List of birds of Trinidad and Tobago
A total of 487 species of birds have been confirmed on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Of them, two are endemic, six have been introduced by humans, 130 are rare or vagrants, and 11 have been extirpated. The status of one more has not been determined. There are few places in the world where so many bird species can be seen in such a small area, many of them unique, very rare, or of particular interest. They range from the many species of hummingbird to the cave-dwelling oilbird (which uses echo-location to fly in the dark) and the scarlet ibis.
The islands are within a few miles of Venezuela, and the species are therefore typical of tropical South America. However, the number of species is relatively low compared to the mainland, as would be expected on small islands.
The resident breeding birds are augmented in the northern winter by migrants from North America, although the variety of migrant passerines is very limited compared to Central America.
Unless otherwise noted, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society (AOS).The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.
Species in the list are common on both main islands except as indicated otherwise. Many are also present on other, small, islands which are usually not named in the list. Tobago has only about half the number of bird species of Trinidad, but 27 species and one subspecies have occurred only on the smaller island. Some of the smaller islands off Tobago, such as Little Tobago, have important seabird breeding colonies.
The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family, Tinamidae, within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emus, and kiwis.
|Little tinamou||Crypturellus soui||Trinidad only|
The screamers are a small family of birds related to the ducks. They are large, bulky birds, with a small downy head, long legs and large feet which are only partially webbed. They have large spurs on their wings which are used in fights over mates and in territorial disputes.
|Horned screamer||Anhima cornuta||extirpated|
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
|Fulvous whistling-duck||Dendrocygna bicolor||Trinidad only|
|White-faced whistling-duck||Dendrocygna viduata||Trinidad only|
|Black-bellied whistling-duck||Dendrocygna autumnalis|
|Muscovy duck||Cairina moschata||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Comb duck||Sarkidiornis sylvicola||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Northern shoveller||Spatula clypeata||vagrant|
|Blue-winged teal||Spatula discors|
|Eurasian wigeon||Mareca penelope||Tobago only - vagrant|
|American wigeon||Mareca americana||Tobago only - vagrant|
|White-cheeked pintail||Anas bahamensis|
|Northern pintail||Anas acuta||vagrant|
|Green-winged teal||Anas crecca||vagrant|
|Southern pochard||Netta erythrophthalma||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Ring-necked duck||Aythya collaris||vagrant|
|Lesser scaup||Aythya affinis||vagrant|
|Masked duck||Oxyura dominica|
The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colorful facial ornaments.
|Trinidad piping-guan||Aburria pipile||Endemic to Trinidad|
|Rufous-vented chachalaca||Ortalis ruficauda||Tobago only|
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.
|American flamingo||Phoenicopterus ruber||Trinidad only|
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
|Least grebe||Tachybaptus dominicus|
|Pied-billed grebe||Podilymbus podiceps|
|Rock pigeon||Columba livia||Introduced species|
|Scaled pigeon||Patagioenas speciosa||Trinidad only|
|Scaly-naped pigeon||Patagioenas squamosa||Tobago and Little Tobago only|
|Band-tailed pigeon||Patagioenas fasciata||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Pale-vented pigeon||Patagioenas cayennensis|
|Ruddy quail-dove||Geotrygon montana||Trinidad only|
|White-tipped dove||Leptotila verreauxi|
|Gray-fronted dove||Leptotila rufaxilla||Trinidad only|
|Lined quail-dove||Zentrygon linearis||Trinidad only|
|Eared dove||Zenaida auriculata|
|Blue ground dove||Claravis pretiosa||Trinidad only|
|Common ground dove||Columbina passerina||Trinidad only|
|Plain-breasted ground dove||Columbina minuta||Trinidad only|
|Ruddy ground dove||Columbina talpacoti|
|Scaled dove||Columbina squammata||Trinidad only|
|Greater ani||Crotophaga major||Trinidad only|
|Smooth-billed ani||Crotophaga ani|
|Striped cuckoo||Tapera naevia||Trinidad only|
|Little cuckoo||Coccycua minuta||Trinidad only|
|Dwarf cuckoo||Coccycua pumila||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Squirrel cuckoo||Piaya cayana||Trinidad only|
|Dark-billed cuckoo||Coccyzus melacoryphus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Yellow-billed cuckoo||Coccyzus americanus|
|Mangrove cuckoo||Coccyzus minor|
|Black-billed cuckoo||Coccyzus erythropthalmus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
The oilbird is a slim, long-winged bird related to the nightjars. It is nocturnal and a specialist feeder on the fruit of the oil palm.
