List of birds of Newfoundland and Labrador
This is a list of bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Bird Records Committee of Nature Newfoundland & Labrador (Nature NL) lists 398 species as occurring in Newfoundland as of March 2016. Through eBird, seven additional species have been recorded in Labrador and five more in Newfoundland from when the Nature NL checklist was published through June 2018. Of these 410 species, 112 are rare and 82 are very rare as defined below. Two were introduced to North America. One species is possibly extinct. Another species formerly found in Labrador is known to be extinct but is not on the Nature NL checklist.
Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free, are not included.
This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.
The following codes are used to describe some categories of occurrence.
- (R) Rare - "not likely to be found annually, though apparently occurs regularly in very small numbers" per Nature NL
- (VR) Very rare - "recorded three times or less" per Nature NL
- 1 Ducks, geese, and waterfowl
- 2 Pheasants, grouse, and allies
- 3 Grebes
- 4 Pigeons and doves
- 5 Cuckoos
- 6 Nightjars and allies
- 7 Swifts
- 8 Hummingbirds
- 9 Rails, gallinules, and coots
- 10 Cranes
- 11 Stilts and avocets
- 12 Oystercatchers
- 13 Plovers and lapwings
- 14 Sandpipers and allies
- 15 Skuas and jaegers
- 16 Auks, murres, and puffins
- 17 Gulls, terns, and skimmers
- 18 Tropicbirds
- 19 Loons
- 20 Albatrosses
- 21 Southern storm-petrels
- 22 Northern storm-petrels
- 23 Shearwaters and petrels
- 24 Frigatebirds
- 25 Boobies and gannets
- 26 Cormorants
- 27 Pelicans
- 28 Herons, egrets, and bitterns
- 29 Ibises and spoonbills
- 30 New World vultures
- 31 Osprey
- 32 Hawks, kites, and eagles
- 33 Barn-owls
- 34 Typical owls
- 35 Kingfishers
- 36 Woodpeckers
- 37 Falcons
- 38 Tyrant flycatchers
- 39 Shrikes
- 40 Vireos
- 41 Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens
- 42 Larks
- 43 Swallows and martins
- 44 Chickadees and titmice
- 45 Nuthatches
- 46 Treecreepers
- 47 Wrens
- 48 Gnatcatchers
- 49 Kinglets
- 50 Old World flycatchers
- 51 Thrushes
- 52 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 53 Starlings and mynas
- 54 Waxwings
- 55 Old World sparrows
- 56 Wagtails and pipits
- 57 Finches
- 58 Longspurs and snow buntings
- 59 Old World buntings
- 60 New World sparrows
- 61 Yellow-breasted chat
- 62 Icterids
- 63 Wood-warblers
- 64 Cardinals and allies
- 65 References
Ducks, geese, and waterfowl
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- Snow goose, Anser caerulescens (R)
- Ross's goose, Anser rossii (VR)
- Graylag goose, Anser anser (VR)
- Greater white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons (R)
- Pink-footed goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (R)
- Cackling goose, Branta hutchinsii (VR) (Two eBird records in Labrador)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis
- Brant, Branta bernicla (R)
- Barnacle goose, Branta leucopsis (VR)
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (R)
- Whooper swan, Cygnus cygnus (VR) (Two eBird records in Labrador)
- Common shelduck, Tadorna tadorna (VR)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa (R)
- Garganey, Spatula querquedula (R)
- Blue-winged teal, Spatula discors
- Cinnamon teal, Spatula cyanoptera (VR) (One eBird record in Labrador)
- Northern shoveler, Spatula clypeata
- Gadwall, Mareca strepera (R)
- Eurasian wigeon, Mareca penelope
- American wigeon, Mareca americana
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos
- American black duck, Anas rubripes
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (VR)
- Redhead, Aythya americana (R)
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris
- Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis
- King eider, Somateria spectabilis
- Common eider, Somateria mollissima
- Harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
- Labrador duck, Camptorhynchus labradorius (Extinct) (Not on the Nature NL checklist; see the species' article for its former range)
- Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata
- White-winged scoter, Melanitta fusca
- Black scoter, Melanitta americana
- Long-tailed duck, Clangula hyemalis
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
- Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
- Barrow's goldeneye, Bucephala islandica
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus (R)
- Common merganser, Mergus merganser
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (R)
Pheasants, grouse, and allies
Phasianidae consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.
- Ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus
- Spruce grouse, Falcipennis canadensis
- Willow ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus
- Rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
- Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
- Horned grebe, Podiceps auritus
- Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis (VR) (eBird records of one in Newfoundland)
Pigeons and doves
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. They feed on seeds, fruit, and plants. Unlike most other birds, the doves and pigeons produce "crop milk," which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.
Nightjars and allies
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.
The swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- Chimney swift, Chaetura pelagica (R)
- Common swift, Apus apus (VR) (On Newfoundland, one eBird record from July 2016 and multiple eBird records from 2017, each of one bird)
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris
- Anna's hummingbird, Calypte anna (VR)
- Rufous hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus (VR)
Rails, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Corn crake, Crex crex (R)
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans (R)
- Virginia rail, Rallus limicola (R)
- Sora, Porzana carolina
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus (R)
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata (R)
- Eurasian coot, Fulica atra (VR)
- American coot, Fulica americana
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".
- Sandhill crane, Antigone canadensis (R)
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
- Eurasian oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus (VR)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (R)
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- European golden-plover, Pluvialis apricaria (R)
- American golden-plover, Pluvialis dominica
- Pacific golden-plover, Pluvialis fulva
- Common ringed plover, Charadrius hiaticula (R)
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda (R)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Eskimo curlew, Numenius borealis (VR) (Possibly extinct)
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata (VR)
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (VR)
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa (R)
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax (R)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (R)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Purple sandpiper, Calidris maritima
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii
- Little stint, Calidris minuta (VR)
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri (VR)
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (VR)
- Jack snipe, Lymnocryptes minimus (VR)
- Eurasian woodcock, Scolopax rusticola (VR)
- American woodcock, Scolopax minor
- Common snipe, Gallinago gallinago (R)
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus (VR)
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia (VR)
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola (VR)
- Common redshank, Tringa totanus (R)
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius
Skuas and jaegers
Skuas and jaegers are in general medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with hooked tips and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.
- Great skua, Stercorarius skua
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
Auks, murres, and puffins
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture, and some of their habits, however they are only distantly related to the penguins and are able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest.
- Dovekie, Alle alle
- Common murre, Uria aalge
- Thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia
- Razorbill, Alca torda
- Black guillemot, Cepphus grylle
- Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes, and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
- Ivory gull, Pagophila eburnea
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini (R)
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Little gull, Hydrocoleus minutus (R)
- Ross's gull, Rhodostethia rosea (R)
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla (R)
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan (R)
- Black-tailed gull, Larus crassirostris (VR)
- Mew gull, Larus canus
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus
- Yellow-legged gull, Larus cachinnans (R)
- Iceland gull, Larus glaucoides
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus
- Slaty-backed gull, Larus schistisagus (R)
- Glaucous-winged gull, Larus glaucescens (VR)
- Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscatus (VR)
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus (VR)
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum (R)
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (VR)
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger (R)
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (VR)
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii (VR)
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri (R)
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maximus (R)
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis (R)
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger (VR)
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.
- White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus (VR)
Loons are aquatic birds, the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, and they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well and fly adequately, but are almost hopeless on land, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body.
- Red-throated loon, Gavia stellata
- Pacific loon, Gavia pacifica (VR)
- Common loon, Gavia immer
- Yellow-billed loon, Gavia adamsii (VR) (One eBird record from 2017 in Newfoundland)
The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.
- Black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophris (VR)
The storm-petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Until 2018, this family's three species were included with the other storm-petrels in family Hydrobatidae.
- Wilson's storm-petrel, Oceanites oceanicus
Though the members of this family are similar in many respects to the southern storm-petrels, including their general appearance and habits, there are enough genetic differences to warrant their placement in a separate family.
