List of birds of Jamaica
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Jamaica. The avifauna of Jamaica include a total of 324 species, of which 28 are endemic, 19 have been introduced by humans, and 159 are rare or accidental. Another species (great-tailed grackle) is concentrated in one area and might have been introduced. Five species have been extirpated and one is extinct. Twelve species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2016 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of Bird Checklists of the World as of May 2005. Since that list was created, one additional species has been added through eBird.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Jamaica
- (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Jamaica
- (Es) Endemic subspecies - a subspecies endemic to Jamaica
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Jamaica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
- (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Jamaica although populations exist elsewhere
Conservation status is highlighted as follows:
- 1 Ducks, geese, and waterfowl
- 2 Guineafowl
- 3 New World quail
- 4 Grebes
- 5 Flamingos
- 6 Shearwaters and petrels
- 7 Storm-petrels
- 8 Tropicbirds
- 9 Storks
- 10 Frigatebirds
- 11 Boobies and gannets
- 12 Cormorants
- 13 Anhingas
- 14 Pelicans
- 15 Bitterns, herons, and egrets
- 16 Ibises and spoonbills
- 17 New World vultures
- 18 Osprey
- 19 Hawks, kites, and eagles
- 20 Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots
- 21 Limpkin
- 22 Stilts and avocets
- 23 Oystercatchers
- 24 Plovers and lapwings
- 25 Jacanas
- 26 Sandpipers and allies
- 27 Jaegers
- 28 Gulls, terns, and skimmers
- 29 Pigeons and doves
- 30 Cuckoos and anis
- 31 Barn-owls
- 32 Typical owls
- 33 Nightjars and allies
- 34 Potoos
- 35 Swifts
- 36 Hummingbirds
- 37 Todies
- 38 Kingfishers
- 39 Woodpeckers
- 40 Caracaras and falcons
- 41 New World and African parrots
- 42 Tyrant flycatchers
- 43 Becards and tityras
- 44 Vireos
- 45 Crows, jays, ravens, and magpies
- 46 Larks
- 47 Swallows and martins
- 48 Kinglets
- 49 Thrushes and allies
- 50 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 51 Starlings
- 52 Wagtails and pipits
- 53 Waxwings
- 54 New World warblers
- 55 Tanagers and allies
- 56 New World sparrows
- 57 Cardinals and allies
- 58 Troupials and allies
- 59 Finches, euphonias, and allies
- 60 Old World sparrows
- 61 Weavers and allies
- 62 Waxbills and allies
- 63 References
- 64 See also
Ducks, geese, and waterfowl
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
- Black-bellied whistling-duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- West Indian whistling-duck, Dendrocygna arborea (V)
- Fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis (A)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa (A)
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A)
- American wigeon, Anas americana (A)
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors
- Cinnamon teal, Anas cyanoptera (A)
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata (A)
- White-cheeked pintail, Anas bahamensis (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta (A)
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (A)
- Redhead, Aythya americana (A)
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris (A)
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila (A)
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis (A)
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola (A)
- Masked duck, Nomonyx dominicus
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage.
- Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (I)
New World quail
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
- Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus (I) (N) (Ex)
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.
- American flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (A)
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodroma hasitata (A)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus (A) (N)
- Barolo shearwater, Puffinus baroli (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri (A)
The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
- Wood stork, Mycteria americana (A)
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white, or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens
Boobies and gannets
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white, and a few being colourful.
- Neotropic cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
- Double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus (A)
Anhingas are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape, and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
- Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga (A)
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
Bitterns, herons, and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills.
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Tricolored heron, Egretta tricolor
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens (A) (N)
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night-heron, Nyctanassa violacea
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
- White ibis, Eudocimus albus
- Scarlet ibis, Eudocimus ruber (A)
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (A)
- Roseate spoonbill, Platalea ajaja (A)
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion.
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites, and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (A)
- Mississippi kite, Ictinia mississippiensis (A)
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus (A)
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus (A)
- Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus (A)
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Yellow-breasted crake, Porzana flaviventer
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans
- Uniform crake, Amaurolimnas concolor (Ex)
- Sora, Porzana carolina (A)
- Spotted rail, Pardirallus maculatus (A)
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
The limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab-brown plumage and a grayer head and neck.
- Limpkin, Aramus guarauna
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
- American oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus (A)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- American golden-plover, Pluvialis dominica (A)
- Snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus (A) (N)
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus (A) (N)
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
The jacanas are a group of waders found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
- Northern jacana, Jacana spinosa
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda (A)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (A)
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa (A)
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A) (N)
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax (A)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus (A)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina (A)
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis (A)
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis (A) (N)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos (A)
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla (A)
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (A)
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata (A)
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor (A)
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularius
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria (A)
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus (A)
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus (A)
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus (A)
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A)
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (A)
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus (A)
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscata
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia (A)
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo (A)
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri (A)
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maxima
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- Scaly-naped pigeon, Patagioenas squamosa (A)
- White-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala (N)
- Plain pigeon, Patagioenas inornata (N)
- Ring-tailed pigeon, Columba caribaea (E) (V)
- Eurasian collared-dove, Streptopelia decaocto (I)
- African collared-dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea (I)
- Common ground-dove, Columbina passerina
- Blue-headed quail-dove, Starnoenas cyanocephala (I) (En)
- Crested quail-dove, Geotrygon versicolor (E) (N)
- Ruddy quail-dove, Geotrygon montana
- Caribbean dove, Leptotila jamaicensis
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica
- Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
Cuckoos and anis
- Smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus (A)
- Mangrove cuckoo, Coccyzus minor
- Black-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A)
- Chestnut-bellied cuckoo, Hyetornis pluvialis (E)
- Jamaican lizard-cuckoo, Saurothera vetula (E)
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Jamaican owl, Pseudoscops grammicus (E)
Nightjars and allies
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor (A)
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii
- Jamaican pauraque, Siphonorhis americana (E) (CE)
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis (A)
- Eastern whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus (A)
The potoos (sometimes called poor-me-ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars.