|Oilbird||Steatornis caripensis||Trinidad only|
The potoos (sometimes called poor-me-ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars.
|Common potoo||Nyctibius griseus|
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
|Nacunda nighthawk||Chordeiles nacunda||Trinidad only|
|Lesser nighthawk||Chordeiles acutipennis||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Short-tailed nighthawk||Lurocalis semitorquatus||Trinidad only|
|Common pauraque||Nyctidromus albicollis||Trinidad only|
|White-tailed nightjar||Hydropsalis cayennensis|
|Rufous nightjar||Antrostomus rufus||Trinidad only|
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
|Chestnut-collared swift||Cypseloides rutilus||Trinidad only|
|White-collared swift||Streptoprocne zonaris||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Gray-rumped swift||Chaetura cinereiventris|
|Band-rumped swift||Chaetura spinicaudus||Trinidad only|
|Vaux's swift||Chaetura vauxi||vagrant|
|Chapman's swift||Chaetura chapmani||Trinidad only|
|Short-tailed swift||Chaetura brachyura|
|Fork-tailed palm-swift||Tachornis squamata|
|Lesser swallow-tailed swift||Panyptila cayennensis||Trinidad only|
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
|White-necked jacobin||Florisuga mellivora mellivora|
|Rufous-breasted hermit||Glaucis hirsutus insularum|
|Little hermit||Phaethornis longuemareus||Trinidad only|
|Green hermit||Phaethornis guy||Trinidad only|
|Brown violetear||Colibri delphinae||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|White-tailed goldenthroat||Polytmus guainumbi||Trinidad only|
|Ruby-topaz hummingbird||Chrysolampis mosquitus|
|Green-throated mango||Anthracothorax viridigula||Trinidad only|
|Black-throated mango||Anthracothorax nigricollis|
|Tufted coquette||Lophornis ornatus||Trinidad only|
|Long-billed starthroat||Heliomaster longirostris||Trinidad only|
|Rufous-shafted woodstar||Chaetocercus jourdanii||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Amethyst woodstar||Calliphlox amethystina||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Blue-tailed emerald||Chlorostilbon mellisugus||Trinidad only|
|White-tailed sabrewing||Campylopterus ensipennis||Tobago only - near-threatened|
|Copper-rumped hummingbird||Saucerottia tobaci erythronota||Trinidad only for subspecies|
|Copper-rumped hummingbird||Saucerottia tobaci tobaci||Tobago only for subspecies|
|White-chested emerald||Chrysuronia brevirostris||Trinidad only|
|Blue-chinned sapphire||Chlorestes notata||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
The limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab-brown plumage and a grayer head and neck.
|Limpkin||Aramus guarauna||Trinidad only|
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
|Mangrove rail||Rallus longirostris||Trinidad only|
|Purple gallinule||Porphyrio martinica|
|Azure gallinule||Porphyrio flavirostris||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Gray-breasted crake||Laterallus exilis||Trinidad only|
|Ash-throated crake||Mustelirallus albicollis||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Paint-billed crake||Mustelirallus erythrops||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Spotted rail||Pardirallus maculatus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Gray-cowled wood-rail||Aramides cajaneus||Trinidad only|
|Rufous-necked wood-rail||Aramides axillaris||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-breasted crake||Haplocrex flaviventer||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Common gallinule||Gallinula galeata|
|American coot||Fulica americana||vagrant|
Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots.
|Sungrebe||Heliornis fulica||Trinidad only - vagrant|
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
|American golden-plover||Pluvialis dominica|
|Black-bellied plover||Pluvialis squatarola|
|Pied lapwing||Vanellus cayanus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Southern lapwing||Vanellus chilensis|
|Semipalmated plover||Charadrius semipalmatus|
|Wilson's plover||Charadrius wilsonia||Trinidad only|
|Collared plover||Charadrius collaris||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Snowy plover||Charadrius nivosus||Tobago only - vagrant|
|American oystercatcher||Haematopus palliatus||vagrant|
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
|Black-necked stilt||Himantopus mexicanus||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|American avocet||Recurvirostra americana||Tobago only - vagrant|
The thick-knees are a group of waders found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.
