List of birds of Puerto Rico
This is a categorized list of the bird species recorded in the archipelago of Puerto Rico which consists of the main island of Puerto Rico, two island municipalities off the east coast (Vieques and Culebra), three uninhabited islands off the west coast (Mona, Monito and Desecheo) and more than 125 smaller cays and islands. The avifauna of Puerto Rico include a total of 349 species, of which 166 (48%) are accidental, 42 (12%) are introduced by humans and 16 (5%) are endemic. Around 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago. This list does not include extinct species.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2016 edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, accidental and extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Puerto Rico.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are common occurring native species.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the archipelago of Puerto Rico
- (E) Endemic - a species endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico
- (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in the archipelago Puerto Rico although populations exist elsewhere
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to the archipelago of Puerto Rico as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
- 1 Ducks, geese and swans
- 2 Guineafowls
- 3 New World quails
- 4 Pheasants, grouse, and allies
- 5 Grebes
- 6 Flamingos
- 7 Shearwaters and petrels
- 8 Storm-petrels
- 9 Tropicbirds
- 10 Frigatebirds
- 11 Boobies
- 12 Cormorants and shags
- 13 Pelicans
- 14 Herons, egrets, and bitterns
- 15 Ibises and spoonbills
- 16 New World vultures
- 17 Osprey
- 18 Hawks, eagles, and kites
- 19 Rails, gallinules, and coots
- 20 Limpkin
- 21 Stilts and avocets
- 22 Oystercatchers
- 23 Plovers and lapwings
- 24 Jacanas
- 25 Sandpipers and allies
- 26 Skuas and jaegers
- 27 Gulls, terns, and skimmers
- 28 Pigeons and doves
- 29 Cuckoos
- 30 Barn-owls
- 31 Owls
- 32 Nightjars and allies
- 33 Potoos
- 34 Swifts
- 35 Hummingbirds
- 36 Todies
- 37 Kingfishers
- 38 Woodpeckers
- 39 Falcons and caracaras
- 40 Cockatoos
- 41 Old World parrots
- 42 New World and African parrots
- 43 Tyrant flycatchers
- 44 Vireos
- 45 Crows, jays, and magpies
- 46 Swallows
- 47 Old World flycatchers
- 48 Thrushes and allies
- 49 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 50 Starlings
- 51 Waxwings
- 52 New World warblers
- 53 Tanagers and allies
- 54 Buntings and New World sparrows
- 55 Cardinals and allies
- 56 Troupials and allies
- 57 Finches, euphonias, and allies
- 58 Old World sparrows
- 59 Weavers and allies
- 60 Waxbills and allies
- 61 Indigobirds
- 62 See also
- 63 References
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- Black-bellied whistling-duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- West Indian whistling-duck, Dendrocygna arborea
- Fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- Domestic goose (graylag goose), Anser anser domesticus/Anser cygnoides
- Snow goose, Chen caerulescens (A)
- Brant, Branta bernicla (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis (A)
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (A)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa (A)
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A)
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope (A)
- American wigeon, Anas americana (A)
- American black duck, Anas rubripes (A)
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Domestic duck, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus
- Blue-winged teal, Anas discors
- Cinnamon teal, Anas cyanoptera (A)
- Northern shoveler, Anas clypeata (A)
- White-cheeked pintail, Anas bahamensis
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Garganey Anas querquedula (A)
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca (A)
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria (A)
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris (A)
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis (A)
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola (A)
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus (A)
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator (A)
- Masked duck, Nomonyx dominica
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
Guineafowls are a group of African seed-eating, ground-nesting birds resembling partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled gray plumage.
- Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (I)
New World quails
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
- Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus (I)
Pheasants, grouse, and allies
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (I)
- Chicken (domestic chicken), Gallus gallus domesticus (I)
- Ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (I)
- Wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (I)
- Domesticated turkey, Meleagris gallopavo (I)
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
Flamingos (genus Phoenicopterus monotypic in family Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.
- American flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (A)
Shearwaters and petrels
The Procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterized by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Trindade petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana (A)
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodroma hasitata (A)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea (A)
- Great shearwater, Ardenna gravis (A)
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus (A)
- Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (A)
- Barolo shearwater, Puffinus baroli (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri
The storm-petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
- Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens
Cormorants and shags
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage coloration is varied with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being quite colorful.
- Neotropic cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
- Double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus (A)
Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.
Herons, egrets, and bitterns
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta (A)
- Western reef heron, Egretta gularis (A)
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Tricolored heron, Egretta tricolor
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens (A)
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night-heron, Nyctanassa violacea
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and, rather surprisingly, given their size and weight, very capable soarers.
- White ibis, Eudocimus albus (A)
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (A)
- Roseate spoonbill, Platalea ajaja (A)
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.