- Northern potoo, Nyctibius jamaicensis
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- Black swift, Cypseloides niger
- White-collared swift, Streptoprocne zonaris
- Chimney swift, Chaetura pelagica (A) (N)
- Antillean palm swift, Tachornis phoenicobia
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Jamaican mango, Anthracothorax mango (E)
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris (A)
- Vervain hummingbird, Mellisuga minima minima (Es)
- Streamertail, Trochilus polytmus (E)
Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colourful plumage and resemble small kingfishers, but have flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards.
- Jamaican tody, Todus todus (E)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Jamaican woodpecker, Melanerpes radiolatus (E)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius (A)
- Fernandina's flicker, Colaptes fernandinae (A) (V)
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- Crested caracara, Caracara cheriway (A)
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius (A)
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
New World and African parrots
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back.
- Black-billed parrot, Amazona agilis (E) (V)
- Yellow-billed parrot, Amazona collaria (E) (V)
- Green-rumped parrotlet, Forpus passerinus (I)
- Olive-throated parakeet, Eupsittula nana
- Cuban macaw, Ara tricolor (Extinct)
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Jamaican elaenia, Myiopagis cotta (E)
- Greater Antillean elaenia, Elaenia fallax
- Western wood-pewee, Contopus sordidulus (A)
- Eastern wood-pewee, Contopus virens (A)
- Jamaican pewee, Contopus pallidus (E)
- Willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii (A)
- Sad flycatcher, Myiarchus barbirostris (E)
- Rufous-tailed flycatcher, Myiarchus validus (E)
- Stolid flycatcher, Myiarchus stolidus stolidus (Es)
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus (A)
- Gray kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus jamaicensis (Es)
- Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana (A)
Becards and tityras
- Jamaican becard, Pachyramphus niger (E)
- Blue Mountain vireo, Vireo osburni (E) (N)
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus (A)
- Jamaican vireo, Vireo modestus (E)
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons (A)
- Blue-headed vireo, Vireo solitarius (A)
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus (A)
- Warbling vireo, Vireo gilvus (A)
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus (A)
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus
Crows, jays, ravens, and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance.
- Eurasian skylark, Alauda arvensis (I) (Ex)
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A)
- Purple martin, Progne subis (A)
- Caribbean martin, Progne dominicensis
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor (A)
- Golden swallow, Tachycineta euchrysea (A) (V)
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia (A)
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva
The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice.
- Ruby-crowned kinglet, Regulus calendula (A)
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Rufous-throated solitaire, Myadestes genibarbis
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens (A)
- Gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A) (V)
- Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus (A)
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (A) (N)
- White-eyed thrush, Turdus jamaicensis (E)
- American robin, Turdus migratorius (A)
- White-chinned thrush, Turdus aurantius (E)
- Red-legged thrush, Turdus plumbeus
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull-greys and browns.
- Gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis (A)
- Bahama mockingbird, Mimus gundlachii
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens (A)
The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
- Cedar waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum (A)
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus (A)
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera (A) (N)
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera (A)
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea (A)
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Tennessee warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina (A)
- Orange-crowned warbler, Oreothlypis celata (A)
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla (A)
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis (A)
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia (A)
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa (A)
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Arrowhead warbler, Setophaga pharetra (E)
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina (A)
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea (A) (V)
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia (A)
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea (A)
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca (A)
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica (A)
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata (A)
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus (A)
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica (A)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens (A)
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis (A)
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla (A)
- Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens (A)
Tanagers and allies
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings.
- Red-legged honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus (A)
- Saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola (I)
- Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola flaveola (Es)
- Yellow-faced grassquit, Tiaris olivacea
- Black-faced grassquit, Tiaris bicolor
- Orangequit, Euneornis campestris (E)
- Greater Antillean bullfinch, Loxigilla violacea ruficollis (Es)
- Yellow-shouldered grassquit, Loxipasser anoxanthus (E)
- Jamaican spindalis, Spindalis nigricephala (E)
New World sparrows
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Lark sparrow, Chondestes grammacus (A)
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis (A)
- White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys (A)
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii (A)
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra (A)
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea (A)
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea (A)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (A)
- Painted bunting, Passerina ciris (A) (N)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana (A)
Troupials and allies
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange, or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Jamaican blackbird, Nesopsar nigerrimus (E) (En)
- Great-tailed grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus (multiple eBird records; possibly introduced)
- Greater Antillean grackle, Quiscalus niger crassirostris (Es)
- Shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (I)
- Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius (A)
- Venezuelan troupial, Icterus icterus (Ex)
- Jamaican oriole, Icterus leucopteryx leucopteryx (Es)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula (A)
Finches, euphonias, and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
Old World sparrows
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I) (A)
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, and some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season.
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.
- Scaly-breasted munia, Lonchura punctulata (I)
- Tricolored munia, Lonchura malacca (I)
- Chestnut munia, Lonchura atricapilla (I)
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/ retrieved 11 August 2016
- Lepage, Denis (1 May 2005). "Checklist of birds of Jamaica". Avibase bird checklists of the world. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "Jamaica eBird Bar Chart". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 12 June 2017.