|Double-striped thick-knee||Burhinus bistriatus||vagrant|
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
|Upland sandpiper||Bartramia longicauda|
|Eskimo curlew||Numenius borealis||extirpated, possibly extinct|
|Long-billed curlew||Numenius americanus||Tobago only - vagrant|
|Black-tailed godwit||Limosa limosaa||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Hudsonian godwit||Limosa haemastica||Trinidad only|
|Marbled godwit||Limosa fedoa||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Ruddy turnstone||Arenaria interpres morinella|
|Red knot||Calidris canutus||Trinidad only|
|Stilt sandpiper||Calidris himantopus|
|Curlew sandpiper||Calidris ferruginea||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Baird's sandpiper||Calidris bairdii||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Least sandpiper||Calidris minutilla|
|White-rumped sandpiper||Calidris fuscicollis|
|Buff-breasted sandpiper||Calidris subruficollis|
|Pectoral sandpiper||Calidris melanotos|
|Semipalmated sandpiper||Calidris pusilla|
|Western sandpiper||Calidris mauri|
|Short-billed dowitcher||Limnodromus griseus|
|Wilson's snipe||Gallinago delicata|
|Pantanal snipe||Gallinago paraguaiae||Trinidad only|
|Wilson's phalarope||Phalaropus tricolor||vagrant|
|Terek sandpiper||Xenus cinereus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Spotted sandpiper||Actitis macularia|
|Solitary sandpiper||Tringa solitaria|
|Common greenshank||Tringa nebularia||vagrant|
|Greater yellowlegs||Tringa melanoleuca|
|Lesser yellowlegs||Tringa flavipes|
|Wood sandpiper||Tringa glareola||Tobago only - vagrant|
The jacanas are a group of waders found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
|Wattled jacana||Jacana jacana|
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
|South polar skua||Stercorarius maccormicki||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Pomarine jaeger||Stercorarius pomarinus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Parasitic jaeger||Stercorarius parasiticus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
|Black skimmer||Rynchops niger|
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns, and skimmers. They are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with gray or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years.
|Black-legged kittiwake||Rissa tridactyla||vagrant|
|Sabine's gull||Xema sabini||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Black-headed gull||Chroicocephalus ridibundus||vagrant|
|Laughing gull||Leucophaeus atricilla|
|Franklin's gull||Leucophaeus pipixcan||Trinidad only|
|Audouin's gull||Ichthyaetus audouinii||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Ring-billed gull||Larus delawarensis||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Great black-backed gull||Larus marinus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Kelp gull||Larus dominicanus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Lesser black-backed gull||Larus fuscus||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Herring gull||Larus argentatus||vagrant|
|Brown noddy||Anous stolidus|
|White tern||Gygis alba||Tobago only - vagrant|
|Sooty tern||Onychoprion fuscata|
|Bridled tern||Onychoprion anaethetus|
|Least tern||Sternula antillarum|
|Yellow-billed tern||Sternula superciliaris||Trinidad only|
|Large-billed tern||Phaetusa simplex||Trinidad only|
|Gull-billed tern||Gelochelidon nilotica||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Caspian tern||Hydroprogne caspia||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Black tern||Chlidonias niger||Trinidad only|
|Common tern||Sterna hirundo|
|Roseate tern||Sterna dougallii|
|Arctic tern||Sterna paradisaea||vagrant|
|Sandwich tern||Thalasseus sandvicensis|
|Royal tern||Thalasseus maxima|
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
|Red-billed tropicbird||Phaethon aethereus|
|White-tailed tropicbird||Phaethon lepturus||Tobago only|
The storm-petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Until 2018, this family's species were included with the other storm-petrels in family Hydrobatidae.
|Wilson's storm-petrel||Oceanites oceanicus||vagrant|
Though the members of this family are similar in many respects to the southern storm-petrels, including their general appearance and habits, there are enough genetic differences to warrant their placement in a separate family.
|Leach's storm-petrel||Hydrobates leucorhoa|
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
|Bulwer's petrel||Bulweria bulwerii||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Cory's shearwater||Calonectris diomedea||vagrant|
|Cape Verde shearwater||Calonectris edwardsii||vagrant|
|Sooty shearwater||Ardenna grisea||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Great shearwater||Ardenna gravis||vagrant|
|Manx shearwater||Puffinus puffinus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Audubon's shearwater||Puffinus lherminieri||Little Tobago only|
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
|Maguari stork||Ciconia maguari||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Wood stork||Mycteria americana||Trinidad only - vagrant|
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white, or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
|Magnificent frigatebird||Fregata magnificens|
|Masked booby||Sula dactylatra|
|Red-footed booby||Sula sula|
|Brown booby||Sula leucogaster|
Anhingas are often called "snake-birds" because they have long thin necks, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape, and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage, especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage coloration varies; the majority of species have mainly dark plumage, but some are pied black and white, and a few are more colorful.
