List of birds of Trinidad and Tobago

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Eudocimus ruber (portrait).jpg
The scarlet ibis (above) and rufous-vented chachalaca (below) are the national birds of Trinidad and Tobago.

A total of 487 species of birds have been confirmed on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Of them, two are endemic, six have been introduced by humans, 130 are rare or vagrants, and 11 have been extirpated. The status of one more has not been determined.[1] There are few places in the world where so many bird species can be seen in such a small area, many of them unique, very rare, or of particular interest. They range from the many species of hummingbird to the cave-dwelling oilbird (which uses echo-location to fly in the dark) and the scarlet ibis.

The islands are within a few miles of Venezuela, and the species are therefore typical of tropical South America. However, the number of species is relatively low compared to the mainland, as would be expected on small islands.[citation needed]

The resident breeding birds are augmented in the northern winter by migrants from North America, although the variety of migrant passerines is very limited compared to Central America.[citation needed]

Unless otherwise noted, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society (AOS).The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.[2]

Species in the list are common on both main islands except as indicated otherwise. Many are also present on other, small, islands which are usually not named in the list. Tobago has only about half the number of bird species of Trinidad, but 27 species and one subspecies have occurred only on the smaller island. Some of the smaller islands off Tobago, such as Little Tobago, have important seabird breeding colonies.[3][1][4]

Tinamous[edit]

Order: Tinamiformes   Family: Tinamidae

The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family, Tinamidae, within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emus, and kiwis.

Name Binomial Status
Little tinamou Crypturellus soui Trinidad only

Screamers[edit]

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anhimidae

The screamers are a small family of birds related to the ducks. They are large, bulky birds, with a small downy head, long legs and large feet which are only partially webbed. They have large spurs on their wings which are used in fights over mates and in territorial disputes.

Name Binomial Status
Horned screamer Anhima cornuta extirpated

Ducks[edit]

Black-bellied whistling-ducks, Tobago
Masked duck, Tobago

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.

Name Binomial Status
Fulvous whistling-duck Dendrocygna bicolor Trinidad only
White-faced whistling-duck Dendrocygna viduata Trinidad only
Black-bellied whistling-duck Dendrocygna autumnalis
Muscovy duck Cairina moschata Trinidad only - vagrant
Comb duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola Trinidad only - vagrant
Northern shoveller Spatula clypeata vagrant
Blue-winged teal Spatula discors
Eurasian wigeon Mareca penelope Tobago only - vagrant
American wigeon Mareca americana Tobago only - vagrant
White-cheeked pintail Anas bahamensis
Northern pintail Anas acuta vagrant
Green-winged teal Anas crecca vagrant
Southern pochard Netta erythrophthalma Trinidad only - vagrant
Ring-necked duck Aythya collaris vagrant
Lesser scaup Aythya affinis vagrant
Masked duck Oxyura dominica

Guans[edit]

Order: Galliformes   Family: Cracidae

The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colorful facial ornaments.

Common name Binomial Status
Trinidad piping-guan Aburria pipile Endemic to Trinidad
Rufous-vented chachalaca Ortalis ruficauda Tobago only

Flamingos[edit]

Order: Phoenicopteriformes   Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.

Name Binomial Status
American flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber Trinidad only

Grebes[edit]

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.

Name Binomial Status
Least grebe Tachybaptus dominicus
Pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps

Pigeons[edit]

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Name Binomial Status
Rock pigeon Columba livia Introduced species
Scaled pigeon Patagioenas speciosa Trinidad only
Scaly-naped pigeon Patagioenas squamosa Tobago and Little Tobago only
Band-tailed pigeon Patagioenas fasciata Trinidad only - extirpated
Pale-vented pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis
Ruddy quail-dove Geotrygon montana Trinidad only
White-tipped dove Leptotila verreauxi
Gray-fronted dove Leptotila rufaxilla Trinidad only
Lined quail-dove Zentrygon linearis Trinidad only
Eared dove Zenaida auriculata
Blue ground dove Claravis pretiosa Trinidad only
Common ground dove Columbina passerina Trinidad only
Plain-breasted ground dove Columbina minuta Trinidad only
Ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti
Scaled dove Columbina squammata Trinidad only

Cuckoos[edit]

Smooth-billed ani, Tobago

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails, and strong legs.

