
Green honeycreeper
Variable seedeater
Slaty flowerpiercer

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thraupidae

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This species was split from buff-throated foliage-gleaner in the 59th Check-list supplement
  2. ^ The 59th Check-list supplement lumped Cherrie's tanager into this species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Garrigues, Richard., M. Araya-Salas, P. Camacho-Varela, M. Montoya, G. Obando-Calderón, O. Ramírez-Alán.. Enero 2018. Boletín de la Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica. http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=es&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=da&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Flistaoficialavesdecostarica.wordpress.com%2F retrieved 15 March 2018
  2. ^ The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1 <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Accessed 6 August 2017
  3. ^ Stater, Adam. "Avian Diversity in Costa Rica". 
  4. ^ American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
  5. ^ R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., Douglas F. Stotz, Benjamin M. Winger, and Kevin Winker. "Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk 2018, vol. 135:798-813 retrieved 16 July 2018

See also[edit]

External links[edit]