|Neotropic cormorant||Phalacrocorax brasilianus|
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
|Brown pelican||Pelecanus occidentalis|
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills.
|Rufescent tiger-heron||Tigrisoma lineatum||Trinidad only|
|Fasciated tiger-heron||Tigrisoma fasciatum||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Agami heron||Agamia agami||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Boat-billed heron||Cochlearius cochlearius||Trinidad only|
|Pinnated bittern||Botaurus pinnatus||Trinidad only|
|Least bittern||Ixobrychus exilis||Trinidad only|
|Stripe-backed bittern||Ixobrychus involucris||Trinidad only|
|Black-crowned night-heron||Nycticorax nycticorax|
|Yellow-crowned night-heron||Nyctanassa violacea|
|Green heron||Butorides virescens virescens||Common Tobago, vagrant Trinidad|
|Striated heron||Butorides striata||Trinidad only|
|Squacco heron||Ardeola ralloides||vagrant|
|Cattle egret||Bubulcus ibis|
|Gray heron||Ardea cinerea||vagrant|
|Great blue heron||Ardea herodias|
|Cocoi heron||Ardea cocoi||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Purple heron||Ardea purpurea||vagrant|
|Great egret||Ardea alba|
|Whistling heron||Syrigma sibilatrix||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Capped heron||Pilherodius pileatus||vagrant|
|Tricolored heron||Egretta tricolor|
|Reddish egret||Egretta rufescens||vagrant|
|Western reef-heron||Egretta gularis||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Little egret||Egretta garzetta|
|Snowy egret||Egretta thula|
|Little blue heron||Egretta caerulea|
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
|White ibis||Eudocimus albus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Scarlet ibis||Eudocimus ruber||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Glossy ibis||Plegadis falcinellus|
|Eurasian spoonbill||Platalea leucorodia||vagrant|
|Roseate spoonbill||Platalea ajaja||vagrant|
New World vultures
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion.
|King vulture||Sarcoramphus papa||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Black vulture||Coragyps atratus||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Turkey vulture||Cathartes aura||Trinidad only|
The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
|Pearl kite||Gampsonyx swainsonii||Trinidad only|
|White-tailed kite||Elanus leucurus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Hook-billed kite||Chondrohierax uncinatus|
|Gray-headed kite||Leptodon cayanensis||Trinidad only|
|Swallow-tailed kite||Elanoides forficatus||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Black hawk-eagle||Spizaetus tyrannus||Trinidad only|
|Ornate hawk-eagle||Spizaetus ornatus||Trinidad only, extirpated Tobago|
|Black-collared hawk||Busarellus nigricollis||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Snail kite||Rostrhamus sociabilis||Trinidad only|
|Slender-billed kite||Helicolestes hamatus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Double-toothed kite||Harpagus bidentatus||Trinidad only|
|Plumbeous kite||Ictinia plumbea||Trinidad only|
|Long-winged harrier||Circus buffoni||Trinidad only|
|Crane hawk||Geranospiza caerulescens||Trinidad only|
|Common black hawk||Buteogallus anthracinus||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Rufous crab hawk||Buteogallus aequinoctialis||Trinidad only|
|Savanna hawk||Buteogallus meridionalis||Trinidad only|
|Great black hawk||Buteogallus urubitinga||Common Tobago, vagrant Trinidad|
|Roadside hawk||Rupornis magnirostris||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|White-tailed hawk||Geranoaetus albicaudatus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|White hawk||Pseudastur albicollis||Trinidad only|
|Gray-lined hawk||Buteo nitidus||Trinidad only|
|Broad-winged hawk||Buteo platypterus|
|Short-tailed hawk||Buteo brachyurus||Trinidad only|
|Swainson's hawk||Buteo swainsoni||vagrant|
|Zone-tailed hawk||Buteo albonotatus||Trinidad only|
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
|Barn owl||Tyto alba|
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
|Tropical screech-owl||Megascops choliba||Trinidad only|
|Spectacled owl||Pulsatrix perspicillata||Trinidad only|
|Mottled owl||Strix virgata||Trinidad only|
|Ferruginous pygmy-owl||Gaucidium brasilianum||Trinidad only|
|Burrowing owl||Athene cunicularia||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Striped owl||Asio clamator||Tobago only|
|Stygian owl||Asio stygius||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Short-eared owl||Asio flammeus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colorful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage.