- Turkey vulture, Cathartes aura (I)
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, eagles, and kites
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (A)
- Common black-hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus (A)
- Ridgway's hawk, Buteo ridgwayi (A)
- Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
Rails, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
- Yellow-breasted crake, Hapalocrex flaviventer (formerly Porzana flaviventer)
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans
- Virginia rail, Rallus limicola (A)
- Sora, Porzana carolina (A)
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
The limpkin is a large, odd bird with drably plumaged brown with a grayer head and neck.
- Limpkin, Aramus guarauna (Ex)
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Puerto Rico.
- American oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- American golden-plover, Pluvialis dominica (A)
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (A)
- Snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus (A)
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
- Northern jacana, Jacana spinosa (A)
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda (A)
- Eskimo curlew, Numenius borealis (A) (This species is presumed to be extinct)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus (A)
- Long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (A)
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica (A)
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa (A)
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A)
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax (A)
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (A)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina (A)
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii (A)
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis (A)
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis (A)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (A)
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor (A)
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularius
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia (A)
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
- Great skua, Stercorarius skua (A)
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki (A)
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus (A)
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus (A)
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns and skimmers. They are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with gray or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A)
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini (A)
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia (A)
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (A)
- Little gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus (A)
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan (A)
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus (A)
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus (A)
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (A)
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Black noddy, Anous minutus (A)
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscata
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica (A)
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia (A)
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea (A)
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri (A)
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maxima
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- Scaly-naped pigeon, Patagioenas squamosa
- White-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala
- Plain pigeon, Patagioenas inornata
- Eurasian collared-dove, Streptopelia decaocto (I)
- African collared-dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea (I)
- Diamond dove, Geopelia cuneata (I)
- Common ground-dove, Columbina passerina
- Ruddy quail-dove, Geotrygon montana
- Key West quail-dove, Geotrygon chrysia
- Bridled quail-dove, Geotrygon mystacea (A)
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica
- Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita
- Smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus
- Mangrove cuckoo, Coccyzus minor
- Black-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A)
- Puerto Rican lizard-cuckoo, Coccyzus vieilloti (E)
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba (A)
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
Nightjars and allies
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically colored to resemble bark or leaves.
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor (A)
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii
- White-tailed nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (A)
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis (A)
- Puerto Rican nightjar, Antrostomus noctitherus (E)
- Northern potoo, Nyctibius jamaicensis (A)
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- Black swift, Cypseloides niger
- White-collared swift, Streptoprocne zonaris (A)
- Alpine swift, Apus melba (also known as Tachymarptis melba) (A)
- Antillean palm-swift, Tachornis phoenicobia (A)
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- Green-breasted mango, Anthracothorax prevostii (A)
- Antillean mango, Anthracothorax dominicus
- Green mango, Anthracothorax viridis (E)
- Purple-throated carib, Eulampis jugularis (A)
- Green-throated carib, Eulampis holosericeus
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris (A)
- Vervain hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (A)
- Puerto Rican emerald, Chlorostilbon maugaeus (E)
- Antillean crested hummingbird, Orthorhyncus cristatus
Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colorful plumage and resembles kingfishers, but have flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards.
- Puerto Rican tody, Todus mexicanus (E)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Puerto Rican woodpecker, Melanerpes portoricensis (E)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius (A)
- Hairy woodpecker, Picoides villosus (A)
Falcons and caracaras
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- Merlin, Falco columbarius (A)
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (A)
Cockatoos share many features with true parrots (family Psittacidae) including the characteristic curved beak shape and a zygodactyl foot, with two forward toes and two backwards toes. They differ, however in a number of characteristics, including the movable headcrest, and their lack of the Dyck texture feather composition, which gives many parrots their iridescent colors. Cockatoos are also, on average, larger than the true parrots.