Name Binomial Status
Greater ani Crotophaga major Trinidad only
Smooth-billed ani Crotophaga ani
Striped cuckoo Tapera naevia Trinidad only
Little cuckoo Coccycua minuta Trinidad only
Dwarf cuckoo Coccycua pumila Trinidad only - vagrant
Squirrel cuckoo Piaya cayana Trinidad only
Dark-billed cuckoo Coccyzus melacoryphus Trinidad only - vagrant
Yellow-billed cuckoo Coccyzus americanus
Mangrove cuckoo Coccyzus minor
Black-billed cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus Trinidad only - vagrant

Oilbird[edit]

Oilbirds, Trinidad

Order: Steatornithiformes   Family: Steatornithidae

The oilbird is a slim, long-winged bird related to the nightjars. It is nocturnal and a specialist feeder on the fruit of the oil palm.

Common name Binomial Status
Oilbird Steatornis caripensis Trinidad only

Potoos[edit]

Order: Nyctibiiformes   Family: Nyctibiidae

The potoos (sometimes called poor-me-ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars.

Common name Binomial Status
Common potoo Nyctibius griseus

Nightjars[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.

Common name Binomial Status
Nacunda nighthawk Chordeiles nacunda Trinidad only
Lesser nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Short-tailed nighthawk Lurocalis semitorquatus Trinidad only
Common pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Trinidad only
White-tailed nightjar Hydropsalis cayennensis
Rufous nightjar Antrostomus rufus Trinidad only

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.

Common name Binomial Status
Chestnut-collared swift Cypseloides rutilus Trinidad only
White-collared swift Streptoprocne zonaris Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Gray-rumped swift Chaetura cinereiventris
Band-rumped swift Chaetura spinicaudus Trinidad only
Vaux's swift Chaetura vauxi vagrant
Chapman's swift Chaetura chapmani Trinidad only
Short-tailed swift Chaetura brachyura
Fork-tailed palm-swift Tachornis squamata
Lesser swallow-tailed swift Panyptila cayennensis Trinidad only

Hummingbirds[edit]

Rufous-breasted hermit, Tobago
Four hummingbirds
Hummingbirds of Trinidad and Tobago
Black-throated mango, Tobago
Ruby-topaz hummingbird, Tobago
Copper-rumped hummingbird, Trinidad

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.

Common name Binomial Status
White-necked jacobin Florisuga mellivora mellivora
Rufous-breasted hermit Glaucis hirsutus insularum
Little hermit Phaethornis longuemareus Trinidad only
Green hermit Phaethornis guy Trinidad only
Brown violetear Colibri delphinae Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
White-tailed goldenthroat Polytmus guainumbi Trinidad only
Ruby-topaz hummingbird Chrysolampis mosquitus
Green-throated mango Anthracothorax viridigula Trinidad only
Black-throated mango Anthracothorax nigricollis
Tufted coquette Lophornis ornatus Trinidad only
Long-billed starthroat Heliomaster longirostris Trinidad only
Rufous-shafted woodstar Chaetocercus jourdanii Trinidad only - vagrant
Amethyst woodstar Calliphlox amethystina Trinidad only - vagrant
Blue-tailed emerald Chlorostilbon mellisugus Trinidad only
White-tailed sabrewing Campylopterus ensipennis Tobago only - near-threatened
Copper-rumped hummingbird Saucerottia tobaci erythronota Trinidad only for subspecies
Copper-rumped hummingbird Saucerottia tobaci tobaci Tobago only for subspecies
White-chested emerald Chrysuronia brevirostris Trinidad only
Blue-chinned sapphire Chlorestes notata Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago

Limpkin[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Aramidae

The limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab-brown plumage and a grayer head and neck.

Name Binomial Status
Limpkin Aramus guarauna Trinidad only

Rails[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.

Name Binomial Status
Mangrove rail Rallus longirostris Trinidad only
Purple gallinule Porphyrio martinica
Azure gallinule Porphyrio flavirostris Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Gray-breasted crake Laterallus exilis Trinidad only
Ash-throated crake Mustelirallus albicollis Trinidad only - extirpated
Paint-billed crake Mustelirallus erythrops Trinidad only - vagrant
Spotted rail Pardirallus maculatus Trinidad only - vagrant
Gray-cowled wood-rail Aramides cajaneus Trinidad only
Rufous-necked wood-rail Aramides axillaris Trinidad only
Yellow-breasted crake Haplocrex flaviventer Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Sora Porzana carolina
Common gallinule Gallinula galeata
American coot Fulica americana vagrant

Finfoots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots.

Name Binomial Status
Sungrebe Heliornis fulica Trinidad only - vagrant

Plovers[edit]

Southern lapwing, Tobago

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.