|Green-backed trogon||Trogon viridis||Trinidad only|
|Guianan trogon||Trogon violaceus||Trinidad only|
|Collared trogon||Trogon collaris|
The motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft and creating a racket-shaped tail.
|Trinidad motmot||Momotus bahamensis||endemic to main islands|
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
|Ringed kingfisher||Megaceryle torquata||Trinidad, vagrant to Tobago|
|Belted kingfisher||Megaceryle alcyon|
|Amazon kingfisher||Chloroceryle amazona||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|American pygmy kingfisher||Chloroceryle aenea||Trinidad only|
|Green kingfisher||Chloroceryle americana|
The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, with a range that extends up to Mexico. They feed on insects caught on the wing, and are glossy, elegant birds with long bills and tails. In appearance and behavior they resemble the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to woodpeckers.
|Rufous-tailed jacamar||Galbula ruficauda|
Toucans are near passerine birds from the Neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous, colorful bills which in some species amount to half their body length.
|Channel-billed toucan||Ramphastos vitellinus||Trinidad only|
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
|Red-crowned woodpecker||Melanerpes rubricapillus rubricapillus||Tobago only|
|Red-rumped woodpecker||Dryobates kirkii|
|Crimson-crested woodpecker||Campephilus melanoleucos||Trinidad only|
|Lineated woodpecker||Dryocopus lineatus||Trinidad only|
|Chestnut woodpecker||Celeus elegans||Trinidad only|
|Golden-olive woodpecker||Piculus rubiginosus|
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
|Crested caracara||Caracara plancus||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-headed caracara||Milvago chimachima|
|Eurasian kestrel||Falco tinnunculus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|American kestrel||Falco sparverius||vagrant|
|Bat falcon||Falco rufigularis||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Orange-breasted falcon||Falco deiroleucus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Aplomado falcon||Falco femoralis|
|Peregrine falcon||Falco peregrinus|
New World and African parrots
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back.
|Lilac-tailed parrotlet||Touit batavicus||Trinidad only|
|Scarlet-shouldered parrotlet||Touit huetii||vagrant|
|Blue-headed parrot||Pionus menstruus||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-crowned parrot||Amazona ochrocephala||Trinidad only|
|Orange-winged parrot||Amazona amazonica|
|Green-rumped parrotlet||Forpus passerinus|
|Brown-throated parakeet||Eupsittula pertinax||Trinidad only|
|Red-bellied macaw||Orthopsittaca manilatus||Trinidad only|
|Blue-and-yellow macaw||Ara ararauna||Trinidad only, reintroduced|
|Scarlet macaw||Ara macao||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Red-and-green macaw||Ara chloropterus||Trinidad only - vagrant/population of unknown origin|
|White-eyed parakeet||Psittacara leucophthalmus||Trinidad only|
The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds which tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat small invertebrates that leave their hiding places to flee from the ants. Many species lack bright color; brown, black, and white being the dominant tones.
|Great antshrike||Taraba major||Trinidad only|
|Black-crested antshrike||Sakesphorus canadensis||Trinidad only|
|Barred antshrike||Thamnophilus doliatus tobagensis|
|Plain antvireo||Dysithamnus mentalis|
|White-flanked antwren||Myrmotherula axillaris||Trinidad only|
|White-fringed antwren||Formicivora grisea||Tobago only|
|Silvered antbird||Sclateria naevia||Trinidad only|
|White-bellied antbird||Myrmeciza longipes||Trinidad only|
Antpittas resemble the true pittas with strong, longish legs, very short tails, and stout bills.
|Scaled antpitta||Grallaria guatimalensis||Trinidad only - vagrant|
Antthrushes resemble small rails with strong, longish legs, very short tails, and stout bills.
|Black-faced antthrush||Formicarius analis||Trinidad only|
Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. The woodcreepers are brownish birds which maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks.
