List of blockades
The list of historical blockades informs about blockades that were carried out either on land, or in the maritime and air spaces in the effort to defeat opponents through denial of supply, usually to cause military exhaustion and starvation as an economic blockade in addition to restricting movement of enemy troops.
|458-457 BCE||Aegina (Saronic Gulf)||Athens||First Peloponnesian War|
|431–404 BCE||Athens||Sparta||Peloponnesian War||Spartan forces surrounded Athens on land. Athens withstood the landward attack, and subsisted on food imported by ship. In the Battle of Aegospotami, the Spartan navy destroyed the Athenian navy and implemented a sea blockade, forcing Athens to surrender.|
|31 BCE||Supporters of Mark Antony||Supporters of Octavian||War of the Second Triumvirate||Octavian blockaded Mark Antony's ships in the Gulf of Actium.|
|1068-1071||Byzantine Empire||Robert Guiscard||Norman conquest of southern Italy||Robert Guiscard's Norman forces blockaded Byzantine cities in southern Italy, most notably in the siege of Bari.|
|1084||Norman-occupied Corfu||Byzantine Empire||Byzantine-Norman Wars||After the Normans occupied Corfu, Emperor Alexios I Komnenos blockaded the island with Venetian naval support gained in exchange for commercial privileges.|
|1104-1108||Tripoli||Jerusalem||Siege of Tripoli||Blockade of the Lebanese coast leading by the Outremer and Genoa leading to the establishment of the County of Tripoli|
|1337||Cadzand, Flanders||England||Hundred Years' War|
|1379-1380||Venice||Genoa||War of Chioggia|
|1394-1402||Constantinople, Byzantine Empire||Ottoman Empire||Byzantine–Ottoman wars||Ottoman blockade of Constantinople|
|Duration of Blockade||Blockaded Territory||Blockader||Conflict||Details|
|1838-1840||Rio de la Plata, Argentine Confederation||France||War of the Confederation|
|1840||Kingdom of the Two Sicilies||United Kingdom||Sulphur Crisis|
|1845-1850||Rio de la Plata, Argentine Confederation||France||Uruguayan Civil War|
|1846-1848||Mexico||United States||Mexican-American War|
|1848-1851||Germany||Denmark||First Schleswig War|
|1854–1856||Russia||United Kingdom||Crimean War|
|1861-1865||Confederate States||United States||American Civil War|
|1854–1856||Chile||Spain||Chincha Islands War|
|1894-1895||China||Japan||First Sino-Japanese War|
|1897||Constantinople, Ottoman Empire||Great Powers|
|1898||Spanish Cuba||United States||Spanish-American War|
|1902-1903||Venezuela||United Kingdom||Venezuelan crisis of 1902–1903|
|1914-1919||Germany||British Empire||World War I and its aftermath|
|1915-1918||Lebanon||Ottoman Empire||Middle Eastern theatre of World War I|||
|1936||Spanish Morocco||Spain||Spanish Civil War|
|1936-1939||Republican-controlled Spain||Nationalist faction||The Nationalists blockaded northern and southeastern Spain|
|1937-1945||China||Japan||Second Sino-Japanese War|
|1939-1945|| Nazi Germany and its occupied territories
Fascist Italy (after 1940)
Vichy France and its colonies (after 1940)
| United Kingdom
France (until 1940)
Soviet Union (after 1941)
United States (after 1941)
|World War II||
The Allied Powers carried out a blockade to prevent the Axis Powers from acquiring materials. Although the blockade was initially ineffective due to the use of neutral ports in the Soviet Union and Francoist Spain, it grew more severe when the Soviet Union and the United States entered the war in 1941 and when the Germans lost control of their occupied territories in France and Eastern Europe in 1944.
|1940-1945||United Kingdom||Nazi Germany|
|1941-1945||Leningrad, Soviet Union||Eastern Front of World War II|
|1944-1945||Japan||United States||Pacific Front of World War II|
|1948||Changchun, Republic of China||Chinese Red Army||Chinese Civil War||Manchuria and was a strategic ROC Army base in Northeast China. The fall of the city led to Communist victory in the Liaoshen campaign.Changchun was one of the largest cities in|
|1948-1949||West Berlin||Soviet Union||Berlin Blockade||The Soviet occupation forces in Germany blockaded West Berlin at the beginning of the Cold War, but it became ineffective due to an American-led airlift.|
|1949–1958||Mainland China||Taiwan||Cross-Strait conflict|
|1950-1953||North Korea||South Korea||Korean War|
|1956||Israel||Egypt||Suez Crisis||Egypt blockaded the Straits of Tiran before the Suez Crisis.|
|1962||Cuba||United States||Cuban Missile Crisis||The United States declared a "quarantine" of Cuba in reaction to the deployment of Soviet nuclear missiles.|
|1965-1975||North Vietnam||United States||Vietnam War|
|1966–1975||Rhodesia||United Kingdom||Beira Patrol||The British government, along with most of the international community, did not recognize Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence due to its policy of no independence before majority rule.|
|1967||Israel||Egypt||Six-Day War||Egypt resumed its blockade of the Straits of Tiran shortly before the war. Israel responded by invading and occupying the Sinai Peninsula.|
|1971||East Pakistan||India||Indo-Pakistani War of 1971|
|1973||Israel||Egypt||Yom Kippur War|
|1982||Falkland Islands||United Kingdom||Falklands War|
|1982-2000||Lebanon||Israel||1982 Lebanon War||The blockade was first imposed during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. However, it was sporadically renewed after the Israel Defense Force was forced to withdraw to the South Lebanon security belt due to its continuing conflict with Hezbollah.|
|1990-2003||Ba'athist Iraq||United Nations||Gulf War||Enforcement of sanctions against Iraq. The U.S. Air Force, the Royal Air Force, and the French Air Force also enforced no-fly zones in the northern and southern halves of the country.|
|1990||Lithuania||Soviet Union||Singing Revolution||
The Soviet government refused to recognize Lithuania's independence.
