List of birds of Jamaica
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Jamaica. The avifauna of Jamaica include a total of 324 species, of which 28 are endemic, 15 have been introduced by humans and 160 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Jamaica and is not included in the species count. Twelve species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Jamaica.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Jamaica
- (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Jamaica
- (Es) Endemic subspecies - a subspecies endemic to Jamaica
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Jamaica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
- (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Jamaica although populations exist elsewhere
Conservation status is highlighted as follows:
- 1 Grebes
- 2 Shearwaters and petrels
- 3 Storm petrels
- 4 Tropicbirds
- 5 Boobies and gannets
- 6 Cormorants
- 7 Darters
- 8 Frigatebirds
- 9 Pelicans
- 10 Bitterns, herons and egrets
- 11 Ibises and spoonbills
- 12 Storks
- 13 Flamingos
- 14 Ducks, geese and swans
- 15 New World vultures
- 16 Osprey
- 17 Hawks, kites and eagles
- 18 Caracaras and falcons
- 19 New World quails
- 20 Guineafowl
- 21 Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
- 22 Jacanas
- 23 Oystercatchers
- 24 Avocets and stilts
- 25 Plovers and lapwings
- 26 Sandpipers and allies
- 27 Skuas and jaegers
- 28 Gulls, terns and skimmers
- 29 Pigeons and doves
- 30 Parrots, macaws and allies
- 31 Cuckoos and anis
- 32 Barn owls
- 33 Typical owls
- 34 Potoos
- 35 Nightjars
- 36 Swifts
- 37 Hummingbirds
- 38 Kingfishers
- 39 Todies
- 40 Woodpeckers and allies
- 41 Tyrant flycatchers
- 42 Becards and tityras
- 43 Larks
- 44 Swallows and martins
- 45 Wagtails and pipits
- 46 Kinglets
- 47 Waxwings
- 48 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 49 Thrushes and allies
- 50 Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
- 51 Starlings
- 52 Weavers and allies
- 53 Waxbills and allies
- 54 Vireos
- 55 New World warblers
- 56 Tanagers
- 57 Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies
- 58 Cardinals and allies
- 59 Troupials and allies
- 60 Siskins, crossbills and allies
- 61 Sparrows
- 62 See also
- 63 Notes
- 64 References
Grebes are a species of bird that are well adapted for the sea and for diving. They are found in many parts of the world, mostly on calm and safe waters. They resemble ducks and loons is their physical appearance, but they swim lower in water than ducks do. They have an ability to submerge themselves under water, a technique they use to escape an approaching danger or predator. Despite their prowess when swimming and on water, they are much less agile on land and waddle quite awkwardly, and they are fairly poor fliers as well.
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodroma hasitata (A)(N)
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus (A)
- Barolo shearwater, Puffinus baroli (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri (A)
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
Boobies and gannets
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
- Double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus (A)
- Neotropic cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
- Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga (A)
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens (A)
- Tricoloured heron, Egretta tricolor
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night heron, Nyctanassa violacea
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
- White ibis, Eudocimus albus
- Scarlet ibis, Eudocimus ruber (A)
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (A)
- Roseate spoonbill, Platalea ajaja (A)
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
- Wood stork, Mycteria americana (A)
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.
- Caribbean flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (A)
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
- Fulvous whistling duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- West Indian whistling duck, Dendrocygna arborea (V)
- Black-bellied whistling duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis (A)
- Orinoco goose, Neochen jubata (A) (N)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa (A)
- American wigeon, Anas americana (A)
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A)
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca (A)
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta (A)
- White-cheeked pintail, Anas bahamensis (A)
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors
- Cinnamon teal, Anas cyanoptera (A)
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata (A)
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (A)
- Redhead, Aythya americana (A)
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris (A)
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila (A)
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis (A)
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola (A)
- Masked duck, Nomonyx dominica
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion.
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (A)
- Mississippi kite, Ictinia mississippiensis (A)
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus (A)
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus (A)
- Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus (A)
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- Northern caracara, Caracara cheriway (A)
- Southern caracara, Caracara plancus (A)
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius (A)
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
New World quails
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
- Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus (N)
Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage.
- Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (I)
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans
- King rail, Rallus elegans (A)
- Uniform crake, Amaurolimnas concolor (Ex)
- Sora, Porzana carolina (A)
- Yellow-breasted crake, Porzana flaviventer
- Spotted rail, Pardirallus maculatus (A)
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
- Northern jacana, Jacana spinosa
- American oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus (A)
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica (A)
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus (A) (N)
- Snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus (A)
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata (A)
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (A)
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa (A)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (A) (N)
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda (A)
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria (A)
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis (A)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos (A)
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina (A)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus (A)
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis (A) (N)
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax (A)
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor (A)
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus (A)
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus (A)
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus (A)
Gulls, terns and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus (A)
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A)
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia (A)
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maxima
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo (A)
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri (A)
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscata
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- White-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala (N)
- Scaly-naped pigeon, Patagioenas squamosa (A)
- Ring-tailed pigeon, Columba caribaea (E) (V)
- Plain pigeon, Patagioenas inornata (N)
- European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur (I)
- African collared dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea (I)
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
- Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica
- Common ground dove, Columbina passerina
- Caribbean dove, Leptotila jamaicensis
- Crested quail-dove, Geotrygon versicolor (E) (N)
- Ruddy quail-dove, Geotrygon montana
- Blue-headed quail-dove, Starnoenas cyanocephala (I) (En)
Parrots, macaws and allies
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back.