Name Binomial Status
American golden-plover Pluvialis dominica
Black-bellied plover Pluvialis squatarola
Pied lapwing Vanellus cayanus Trinidad only - vagrant
Southern lapwing Vanellus chilensis
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus vagrant
Semipalmated plover Charadrius semipalmatus
Wilson's plover Charadrius wilsonia Trinidad only
Collared plover Charadrius collaris Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Snowy plover Charadrius nivosus Tobago only - vagrant

Oystercatchers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

Name Binomial Status
American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus vagrant

Avocets and stilts[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

Name Binomial Status
Black-necked stilt Himantopus mexicanus Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
American avocet Recurvirostra americana Tobago only - vagrant

Thick-knees[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of waders found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

Name Binomial Status
Double-striped thick-knee Burhinus bistriatus vagrant

Sandpipers[edit]

Ruddy turnstone, Tobago
White-rumped sandpiper, Tobago

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

Name Binomial Status
Upland sandpiper Bartramia longicauda
Eskimo curlew Numenius borealis extirpated, possibly extinct
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Long-billed curlew Numenius americanus Tobago only - vagrant
Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosaa Trinidad only - vagrant
Hudsonian godwit Limosa haemastica Trinidad only
Marbled godwit Limosa fedoa Trinidad only - vagrant
Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres morinella
Red knot Calidris canutus Trinidad only
Ruff Calidris pugnax vagrant
Stilt sandpiper Calidris himantopus
Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea Trinidad only - vagrant
Sanderling Calidris alba
Baird's sandpiper Calidris bairdii Trinidad only - vagrant
Least sandpiper Calidris minutilla
White-rumped sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis
Buff-breasted sandpiper Calidris subruficollis
Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos
Semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla
Western sandpiper Calidris mauri
Short-billed dowitcher Limnodromus griseus
Wilson's snipe Gallinago delicata
Pantanal snipe Gallinago paraguaiae Trinidad only
Wilson's phalarope Phalaropus tricolor vagrant
Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus Trinidad only - vagrant
Spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia
Solitary sandpiper Tringa solitaria
Common greenshank Tringa nebularia vagrant
Greater yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
Willet Tringa semipalmata
Lesser yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola Tobago only - vagrant

Jacanas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of waders found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.

Name Binomial Status
Wattled jacana Jacana jacana

Skuas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.

Name Binomial Status
South polar skua Stercorarius maccormicki Trinidad only - vagrant
Pomarine jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus Trinidad only - vagrant
Parasitic jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus Trinidad only - vagrant

Skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.

Name Binomial Status
Black skimmer Rynchops niger

Gulls[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns, and skimmers. They are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with gray or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.

Name Binomial Status
Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla vagrant
Sabine's gull Xema sabini Trinidad only - vagrant
Black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus vagrant
Laughing gull Leucophaeus atricilla
Franklin's gull Leucophaeus pipixcan Trinidad only
Audouin's gull Ichthyaetus audouinii Trinidad only - vagrant
Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis Trinidad only - vagrant
Great black-backed gull Larus marinus Trinidad only - vagrant
Kelp gull Larus dominicanus Trinidad only - vagrant
Lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Herring gull Larus argentatus vagrant
Brown noddy Anous stolidus
White tern Gygis alba Tobago only - vagrant
Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata
Bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus
Least tern Sternula antillarum
Yellow-billed tern Sternula superciliaris Trinidad only
Large-billed tern Phaetusa simplex Trinidad only
Gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia Trinidad only - vagrant
Black tern Chlidonias niger Trinidad only
Common tern Sterna hirundo
Roseate tern Sterna dougallii
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea vagrant
Sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
Royal tern Thalasseus maxima

Tropicbirds[edit]

Red-billed tropicbirds, Little Tobago

Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus
White-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Tobago only

Southern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Until 2018, this family's species were included with the other storm-petrels in family Hydrobatidae.

Common name Binomial Status
Wilson's storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus vagrant

Northern storm-petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Though the members of this family are similar in many respects to the southern storm-petrels, including their general appearance and habits, there are enough genetic differences to warrant their placement in a separate family.

Common name Binomial Status
Leach's storm-petrel Hydrobates leucorhoa

Shearwaters[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.

Common name Binomial Status
Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii Trinidad only - vagrant
Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea vagrant
Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii vagrant
Sooty shearwater Ardenna grisea Trinidad only - vagrant
Great shearwater Ardenna gravis vagrant
Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus Trinidad only - vagrant
Audubon's shearwater Puffinus lherminieri Little Tobago only

Storks[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.