|1992-1993||Croatia||Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Croatian War of Independence||Yugoslavia refused to recognize Croatia's independence. The Yugoslav Navy blockaded the Adriatic coast until it was defeated by Croatian artillery in the Battle of the Dalmatian Channels.|
|1993-1996||Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||North Atlantic Treaty Organization United Nations Protection Force||Bosnian War||
NATO imposed a blockade on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to enforce the UN sanctions on the country and enforced no-fly zones.
|1996||Taiwan||Mainland China||Third Taiwan Strait Crisis||The PRC launched ballistic missiles at ROC territorial waters near the important ports of Keelung and Kaohsiung, forcing lengthy travel and shipping delays. The missile launches were believed to be intended to intimidate the Taiwanese public before the 1996 presidential election.|
|2001-2007||Australia||Maritime protection program to prevent arrivals of unauthorized "boat people."|
|2006||Lebanon||Israel||2006 Lebanon War|
|2009||Mullaitivu, Sri Lanka||Sri Lanka|
|2011||Libya||United Nations||Libyan Civil War||The U.N. Security Council approved a no-fly zone over Libya.|
|2015||Nepal||India||2015 Nepal blockade||Nepal accused India, on which it is reliant for petroleum and medicine imports, of imposing a blockade.|
|2017-2021||Qatar||Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates||Qatar diplomatic crisis||Several Arab League countries accused Qatar of funding terrorism in violation of a Gulf Cooperation Council agreement. Qatar denied these accusations but Saudi Arabia, Qatar’s only land neighbor, sealed its border, imposing a “land blockade“ and shutting down all land based trade to and from Qatar. Qatar was also criticized for its close relations with Iran and the management of Al Jazeera. Qatar claims it never funded terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State, and also shares a strategic alliance with the United States in the War on Terror and the international intervention against ISIL. The conflict was resolved after a diplomatic agreement brokered by the United States and Kuwait.|
|Start of Blockade||Blockaded Territory||Blockader||Conflict||Details|
|1960||Cuba||USA||United States embargo against Cuba||The United states uphold multiple types of blockades mostly economical and financial but also regarding travel against Cuba since 1960. Since 1992 the United Nations takes an annual vote to declare the blockade illegal and urges the US to lift it.|
|1988||Armenia Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh)||Turkey||Nagorno-Karabakh conflict||Armenia and Azerbaijan have been at war since the dissolution of the Soviet Union over the status of Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenia is a landlocked country and therefore cannot conduct foreign trade without going through one of its neighbors. Turkey, Armenia’s historic enemy with whom it shares its largest border, is also an ally of Azerbaijan. Turkey has long refused to allow any Armenian trade over its air or land space. Lacking a sizeable enough border with Iran to facilitate major trade means Armenia is effectively dependent on the Republic of Georgia to conduct international trade. In order to avoid disturbing relations with Azerbaijan, Georgia imposes certain limits on Armenian imports.|
|2007||Gaza Strip||Israel Egypt||Gaza–Israel conflict||
Israel and Egypt closed all land border crossings to the Gaza Strip after Hamas's takeover and imposed a strict air and sea blockade. Israel claims that the blockade is necessary to prevent weapons from reaching Hamas, while Egypt claims that the blockade is intended to prevent Hamas from undermining the Fatah-led Palestinian Authority's legitimacy.
|2015||Yemen||Saudi Arabia||Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen||
After the Houthis overthrew President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi the Saudi government accused it of supporting Iran and blockaded the country. The United States and the United Kingdom provided naval and logistical support. The international community has criticized the blockade for creating a humanitarian crisis in Yemen including famine and a cholera outbreak.
- Medlicott, W. N. The Economic Blockade, London: H.M.S.O., 1952.
- Elleman, Bruce A. and Paine, S.C.M., eds. Naval Blockades and Seapower Strategies and Counter-Strategies, 1805–2005, Routledge, London, 2006.
- Boardman, John & Griffin, Jasper & Murray, Oswyn. 2001. The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 166. ISBN 0-19-280137-6.
- Robert Cowley, Geoffrey Parker. The Reader's Companion to Military History New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. on Google Books.
- Osborne, Eric W., Britain's economic blockade of Germany, 1914–1919, Frank Cass, London, 2004, p.230
- "World War I" on Countrystudies.us