List of birds of Samoa
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Samoa. The avifauna of Samoa include a total of 82 species, of which 10 are endemic, five have been introduced by humans and 23 are rare or accidental. Seven species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Samoa.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Samoa
- (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Samoa
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Samoa as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
|Table of contents|
Non-passerines: Shearwaters and petrels • Storm-petrels • Tropicbirds • Boobies and gannets • Frigatebirds • Bitterns, herons and egrets • Ducks, geese and swans • Caracaras and falcons • Pheasants and partridges • Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots • Plovers and lapwings • Sandpipers and allies • Skuas and jaegers • Gulls • Terns • Pigeons and doves • Parrots, macaws and allies • Cuckoos and anis • Barn owls • Swifts • Kingfishers
Shearwaters and petrels (ta'i'o)
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Samoa.
- Mottled petrel, Pterodroma inexpectata (ta'i'o)
- Wedge-tailed shearwater, Puffinus pacificus
- Short-tailed shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris
- Townsend's shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri (ta'i'o)
The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Samoa.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Samoa.
- Red-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon rubricauda (A) (tava'e 'ula)
- White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus (tava'e sina)
Boobies and gannets (fua'o)
- Masked booby, Sula dactylatra (fua'o)
- Red-footed booby, Sula sula (fua'o)
- Brown booby, Sula leucogaster (fua'o)
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Samoa.
Bitterns, herons and egrets (matu'u)
The Ardeidae family contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. There are 61 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Pacific reef-heron, Egretta sacra (matu'u)
Ducks, geese and swans (toloa)
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Pacific black duck, Anas superciliosa (toloa)
- Mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos (I) (pato, loanword from Spanish)
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (A)
Pheasants and partridges (moa)
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (I) (moavao)
Rails (ve'a), crakes (vai), gallinules (manuali'i) and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Samoa.
- Buff-banded rail, Gallirallus philippensis (ve'a)
- Spotless crake, Porzana tabuensis
- White-browed crake, Porzana cinerea (vai)
- Australasian swamphen, Porphyrio melanotus (manuali'i, manusa)
- Samoan moorhen, Gallinula pacifica (Puna'e)(E)
Plovers and lapwings (tuli)
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Samoa.
- Pacific golden-plover, Pluvialis fulva
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola (A)
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus (A)
Sandpipers and allies (tuli)
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Samoa (almost all referred to as tuli).
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (A) (tuli)
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (tuli)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus (tuli)
- Bristle-thighed curlew, Numenius tahitiensis (tuli)
- Far Eastern curlew, Numenius madagascariensis (A)
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola (A) (tuli)
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos (A) (tuli)
- Wandering tattler, Heterosceles incanus (tuli, alomalala)
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres (tuli)
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A) (tuli)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba (A) (tuli)
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis (A) (tuli)
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos (A) (tuli)
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata (A) (tuli)
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Samoa.
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Laughing gull, Larus atricilla (A)
Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Samoa.
- Great crested tern, Sterna bergii
- Black-naped tern, Sterna sumatrana (gogosina)
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo (A)
- Little tern, Sterna albifrons (A)
- Fairy tern, Sterna nereis
- Bridled tern, Sterna anaethetus
- Sooty tern, Sterna fuscata (A) (gogouli)
- Black noddy, Anous minutus
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus (gogo)
- Blue noddy, Procelsterna cerulea (A) (laia)
- White tern, Gygis alba (manusina, gogosina)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I) (lupe palagi, "foreign pigeon")
- Metallic pigeon, Columba vitiensis (fiaui)
- Friendly ground-dove, Gallicolumba stairi (tu'aimeo, tiotala)
- Tooth-billed pigeon, Didunculus strigirostris (E) (manumea)
- Many-coloured fruit-dove, Ptilinopus perousii (manuma, manulua)
- Crimson-crowned fruit-dove, Ptilinopus porphyraceus (manutagi, manufili)
- Pacific imperial-pigeon, Ducula pacifica (lupe)
Parrots, macaws and allies
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back. There are 335 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Blue-crowned lorikeet, Vini australis (sega, sega'ula, segavao)
Cuckoos and anis
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. The Old World cuckoos are brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Long-tailed koel, Eudynamys taitensis (aleva)
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba (lulu)
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- White-rumped swiftlet, Aerodramus spodiopygius (pe'ape'a)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Flat-billed kingfisher, Todirhamphus recurvirostris (E) (ti'otala)
The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Samoa.
Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Red-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer (I) (manu palagi, "foreign bird")
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Island thrush, Turdus poliocephalus (tutumalili)
The fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders. There are 44 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Samoan fantail, Rhipidura nebulosa (E) (sau)
The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Samoan flycatcher, Myiagra albiventris (E) (tolai'ula, tolaifatu)
Most species of Petroicidae have a stocky build with a large rounded head, a short straight bill and rounded wingtips. They occupy a wide range of wooded habitats, from subalpine to tropical rainforest and mangrove swamp to semi-arid scrubland. All are primarily insectivores, although a few supplement their diet with seeds. There are 43 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Pacific robin, Petroica multicolor (tolai'ula)
Whistlers and allies
The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and crested bellbird. There are 57 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Samoan whistler, Pachycephala flavifrons (E) (vasavasa)
The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Samoan white-eye, Zosterops samoensis (E) (matapapa'e)
The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family of small to medium-sized birds most common in Australia and New Guinea. They are nectar feeders and closely resemble other nectar-feeding passerines. There are 174 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Samoa.
- Cardinal myzomela, Myzomela cardinalis (segasegamau'u)
- Wattled honeyeater, Foulehaio carunculata (iao)
- Mao, Gymnomyza samoensis (E) (ma'oma'o)
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Samoa.
- Polynesian starling, Aplonis tabuensis (miti, mitivao)
- Samoan starling, Aplonis atrifusca (E) (fuia)
- Jungle myna, Acridotheres fuscus (I)
- Common myna, Acridotheres tristis (I)
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns. There are 141 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Samoa.
- Red-headed parrotfinch, Erythrura cyaneovirens (E) (manu'ai)
- List of birds
- Lists of birds by region
- List of protected areas of Samoa
- Central Savai'i Rainforest, biodiversity area in Samoa; largest continuous patch of rainforest in Polynesia.
- Fagaloa Bay – Uafato Tiavea Conservation Zone
- Tafua Rainforet Preserve
- Falealupo, rainforest conversation area
- Aleipata Islands, conservation area.
- National Park of American Samoa
- Samoan plant names