Name Binomial Status
Maguari stork Ciconia maguari Trinidad only - vagrant
Jabiru Jabiru mycteria vagrant
Wood stork Mycteria americana Trinidad only - vagrant

Frigatebirds[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white, or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.

Common name Binomial Status
Magnificent frigatebird Fregata magnificens

Boobies[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

Common name Binomial Status
Masked booby Sula dactylatra
Red-footed booby Sula sula
Brown booby Sula leucogaster

Anhingas[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

Anhingas are often called "snake-birds" because they have long thin necks, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape, and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage, especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.

Common name Binomial Status
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga

Cormorants[edit]

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage coloration varies; the majority of species have mainly dark plumage, but some are pied black and white, and a few are more colorful.

Common name Binomial Status
Neotropic cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus

Pelicans[edit]

Juvenile brown pelican, Tobago

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.

Common name Binomial Status
Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

Herons[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

Great egret, Tobago
Green heron, Tobago
Black-crowned night-heron, Tobago

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills.

Name Binomial Status
Rufescent tiger-heron Tigrisoma lineatum Trinidad only
Fasciated tiger-heron Tigrisoma fasciatum Trinidad only - vagrant
Agami heron Agamia agami Trinidad only - vagrant
Boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearius Trinidad only
Pinnated bittern Botaurus pinnatus Trinidad only
Least bittern Ixobrychus exilis Trinidad only
Stripe-backed bittern Ixobrychus involucris Trinidad only
Black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Yellow-crowned night-heron Nyctanassa violacea
Green heron Butorides virescens virescens Common Tobago, vagrant Trinidad
Striated heron Butorides striata Trinidad only
Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides vagrant
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis
Gray heron Ardea cinerea vagrant
Great blue heron Ardea herodias
Cocoi heron Ardea cocoi Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Purple heron Ardea purpurea vagrant
Great egret Ardea alba
Whistling heron Syrigma sibilatrix Trinidad only - vagrant
Capped heron Pilherodius pileatus vagrant
Tricolored heron Egretta tricolor
Reddish egret Egretta rufescens vagrant
Western reef-heron Egretta gularis Trinidad only - vagrant
Little egret Egretta garzetta
Snowy egret Egretta thula
Little blue heron Egretta caerulea

Ibises[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.

Name Binomial Status
White ibis Eudocimus albus Trinidad only - vagrant
Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus
Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia vagrant
Roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja vagrant

New World vultures[edit]

Turkey vulture, Trinidad

Order: Cathartiformes   Family: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion.

Name Binomial Status
King vulture Sarcoramphus papa Trinidad only - vagrant
Black vulture Coragyps atratus Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Turkey vulture Cathartes aura Trinidad only

Osprey[edit]

Osprey, Trinidad

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Name Binomial Status
Osprey Pandion haliaetus

Hawks[edit]

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

Name Binomial Status
Pearl kite Gampsonyx swainsonii Trinidad only
White-tailed kite Elanus leucurus Trinidad only - vagrant
Hook-billed kite Chondrohierax uncinatus
Gray-headed kite Leptodon cayanensis Trinidad only
Swallow-tailed kite Elanoides forficatus Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Black hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus Trinidad only
Ornate hawk-eagle Spizaetus ornatus Trinidad only, extirpated Tobago
Black-collared hawk Busarellus nigricollis Trinidad only - vagrant
Snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis Trinidad only
Slender-billed kite Helicolestes hamatus Trinidad only - vagrant
Double-toothed kite Harpagus bidentatus Trinidad only
Plumbeous kite Ictinia plumbea Trinidad only
Long-winged harrier Circus buffoni Trinidad only
Crane hawk Geranospiza caerulescens Trinidad only
Common black hawk Buteogallus anthracinus Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Rufous crab hawk Buteogallus aequinoctialis Trinidad only
Savanna hawk Buteogallus meridionalis Trinidad only
Great black hawk Buteogallus urubitinga Common Tobago, vagrant Trinidad
Roadside hawk Rupornis magnirostris Trinidad only - vagrant
White-tailed hawk Geranoaetus albicaudatus Trinidad only - vagrant
White hawk Pseudastur albicollis Trinidad only
Gray-lined hawk Buteo nitidus Trinidad only
Broad-winged hawk Buteo platypterus
Short-tailed hawk Buteo brachyurus Trinidad only
Swainson's hawk Buteo swainsoni vagrant
Zone-tailed hawk Buteo albonotatus Trinidad only