- Tanimbar corella Cacatua goffiniana (I)
- Sulphur-crested cockatoo, Cacatua galerita (I)
- White cockatoo, Cacatua alba (I)
Old World parrots
- Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (I)
New World and African parrots
- Monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus (I)
- White-winged parakeet Brotogeris versicolorus (I)
- Red-crowned parrot, Amazona viridigenalis (I)
- Yellow-headed parrot, Amazona oratrix (I)
- White-fronted parrot, Amazona albifrons (I)
- Hispaniolan parrot, Amazona ventralis (I)
- Puerto Rican parrot, Amazona vittata (E)
- Orange-winged parrot, Amazona amazonica (I)
- Orange-fronted parakeet, Eupsittula canicularis (I)
- Brown-throated parakeet, Eupsittula pertinax (I)
- Nanday parakeet, Aratinga nenday (I)
- Red-masked parakeet, Psittacara erythrogenys (I)
- Hispaniolan parakeet, Psittacara choloropterus (I)
Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Caribbean elaenia, Elaenia martinica
- Hispaniolan pewee, Contopus hispaniolensis (A)
- Lesser Antillean pewee, Contopus latirostris
- Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus (A)
- Puerto Rican flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum (E)
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus (A)
- Gray kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
- Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus (A)
The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in color and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus (A)
- Puerto Rican vireo, Vireo latimeri (E)
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons (A)
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus (A)
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus (A)
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus
Crows, jays, and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
- White-necked crow, Corvus leucognaphalus (Ex)
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A)
- Purple martin, Progne subis (A)
- Caribbean martin, Progne dominicensis
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor (A)
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe (A)
Thrushes and allies
The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus (A)
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A)
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina (A)
- Red-legged thrush, Turdus plumbeus
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.
- Gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis (A)
- Pearly-eyed thrasher, Margarops fuscatus
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- Common hill myna, Gracula religiosa (I)
- European starling, Sturnus vulgaris (I)
- Common myna, Acridotheres tristis (I)
The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
- Cedar waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum (A)
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small often colorful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorum (A)
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera (A)
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera (A)
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea (A)
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Nashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla (A)
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis (A)
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia (A)
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa (A)
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Elfin-woods warbler, Setophaga angelae (E)
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina (A)
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea (A)
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia (A)
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea (A)
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca (A)
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica (A)
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum (A)
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus (A)
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata (A)
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica (A)
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Adelaide's warbler, Setophaga adelaidae (E)
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens (A)
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis (A)
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla (A)
Tanagers and allies
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar.
- Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola
- Puerto Rican tanager, Nesospingus speculiferus (E)
- Puerto Rican spindalis, Spindalis portoricensis (E)
Buntings and New World sparrows
Emberizidae is a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
- Red-crested cardinal, Paroaria coronata (I)
- Saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola (I)
- Yellow-faced grassquit, Tiaris olivaceus
- Black-faced grassquit, Tiaris bicolor
- Puerto Rican bullfinch, Loxigilla portoricensis (E)
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis (A)
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis (A)
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii (A)
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra (A)
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea (A)
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea (A)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (A)
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana (A)
Troupials and allies
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Yellow-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus (E)
- Yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (A)
- Greater Antillean grackle, Quiscalus niger
- Shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis
- Puerto Rican oriole, Icterus portoricensis (E)
- Venezuelan troupial, Icterus icterus (I)
- Bullock's oriole, Icterus bullockii (A)
- Audubon's oriole, Icterus graduacauda (A)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula (A)
Finches, euphonias, and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Antillean euphonia, Euphonia musica
- Red siskin, Spinus cucullata (I)
- Island canary, Serinus canaria (I)
- Domestic canary, Serinus canaria forma domestica (I)
- Yellow-fronted canary, Crithagra mozambicus (I)
Old World sparrows
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or grayish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)
Weavers and allies
Weavers are a group of small passerine birds related to the finches. These are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills, most of which breed in sub-Saharan Africa, with fewer species in tropical Asia. Weavers get their name from the large woven nests many species make. They are gregarious birds which often breed colonially.
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colors and patterns.
- Orange-cheeked waxbill, Estrilda melpoda (I)
- Black-rumped waxbill, Estrilda troglodytes (I)
- Red avadavat, Amandava amandava (I)
- Zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (I)
- Bronze mannikin, Spermestes cucullata (also called Lonchura cucullata) (I)
- Indian silverbill, Euodice malabarica (I)32087
- Society finch, Lonchura striata domestica (domesticated form of White-rumped munia) (I)
- Scaly-breasted munia, Lonchura punctulata (I)
- Tricolored munia, Lonchura malacca (I)
- Java sparrow, Lonchura oryzivora (I)
The Viduidae is a family of small passerine birds native to Africa that includes indigobirds and whydahs. All species are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finches. Species usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage.
- Pin-tailed whydah, Vidua macroura (I)
- List of birds
- List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico
- List of birds of North America
- List of birds of Vieques
- List, observations, locations, distribution maps, pictures and sounds of birds of Puerto Rico
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
- Lepage, Denis. "Puerto Rico checklist". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved May 19, 2006.
- Oberle, Mark (2003). Las aves de Puerto Rico en fotografías (in Spanish). Editorial Humanitas. ISBN 0-9650104-2-2.
- Luis J. Villanueva-Rivera and Miguel A. Acevedo. "Puerto Rican birds". Retrieved May 19, 2006.
- Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists - Martin Collinson, British Birds vol 99 (June 2006), 306-323.