- Leach's storm-petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterized by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis
- Fea's petrel, Pterodroma feae (VR)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus
- Great shearwater, Ardenna gravis
- Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black, or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens (VR)
Boobies and gannets
Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed.
Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.
Herons, egrets, and bitterns
The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills.
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis (R)
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Gray heron, Ardea cinerea (VR)
- Great egret, Ardea alba (R)
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta (R)
- Western reef-heron, Egretta gularis (VR)
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula (R)
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea (R)
- Tricolored heron, Egretta tricolor (R)
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis (R)
- Green heron, Butorides virescens (R)
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax (R)
- Yellow-crowned night-heron, Nyctanassa violacea (R)
Ibises and spoonbills
The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies tend to be elongated, the neck more so, with rather long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills.
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (R)
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.
- Black vulture, Coragyps atratus (VR) (Three eBird records in Labrador)
- Turkey vulture, Cathartes aura (R)
Pandionidae is a family of fish-eating birds of prey possessing a very large, powerful hooked beak for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. The family is monotypic.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites, and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
- Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos (R)
- Northern harrier, Circus hudsonius
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
- Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
- Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis (R)
- Rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus (R)
Owls in the family Tytonidae are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba (VR)
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Great horned owl, Bubo virginianus
- Snowy owl, Bubo scandiacus
- Northern hawk owl, Surnia ulula
- Barred owl, Strix varia (R) (Several eBird records in Labrador)
- Great gray owl, Strix nebulosa (VR) (Two eBird records in Labrador)
- Long-eared owl, Asio otus (R)
- Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus
- Boreal owl, Aegolius funereus
- Northern saw-whet owl, Aegolius acadicus
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Lewis's woodpecker, Melanerpes lewis (VR)
- Red-headed woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (VR)
- Red-bellied woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (R)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
- American three-toed woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis
- Black-backed woodpecker, Picoides arcticus
- Downy woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens
- Hairy woodpecker, Dryobates villosus
- Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin (bird), Falco columbarius
- Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens (VR)
- Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus (R)
- Sulphur-bellied flycatcher, Myiodynastes luteiventris (VR)
- Western kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
- Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus (VR)
- Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana (R)
- Olive-sided flycatcher, Contopus cooperi
- Eastern wood-pewee, Contopus virens
- Yellow-bellied flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris
- Alder flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
- Least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
- Eastern phoebe, Sayornis phoebe (R)
- Say's phoebe, Sayornis saya (VR)
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A shrike's beak is hooked, like that of a typical bird of prey.
- Northern shrike, Lanius borealis
The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, though a few other members of the family are found in Asia. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood-warblers apart from their heavier bills.
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus (R)
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons (R)
- Blue-headed vireo, Vireo solitarius
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
- Warbling vireo, Vireo gilvus (R)
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus
Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
- Canada jay, Perisoreus canadensis
- Blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata
- Black-billed magpie, Pica hudsonia (VR)
- Eurasian jackdaw, Corvus monedula (VR)
- American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
- Common raven, Corvus corax
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.
- Horned lark, Eremophila alpestris
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Purple martin, Progne subis (R)
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
- Violet-green swallow, Tachycineta thalassina (VR)
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (R)
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva (VR)
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
Chickadees and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails, and powerful bills and feet.
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.
- Brown creeper, Certhia americana
Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.
- Rock wren, Salpinctes obsoletus (VR)
- House wren, Troglodytes aedon (R)
- Winter wren, Troglodytes hiemalis
- Marsh wren, Cistothorus palustris (R)
These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their structure and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers are mainly soft bluish grey in colour and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. Many species have distinctive black head patterns (especially males) and long, regularly cocked, black-and-white tails.
- Blue-gray gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea (R)
The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name.