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

Common name Binomial Status
Barn owl Tyto alba

Owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

Common name Binomial Status
Tropical screech-owl Megascops choliba Trinidad only
Spectacled owl Pulsatrix perspicillata Trinidad only
Mottled owl Strix virgata Trinidad only
Ferruginous pygmy-owl Gaucidium brasilianum Trinidad only
Burrowing owl Athene cunicularia Trinidad only - vagrant
Striped owl Asio clamator Tobago only
Stygian owl Asio stygius Trinidad only - vagrant
Short-eared owl Asio flammeus Trinidad only - vagrant

Trogons[edit]

Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colorful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage.

Common name Binomial Status
Green-backed trogon Trogon viridis Trinidad only
Guianan trogon Trogon violaceus Trinidad only
Collared trogon Trogon collaris

Motmots[edit]

Trinidad motmot, Tobago

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Momotidae

The motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft and creating a racket-shaped tail.

Common name Binomial Status
Trinidad motmot Momotus bahamensis endemic to main islands

Kingfishers[edit]

Ringed kingfisher, Trinidad

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.

Common name Binomial Status
Ringed kingfisher Megaceryle torquata Trinidad, vagrant to Tobago
Belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon
Amazon kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona Trinidad only - vagrant
American pygmy kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea Trinidad only
Green kingfisher Chloroceryle americana

Jacamars[edit]

Rufous-tailed jacamar, Tobago

Order: Galbuliformes   Family: Galbulidae

The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, with a range that extends up to Mexico. They feed on insects caught on the wing, and are glossy, elegant birds with long bills and tails. In appearance and behavior they resemble the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to woodpeckers.

Common name Binomial Status
Rufous-tailed jacamar Galbula ruficauda

Toucans[edit]

Order: Piciformes   Family: Ramphastidae

Toucans are near passerine birds from the Neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous, colorful bills which in some species amount to half their body length.

Common name Binomial Status
Channel-billed toucan Ramphastos vitellinus Trinidad only

Woodpeckers[edit]

Red-crowned woodpecker, Tobago

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

Common name Binomial Status
Red-crowned woodpecker Melanerpes rubricapillus rubricapillus Tobago only
Red-rumped woodpecker Dryobates kirkii
Crimson-crested woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos Trinidad only
Lineated woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus Trinidad only
Chestnut woodpecker Celeus elegans Trinidad only
Golden-olive woodpecker Piculus rubiginosus

Falcons[edit]

Peregrine falcon, Trinidad

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.

Common name Binomial Status
Crested caracara Caracara plancus Trinidad only
Yellow-headed caracara Milvago chimachima
Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus Trinidad only - vagrant
American kestrel Falco sparverius vagrant
Merlin Falco columbarius
Bat falcon Falco rufigularis Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Orange-breasted falcon Falco deiroleucus Trinidad only - vagrant
Aplomado falcon Falco femoralis
Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus

New World and African parrots[edit]

Orange-winged parrots, Tobago
Green-rumped parrotlet, Trinidad

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back.

Name Binomial Status
Lilac-tailed parrotlet Touit batavicus Trinidad only
Scarlet-shouldered parrotlet Touit huetii vagrant
Blue-headed parrot Pionus menstruus Trinidad only
Yellow-crowned parrot Amazona ochrocephala Trinidad only
Orange-winged parrot Amazona amazonica
Green-rumped parrotlet Forpus passerinus
Brown-throated parakeet Eupsittula pertinax Trinidad only
Red-bellied macaw Orthopsittaca manilatus Trinidad only
Blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna Trinidad only, reintroduced[5]
Scarlet macaw Ara macao Trinidad only - vagrant
Red-and-green macaw Ara chloropterus Trinidad only - vagrant/population of unknown origin[6]
White-eyed parakeet Psittacara leucophthalmus Trinidad only

Antbirds[edit]

Barred antshrike, Tobago

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thamnophilidae

The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds which tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat small invertebrates that leave their hiding places to flee from the ants. Many species lack bright color; brown, black, and white being the dominant tones.