|Gray-throated leaftosser||Sclerurus albigularis|
|Olivaceous woodcreeper||Sittasomus griseicapillus||Tobago only|
|Plain-brown woodcreeper||Dendrocincla fuliginosa|
|Cocoa woodcreeper||Xiphorhynchus susurrans|
|Straight-billed woodcreeper||Dendroplex picus||Trinidad only|
|Streak-headed woodcreeper||Lepidocolaptes souleyetii||Trinidad only|
|Streaked xenops||Xenops rutilans||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-chinned spinetail||Certhiaxis cinnamomeus||Trinidad only|
|Pale-breasted spinetail||Synallaxis albescens||Trinidad only|
|Stripe-breasted spinetail||Synallaxis cinnamomea|
The manakins are a family of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly colored, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects.
|Blue-backed manakin||Chiroxiphia pareola||Tobago only|
|White-bearded manakin||Manacus manacus||Trinidad only|
|Golden-headed manakin||Pipra erythrocephala||Trinidad only|
The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges in tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly colored or decorated with plumes or wattles.
|White bellbird||Procnias alba||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Bearded bellbird||Procnias averano||Trinidad only|
Tityridae are suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. They are small to medium-sized birds. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain coloring.
|Black-tailed tityra||Tityra cayana||Trinidad only|
|White-winged becard||Pachyramphus polychopterus|
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain coloring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
|White-throated spadebill||Platyrinchus mystaceus|
|Olive-striped flycatcher||Mionectes olivaceus||Trinidad only|
|Ochre-bellied flycatcher||Mionectes oleagineus|
|Slaty-capped flycatcher||Leptopogon superciliaris||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-olive flycatcher||Tolmomyias sulphurescens||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-breasted flycatcher||Tolmomyias flaviventris|
|Short-tailed pygmy-tyrant||Myiornis ecaudatus||Trinidad only|
|Spotted tody-flycatcher||Todirostrum maculatum||Trinidad only|
|Southern beardless-tyrannulet||Camptostoma obsoletum||Trinidad only|
|Yellow-bellied elaenia||Elaenia flavogaster|
|Small-billed elaenia||Elaenia parvirostris||Trinidad only|
|Slaty elaenia||Elaenia strepera||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Lesser elaenia||Elaenia chiriquensis||Trinidad only|
|Forest elaenia||Myiopagis gaimardii||Trinidad only|
|Mouse-colored tyrannulet||Phaeomyias murina||Trinidad only|
|Crested doradito||Pseudocolopteryx sclateri||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Bright-rumped attila||Attila spadiceus||Trinidad only|
|Piratic flycatcher||Legatus leucophaius|
|Great kiskadee||Pitangus sulphuratus||Trinidad only|
|Sulphury flycatcher||Tyrannopsis sulphurea||Trinidad only|
|Boat-billed flycatcher||Megarynchus pitangua||Trinidad only|
|Streaked flycatcher||Myiodynastes maculatus|
|Variegated flycatcher||Empidonomus varius||Trinidad only|
|Tropical kingbird||Tyrannus melancholicus|
|Fork-tailed flycatcher||Tyrannus savana|
|Eastern kingbird||Tyrannus tyrannus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Gray kingbird||Tyrannus dominicensis vorax|
|Dusky-capped flycatcher||Myiarchus tuberculifer||Trinidad only|
|Swainson's flycatcher||Myiarchus swainsoni||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Venezuelan flycatcher||Myiarchus venezuelensis||Tobago only|
|Brown-crested flycatcher||Myiarchus tyrannulus|
|Bran-colored flycatcher||Myiophobus fasciatus||Trinidad only|
|Northern scrub-flycatcher||Sublegatus arenarum||Trinidad only|
|Pied water-tyrant||Fluvicola pica||Trinidad only|
|White-headed marsh tyrant||Arundinicola leucocephala||Trinidad only|
|Fuscous flycatcher||Cnemotriccus fuscatus|
|Euler's flycatcher||Lathrotriccus euleri||Trinidad only|
|Olive-sided flycatcher||Contopus cooperi||Trinidad only|
|Tropical pewee||Contopus cinereus||Trinidad only|
|Rufous-browed peppershrike||Cyclarhis gujanensis||Trinidad only|
|Scrub greenlet||Hylophilus flavipes||Tobago only|
|Golden-fronted greenlet||Pachysylvia aurantiifrons||Trinidad only|
|White-eyed vireo||Vireo griseus||vagrant; Trinidad only|
|Yellow-throated vireo||Vireo flavifrons||vagrant|
|Red-eyed vireo||Vireo olivaceus|
|Chivi vireo||Vireo chivi|
|Black-whiskered vireo||Vireo altiloquus|
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
|Blue-and-white swallow||Pygochelidon cyanoleuca||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Southern rough-winged swallow||Stelgidopteryx ruficollis||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Caribbean martin||Progne dominicensis||vagrant Trinidad, common Tobago|
|Gray-breasted martin||Progne chalybea||Trinidad only|
|White-winged swallow||Tachycineta albiventer|
|Bank swallow||Riparia riparia|
|Barn swallow||Hirundo rustica|
|Cliff swallow||Petrochelidon pyrrhonota|
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.