Old World flycatchers
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oecanthe (R)
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis (VR)
- Mountain bluebird, Sialia currucoides (VR)
- Townsend's solitaire, Myadestes townsendi (R)
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens
- Gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus
- Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus
- Hermit thrush, Catharus guttatus
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (R)
- Eurasian blackbird, Turdus merula (VR)
- Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris (R)
- Redwing, Turdus iliacus (R)
- American robin, Turdus migratorius
- Varied thrush, Ixoreus naevius (R)
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds which includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull greys and browns in their appearance.
- Gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
- Brown thrasher, Toxostoma rufum (R)
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos (R)
Starlings and mynas
Starlings and mynas are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen.
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris (Introduced)
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
Old World sparrows
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (Introduced)
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws, and pipits. They are slender ground-feeding insectivores of open country.
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Common chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs (VR)
- Evening grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus
- Pine grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator
- Purple finch, Haemorhous purpureus
- Common redpoll, Acanthis flammea
- Hoary redpoll, Acanthis hornemanni (R)
- Red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
- White-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera
- Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus (VR) (Three eBird records in Labrador of a single individual believed to be of natural origin)
- Pine siskin, Spinus pinus*American goldfinch, Spinus tristis
Longspurs and snow buntings
The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that were traditionally grouped with the New World sparrows, but differ in a number of respects and are usually found in open grassy areas.
- Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus
- Chestnut-collared longspur, Calcarius ornatus (VR)
- Snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis
Old World buntings
Emberizidae is a family of passerine birds containing a single genus. Until 2017, the New World sparrows (Passerellidae) were also considered part of this family.
- Yellow-breasted bunting, Emberiza aureola (VR) (eBird records of one in Newfoundland)
New World sparrows
Until 2017, these species were considered part of the family Emberizidae. Most of the species are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many of these have distinctive head patterns.
- Spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus (VR)
- Eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (R)
- American tree sparrow, Spizelloides arborea
- Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina
- Clay-colored sparrow, Spizella pallida (R)
- Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla (R)
- Vesper sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus (R)
- Lark sparrow, Chondestes grammacus (R)
- Savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum (R)
- Nelson's sparrow, Ammospiza nelsoni (R)
- Fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca
- Song sparrow, Melospiza melodia
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii
- Swamp sparrow, Melospiza georgiana
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis
- Harris's sparrow, Zonotrichia querula (VR)
- White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis
This species was historically placed in the wood-warblers (Parulidae) but nonetheless most authorities were unsure if it belonged there. It was placed in its own family in 2017.
- Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens (R)
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange, or red.
- Yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (R)
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Eastern meadowlark, Sturnella magna (R)
- Western meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta (VR) (eBird records of one in Newfoundland)
- Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius (R)
- Bullock's oriole, Icterus bullockii (VR)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula
- Red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
- Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater (R)
- Rusty blackbird, Euphagus carolinus
- Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus (VR)
The wood-warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorum (R)
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera (R)
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera (R)
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea (R)
- Tennessee warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned warbler, Oreothlypis celata
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla
- Virginia's warbler, Oreothlypis virginiae
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis (VR)
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia (VR)
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa (R)
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina (R)
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea (R)
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens (R)
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus (R)
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica (R)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor (R)
- Black-throated gray warbler, Setophaga nigrescens (VR)
- Townsend's warbler, Setophaga townsendi (R)
- Hermit warbler, Setophaga occidentalis (VR)
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis (R)
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra (R)
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea (R)
- Western tanager, Piranga ludoviciana (VR)
- Northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (R)
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
- Black-headed grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus (VR)
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea (R)
- Lazuli bunting, Passerina amoena (VR)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (R)
- Painted bunting, Passerina ciris (VR)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana
- B. Mactavish, J. Clarke, J. Wells, A. Buckley, and D. Fifield (March 2016). "Checklist (2016) of the Birds of Insular Newfoundland" (PDF). Nature Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Newfoundland and Labrador eBird Bar Chart". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
- R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., Douglas F. Stotz, Benjamin M. Winger, and Kevin Winker. "Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk 2018, vol. 135:798-813 retrieved 16 July 2018