Common name Binomial Status
Great antshrike Taraba major Trinidad only
Black-crested antshrike Sakesphorus canadensis Trinidad only
Barred antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus tobagensis
Plain antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis
White-flanked antwren Myrmotherula axillaris Trinidad only
White-fringed antwren Formicivora grisea Tobago only
Silvered antbird Sclateria naevia Trinidad only
White-bellied antbird Myrmeciza longipes Trinidad only

Antpittas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Grallariidae

Antpittas resemble the true pittas with strong, longish legs, very short tails, and stout bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Scaled antpitta Grallaria guatimalensis Trinidad only - vagrant

Antthrushes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Formicariidae

Antthrushes resemble small rails with strong, longish legs, very short tails, and stout bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-faced antthrush Formicarius analis Trinidad only

Ovenbirds[edit]

Yellow-chinned spinetail, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Furnariidae

Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. The woodcreepers are brownish birds which maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks.

Common name Binomial Status
Gray-throated leaftosser Sclerurus albigularis
Olivaceous woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus Tobago only
Plain-brown woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa
Cocoa woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus susurrans
Straight-billed woodcreeper Dendroplex picus Trinidad only
Streak-headed woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes souleyetii Trinidad only
Streaked xenops Xenops rutilans Trinidad only
Yellow-chinned spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomeus Trinidad only
Pale-breasted spinetail Synallaxis albescens Trinidad only
Stripe-breasted spinetail Synallaxis cinnamomea

Manakins[edit]

White-bearded manakin, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pipridae

The manakins are a family of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly colored, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects.

Common name Binomial Status
Blue-backed manakin Chiroxiphia pareola Tobago only
White-bearded manakin Manacus manacus Trinidad only
Golden-headed manakin Pipra erythrocephala Trinidad only

Cotingas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cotingidae

The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges in tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly colored or decorated with plumes or wattles.

Common name Binomial Status
White bellbird Procnias alba Trinidad only - vagrant
Bearded bellbird Procnias averano Trinidad only

Tityras[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tityridae

Tityridae are suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. They are small to medium-sized birds. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain coloring.

Common name Binomial Status
Black-tailed tityra Tityra cayana Trinidad only
White-winged becard Pachyramphus polychopterus

Tyrant flycatchers[edit]

Gray kingbird, Tobago
Boat-billed flycatcher, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain coloring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.

Common name Binomial Status
White-throated spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus
Olive-striped flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus Trinidad only
Ochre-bellied flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus
Slaty-capped flycatcher Leptopogon superciliaris Trinidad only
Yellow-olive flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens Trinidad only
Yellow-breasted flycatcher Tolmomyias flaviventris
Short-tailed pygmy-tyrant Myiornis ecaudatus Trinidad only
Spotted tody-flycatcher Todirostrum maculatum Trinidad only
Southern beardless-tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum Trinidad only
Yellow-bellied elaenia Elaenia flavogaster
Small-billed elaenia Elaenia parvirostris Trinidad only
Slaty elaenia Elaenia strepera Trinidad only - vagrant
Lesser elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis Trinidad only
Forest elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii Trinidad only
Mouse-colored tyrannulet Phaeomyias murina Trinidad only
Crested doradito Pseudocolopteryx sclateri Trinidad only - vagrant
Bright-rumped attila Attila spadiceus Trinidad only
Piratic flycatcher Legatus leucophaius
Great kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Trinidad only
Sulphury flycatcher Tyrannopsis sulphurea Trinidad only
Boat-billed flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua Trinidad only
Streaked flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus
Variegated flycatcher Empidonomus varius Trinidad only
Tropical kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus
Fork-tailed flycatcher Tyrannus savana
Eastern kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus Trinidad only - vagrant
Gray kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis vorax
Dusky-capped flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer Trinidad only
Swainson's flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni Trinidad only - vagrant
Venezuelan flycatcher Myiarchus venezuelensis Tobago only
Brown-crested flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus
Bran-colored flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus Trinidad only
Northern scrub-flycatcher Sublegatus arenarum Trinidad only
Pied water-tyrant Fluvicola pica Trinidad only
White-headed marsh tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala Trinidad only
Fuscous flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus
Euler's flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri Trinidad only
Olive-sided flycatcher Contopus cooperi Trinidad only
Tropical pewee Contopus cinereus Trinidad only

Vireos[edit]

Rufous-browed peppershrike, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are typically greenish in color and resemble New World warblers apart from their heavier bills.