|House wren||Troglodytes aedon|
|Rufous-breasted wren||Pheugopedius rutilus|
These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish gray in color and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, which nest in bushes or trees.
|Trilling gnatwren||Ramphocaenus melanurus||Trinidad only|
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
|Orange-billed nightingale-thrush||Catharus aurantiirostris||Trinidad only|
|Veery||Catharus fuscescens||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Gray-cheeked thrush||Catharus minimus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Yellow-legged thrush||Turdus flavipes|
|Cocoa thrush||Turdus fumigatus||Trinidad only|
|Spectacled thrush||Turdus nudigenis|
|White-necked thrush||Turdus albicollis|
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their coloring tends towards dull-grays and browns.
|Tropical mockingbird||Mimus gilvus|
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly colored, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in color only in the breeding season.
|Village weaver||Ploceus cucullatus||introduced species|
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colors and patterns.
|Common waxbill||Estrilda astrild||Trinidad, accidental Tobago - introduced species|
|Tricolored munia||Lonchura malacca||Trinidad only - introduced species|
Old World sparrows
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or gray birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
|House sparrow||Passer domesticus||Trinidad only - Introduced species|
Pipits and wagtails
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender ground-feeding insectivores of open country.
|White wagtail||Motacilla alba||vagrant|
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
|Red siskin||Carduelis cucullata||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Lesser goldfinch||Spinus psaltria||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Golden-rumped euphonia||Chlorophonia cyanocephala||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Trinidad euphonia||Euphonia trinitatis||Trinidad only|
|Violaceous euphonia||Euphonia violacea|
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange, or red.
|Red-breasted meadowlark||Leistes militaris||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Crested oropendola||Psarocolius decumanus|
|Yellow-rumped cacique||Cacicus cela||Trinidad only|
|Epaulet oriole (moriche)||Icterus cayanensis chrysocephalus||Trinidad only|
|Orchard oriole||Icterus spurius||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Baltimore oriole||Icterus galbula||vagrant|
|Yellow oriole||Icterus nigrogularis||Trinidad only|
|Red-winged blackbird||Agelaius phoeniceus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Giant cowbird||Molothrus oryzivorus|
|Shiny cowbird||Molothrus bonariensis|
|Carib grackle||Quiscalus lugubris|
|Great-tailed grackle||Quiscalus mexicanus||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Yellow-hooded blackbird||Chrysomus icterocephalus||Trinidad only|
The wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
|Northern waterthrush||Parkesia noveboracensis|
|Golden-winged warbler||Vermivora chrysoptera||vagrant|
|Black-and-white warbler||Mniotilta varia||vagrant|
|Prothonotary warbler||Protonotaria citrea|
|Tennessee warbler||Leiothlypis peregrina||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Masked yellowthroat||Geothlypis aequinoctialis||Trinidad only|
|Kentucky warbler||Geothlypis formosa||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Common yellowthroat||Geothlypis trichas||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Hooded warbler||Setophaga citrina||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|American redstart||Setophaga ruticilla|
|Cape May warbler||Setophaga tigrina||vagrant|
|Cerulean warbler||Setophaga cerulea||vagrant|
|Northern parula||Setophaga americana||vagrant|
|Tropical parula||Setophaga pitiayumi||Trinidad only|
|Magnolia warbler||Setophaga magnolia||vagrant|
|Bay-breasted warbler||Setophaga castanea||vagrant|
|Blackburnian warbler||Setophaga fusca||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Yellow warbler||Setophaga petechia|
|Chestnut-sided warbler||Setophaga pensylvanica||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Blackpoll warbler||Setophaga striata|
|Black-throated blue warbler||Setophaga caerulescens||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Yellow-rumped warbler||Setophaga coronata||Tobago only - vagrant|
|Prairie warbler||Setophaga discolor||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Black-throated green warbler||Setophaga virens||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Golden-crowned warbler||Basileuterus culicivorus||Trinidad only|
|Canada warbler||Cardellina canadensis||Trinidad only - vagrant|
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
|Hepatic tanager||Piranga flava||Trinidad only|
|Summer tanager||Piranga rubra|
|Scarlet tanager||Piranga olivacea||vagrant|
|Red-crowned ant-tanager||Habia rubica||Trinidad only|
|Rose-breasted grosbeak||Pheucticus ludovicianus||vagrant|
|Indigo bunting||Passerina cyanea||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Dickcissel||Spiza americana||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. As a family they are omnivorous, but individual species specialize in eating fruits, seeds, insects, or other types of food. Most have short, rounded wings.