- Olive-throated parakeet, Eupsittula nana
- Green-rumped parrotlet, Forpus passerinus (I)
- Yellow-billed amazon, Amazona collaria (E) (V)
- Black-billed amazon, Amazona agilis (E) (V)
Cuckoos and anis
- Black-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A)
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus (A)
- Mangrove cuckoo, Coccyzus minor
- Jamaican lizard cuckoo, Saurothera vetula (E)
- Chestnut-bellied cuckoo, Hyetornis pluvialis (E)
- Smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Jamaican owl, Pseudoscops grammicus (E)
The potoos (sometimes called poor-me-ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars.
- Northern potoo, Nyctibius jamaicensis
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor (A)
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis (A)
- Eastern whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus (A)
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- Black swift, Cypseloides niger
- White-collared swift, Streptoprocne zonaris
- Chimney swift, Chaetura pelagica (A)
- Antillean palm swift, Tachornis phoenicobia
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Jamaican mango, Anthracothorax mango (E)
- Red-billed streamertail, Trochilus polytmus (E)
- Black-billed streamertail, Trochilus scitulus (E)
- Vervain hummingbird, Mellisuga minima minima (Es)
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colourful plumage and resemble small kingfishers, but have flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards.
- Jamaican tody, Todus todus (E)
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Jamaican woodpecker, Melanerpes radiolatus (E)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius (A)
- Fernandina's flicker, Colaptes fernandinae (A) (V)
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Jamaican elaenia, Myiopagis cotta (E)
- Greater Antillean elaenia, Elaenia fallax
- Western wood pewee, Contopus sordidulus (A)
- Eastern wood pewee, Contopus virens (A)
- Jamaican pewee, Contopus pallidus (E)
- Willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii (A)
- Sad flycatcher, Myiarchus barbirostris (E)
- Dusky-capped flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer (A)
- Rufous-tailed flycatcher, Myiarchus validus (E)
- Stolid flycatcher, Myiarchus stolidus stolidus (Es)
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus (A)
- Grey kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus jamaicensis (Es)
- Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana (A)
Becards and tityras
- Jamaican becard, Pachyramphus niger (E)
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance.
- Eurasian skylark, Alauda arvensis
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Purple martin, Progne subis (A)
- Caribbean martin, Progne dominicensis
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor (A)
- Golden swallow, Tachycineta euchrysea (A) (V)
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A)
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia (A)
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens (A)
The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice.
- Ruby-crowned kinglet, Regulus calendula (A)
The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
- Cedar waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum (A)
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull-greys and browns.
- Grey catbird, Dumetella carolinensis (A)
- Bahama mockingbird, Mimus gundlachii
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
- Pearly-eyed thrasher, Margarops fuscatus (A)
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Rufous-throated solitaire, Myadestes genibarbis
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens (A)
- Grey-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A) (V)
- Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus (A)
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (A)
- Red-legged thrush, Turdus plumbeus
- White-eyed thrush, Turdus jamaicensis (E)
- American robin, Turdus migratorius (A)
- White-chinned thrush, Turdus aurantius (E)
Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season.
- Yellow-crowned bishop, Euplectes afer (I)
- Orange bishop, Euplectes franciscanus (A)
- Red bishop, Euplectes orix (I)
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.
- Nutmeg mannikin, Lonchura punctulata (I)
- Tricolored munia, Lonchura malacca (I)
- Chestnut munia, Lonchura atricapilla (I)
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus (A)
- Jamaican vireo, Vireo modestus (E)
- Blue Mountain vireo, Vireo osburni (E) (N)
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons (A)
- Blue-headed vireo, Vireo solitarius (A)
- Warbling vireo, Vireo gilvus
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus (A)
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus (A)
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera (A)
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera (A) (N)
- Tennessee warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina (A)
- Orange-crowned warbler, Oreothlypis celata (A)
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla (A)
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica (A)
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia (A)
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens (A)
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca (A)
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica (A)
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus (A)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea (A)
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata (A)
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea (A) (V)
- Arrowhead warbler, Setophaga pharetra (E)
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina (A)
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea (A)
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus (A)
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis (A)
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa (A)
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia (A)
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla (A)
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis (A)
- Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens (A)
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings.
- Jamaican spindalis, Spindalis nigricephala (E)
- Red-legged honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus (A)
- Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola flaveola (Es)
Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Yellow-faced grassquit, Tiaris olivacea
- Black-faced grassquit, Tiaris bicolor
- Yellow-shouldered grassquit, Loxipasser anoxanthus
- Orangequit, Euneornis campestris (E)
- Greater Antillean bullfinch, Loxigilla violacea ruficollis (Es)
- Saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola (I)
- Lark sparrow, Chondestes grammacus (A)
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii (A)
- White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys (A)
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis (A)
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea (A)
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra (A)
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea (A)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (A)
- Painted bunting, Passerina ciris (A) (N)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana (A)
Troupials and allies
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Jamaican blackbird, Nesopsar nigerrimus (E) (En)
- Greater Antillean grackle, Quiscalus niger crassirostris (Es)
- Shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (I)
- Jamaican oriole, Icterus leucopteryx leucopteryx (Es)
- Venezuelan troupial, Icterus icterus
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula (A)
- Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius (A)
Siskins, crossbills and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)