Common name Binomial Status
Rufous-browed peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis Trinidad only
Scrub greenlet Hylophilus flavipes Tobago only
Golden-fronted greenlet Pachysylvia aurantiifrons Trinidad only
White-eyed vireo Vireo griseus vagrant; Trinidad only
Yellow-throated vireo Vireo flavifrons vagrant
Red-eyed vireo Vireo olivaceus
Chivi vireo Vireo chivi
Black-whiskered vireo Vireo altiloquus

Swallows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

Common name Binomial Status
Blue-and-white swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca Trinidad only - vagrant
Southern rough-winged swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Caribbean martin Progne dominicensis vagrant Trinidad, common Tobago
Gray-breasted martin Progne chalybea Trinidad only
White-winged swallow Tachycineta albiventer
Bank swallow Riparia riparia
Barn swallow Hirundo rustica
Cliff swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

Wrens[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.

Common name Binomial Status
House wren Troglodytes aedon
Rufous-breasted wren Pheugopedius rutilus

Gnatcatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Polioptilidae

These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish gray in color and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, which nest in bushes or trees.

Common name Binomial Status
Trilling gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus Trinidad only

Thrushes[edit]

Spectacled thrush, Tobago

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

Common name Binomial Status
Orange-billed nightingale-thrush Catharus aurantiirostris Trinidad only
Veery Catharus fuscescens Trinidad only - vagrant
Gray-cheeked thrush Catharus minimus Trinidad only - vagrant
Yellow-legged thrush Turdus flavipes
Cocoa thrush Turdus fumigatus Trinidad only
Spectacled thrush Turdus nudigenis
White-necked thrush Turdus albicollis

Mockingbirds[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their coloring tends towards dull-grays and browns.

Common name Binomial Status
Tropical mockingbird Mimus gilvus

Weavers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly colored, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in color only in the breeding season.

Common name Binomial Status
Village weaver Ploceus cucullatus introduced species

Estreldids[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colors and patterns.

Common name Binomial Status
Common waxbill Estrilda astrild Trinidad, accidental Tobago - introduced species
Tricolored munia Lonchura malacca Trinidad only - introduced species

Old World sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or gray birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.

Common name Binomial Status
House sparrow Passer domesticus Trinidad only - Introduced species

Pipits and wagtails[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender ground-feeding insectivores of open country.

Common name Binomial Status
White wagtail Motacilla alba vagrant

Finches[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.

Common name Binomial Status
Red siskin Carduelis cucullata Trinidad only - extirpated
Lesser goldfinch Spinus psaltria Trinidad only - vagrant
Golden-rumped euphonia Chlorophonia cyanocephala Trinidad only - extirpated
Trinidad euphonia Euphonia trinitatis Trinidad only
Violaceous euphonia Euphonia violacea

Blackbirds[edit]

Crested oropendola, subspecies insularis, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange, or red.

Common name Binomial Status
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus
Red-breasted meadowlark Leistes militaris Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Crested oropendola Psarocolius decumanus
Yellow-rumped cacique Cacicus cela Trinidad only
Epaulet oriole (moriche) Icterus cayanensis chrysocephalus Trinidad only
Orchard oriole Icterus spurius Trinidad only - vagrant
Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula vagrant
Yellow oriole Icterus nigrogularis Trinidad only
Red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Trinidad only - vagrant
Giant cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus
Shiny cowbird Molothrus bonariensis
Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris
Great-tailed grackle Quiscalus mexicanus Trinidad only - vagrant
Yellow-hooded blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus Trinidad only

Wood-warblers[edit]

Masked yellowthroat, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Parulidae

The wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.

Common name Binomial Status
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla vagrant
Northern waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis
Golden-winged warbler Vermivora chrysoptera vagrant
Black-and-white warbler Mniotilta varia vagrant
Prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea
Tennessee warbler Leiothlypis peregrina Trinidad only - vagrant
Masked yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis Trinidad only
Kentucky warbler Geothlypis formosa Trinidad only - vagrant
Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas Trinidad only - vagrant
Hooded warbler Setophaga citrina Trinidad only - vagrant
American redstart Setophaga ruticilla
Cape May warbler Setophaga tigrina vagrant
Cerulean warbler Setophaga cerulea vagrant
Northern parula Setophaga americana vagrant
Tropical parula Setophaga pitiayumi Trinidad only
Magnolia warbler Setophaga magnolia vagrant
Bay-breasted warbler Setophaga castanea vagrant
Blackburnian warbler Setophaga fusca Trinidad only - vagrant
Yellow warbler Setophaga petechia
Chestnut-sided warbler Setophaga pensylvanica Trinidad only - vagrant
Blackpoll warbler Setophaga striata
Black-throated blue warbler Setophaga caerulescens Trinidad only - vagrant
Yellow-rumped warbler Setophaga coronata Tobago only - vagrant
Prairie warbler Setophaga discolor Trinidad only - vagrant
Black-throated green warbler Setophaga virens Trinidad only - vagrant
Golden-crowned warbler Basileuterus culicivorus Trinidad only
Canada warbler Cardellina canadensis Trinidad only - vagrant

Cardinal grosbeaks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.