|Green honeycreeper||Chlorophanes spiza spiza||Trinidad only|
|Bicolored conebill||Conirostrum bicolor||Trinidad only|
|Orange-fronted yellow-finch||Sicalis columbiana||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Saffron finch||Sicalis flaveola||Trinidad only|
|Grassland yellow-finch||Sicalis luteola||Trinidad only|
|Blue-black grassquit||Volatinia jacarina|
|White-shouldered tanager||Loriotus luctuosus||Trinidad only|
|White-lined tanager||Tachyphonus rufus|
|Silver-beaked tanager||Ramphocelus carbo||Trinidad only|
|Purple honeycreeper||Cyanerpes caeruleus longirostris||Trinidad only|
|Red-legged honeycreeper||Cyanerpes cyaneus|
|Swallow tanager||Tersina viridis||Common Trinidad, vagrant Tobago|
|Blue dacnis||Dacnis cayana||Trinidad only|
|Lesson's seedeater||Sporophila bouvronides||Trinidad only - status undetermined|
|Lined seedeater||Sporophila lineola||Trinidad only - vagrant|
|Ruddy-breasted seedeater||Sporophila minuta||Trinidad only|
|Chestnut-bellied seed-finch||Oryzoborus angolensis||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Large-billed seed-finch||Oryzoborus crassirostris||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Gray seedeater||Sporophila intermedia||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Wing-barred seedeater||Sporophila americana||Tobago only - extirpated|
|Yellow-bellied seedeater||Sporophila nigricollis||Trinidad only|
|Slate-colored seedeater||Sporophila schistacea||Trinidad only - extirpated|
|Olive-gray saltator||Saltator olivascens||Trinidad only|
|Streaked saltator||Saltator striatipectus||Trinidad only|
|Bananaquit||Coereba flaveola luteola|
|Sooty grassquit||Asemospiza fuliginosa||Trinidad only|
|Black-faced grassquit||Melanospiza bicolor||Tobago only|
|Masked cardinal||Paroaria nigrogenis||Trinidad only|
|Blue-capped tanager||Sporathraupis cyanocephala||Trinidad only|
|Turquoise tanager||Tangara mexicana||Trinidad only|
|Bay-headed tanager||Tangara gyrola||Trinidad only|
|Blue-gray tanager||Thraupis episcopus berlepschi|
|Palm tanager||Thraupis palmarum|
|Speckled tanager||Ixothraupis guttata||Trinidad only|
- Kenefick, Martyn (22 September 2020). "Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories: Trinidad and Tobago". South American Classification Committee of the American Ornithological Society. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
- Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 31 January 2022. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved 1 February 2022
- "Official checklist of Trinidad & Tobago" (PDF). Trinidad & Tobago Rare Birds Committee. March 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
- "Records accepted by the Trinidad & Tobago Rare Bird Committee". Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- Collar, N., P. F. D. Boesman, and C.J. Sharpe (2020). Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.baymac.01 Retrieved February 3, 2021
- "Red-and-green Macaw Page". Southeastern Caribbean Birds - Photo Gallery. Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists' Club, Trinidad & Tobago Bird Status & Distribution Committee. 27 February 2001. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- ffrench, Richard (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2.
- Helm Field Guides. Kenefick, Restall, Hayes. Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd Ed.). Christopher Helm, Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4081-5209-6
- Linblad, Jan. (1966). Journey to Red Birds. Trans. by Gwynne Vevers. Reprint: Collins, London. 1969.
- Zahl, Paul A. (1954). Coro-Coro: The World of the Scarlet Ibis. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis / New York.
- Worth, C. Brooke. (1967). A Naturalist in Trinidad. J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and New York.