Common name Binomial Status
Hepatic tanager Piranga flava Trinidad only
Summer tanager Piranga rubra
Scarlet tanager Piranga olivacea vagrant
Red-crowned ant-tanager Habia rubica Trinidad only
Rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus vagrant
Indigo bunting Passerina cyanea Trinidad only - vagrant
Dickcissel Spiza americana Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago

Tanagers[edit]

Blue-gray tanager, Tobago
Green honeycreeper, Trinidad
Purple honeycreeper, Trinidad

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. As a family they are omnivorous, but individual species specialize in eating fruits, seeds, insects, or other types of food. Most have short, rounded wings.

Common name Binomial Status
Green honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza spiza Trinidad only
Bicolored conebill Conirostrum bicolor Trinidad only
Orange-fronted yellow-finch Sicalis columbiana Trinidad only - vagrant
Saffron finch Sicalis flaveola Trinidad only
Grassland yellow-finch Sicalis luteola Trinidad only
Blue-black grassquit Volatinia jacarina
White-shouldered tanager Loriotus luctuosus Trinidad only
White-lined tanager Tachyphonus rufus
Silver-beaked tanager Ramphocelus carbo Trinidad only
Purple honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus longirostris Trinidad only
Red-legged honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus
Swallow tanager Tersina viridis Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago
Blue dacnis Dacnis cayana Trinidad only
Lesson's seedeater Sporophila bouvronides Trinidad only - status undetermined
Lined seedeater Sporophila lineola Trinidad only - vagrant
Ruddy-breasted seedeater Sporophila minuta Trinidad only
Chestnut-bellied seed-finch Oryzoborus angolensis Trinidad only - extirpated
Large-billed seed-finch Oryzoborus crassirostris Trinidad only - extirpated
Gray seedeater Sporophila intermedia Trinidad only - extirpated
Wing-barred seedeater Sporophila americana Tobago only - extirpated
Yellow-bellied seedeater Sporophila nigricollis Trinidad only
Slate-colored seedeater Sporophila schistacea Trinidad only - extirpated
Olive-gray saltator Saltator olivascens Trinidad only
Streaked saltator Saltator striatipectus Trinidad only
Bananaquit Coereba flaveola luteola
Sooty grassquit Asemospiza fuliginosa Trinidad only
Black-faced grassquit Melanospiza bicolor Tobago only
Masked cardinal Paroaria nigrogenis Trinidad only
Blue-capped tanager Sporathraupis cyanocephala Trinidad only
Turquoise tanager Tangara mexicana Trinidad only
Bay-headed tanager Tangara gyrola Trinidad only
Blue-gray tanager Thraupis episcopus berlepschi
Palm tanager Thraupis palmarum
Speckled tanager Ixothraupis guttata Trinidad only

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kenefick, Martyn (22 September 2020). "Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories: Trinidad and Tobago". South American Classification Committee of the American Ornithological Society. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  2. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 31 January 2022. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved 1 February 2022
  3. ^ "Official checklist of Trinidad & Tobago" (PDF). Trinidad & Tobago Rare Birds Committee. March 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Records accepted by the Trinidad & Tobago Rare Bird Committee". Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  5. ^ Collar, N., P. F. D. Boesman, and C.J. Sharpe (2020). Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.baymac.01 Retrieved February 3, 2021
  6. ^ "Red-and-green Macaw Page". Southeastern Caribbean Birds - Photo Gallery. Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists' Club, Trinidad & Tobago Bird Status & Distribution Committee. 27 February 2001. Retrieved 17 August 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • ffrench, Richard (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2.
  • Helm Field Guides. Kenefick, Restall, Hayes. Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd Ed.). Christopher Helm, Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4081-5209-6
  • Linblad, Jan. (1966). Journey to Red Birds. Trans. by Gwynne Vevers. Reprint: Collins, London. 1969.
  • Zahl, Paul A. (1954). Coro-Coro: The World of the Scarlet Ibis. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis / New York.
  • Worth, C. Brooke. (1967). A Naturalist in Trinidad. J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and New York.

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