List of boiler explosions
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|Savery Explosion||1716||Industrial||United Kingdom||1|
|Brunton's Mechanical Traveller||July 31, 1815||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Philadelphia, Tyne and Wear||16|
|The Washington||1816||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Marietta, Ohio||12||5|
|The Aetna||May 15, 1824||Marine (Civilian)||United States||New York City, New York||10||40|
|Stockton and Darlington Railway No. 2 or No.5||March 19, 1828||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Simpasture, near Shildon||1||1|
|Stockton and Darlington Railway No. 1 Locomotion||July 1, 1828||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Aycliffe Lane||1|
|Best Friend of Charleston||June 17, 1831||Locomotive||United States||Charleston, South Carolina||1||3|
|Locomotive under test||November 1834||Locomotive||United States||Baltimore, on Baltimore and Ohio Railroad||1|
|Liverpool and Manchester Railway No. 33 Patentee||November 12, 1834||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Whiston Bank|
|PS Union||1837||Marine (Civilian)||United Kingdom||Hull||20||20|
|SS Moselle (riverboat)||April 28, 1838||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Cincinnati, Ohio||81||13||55|
|SS Pulaski||June 14, 1838||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Cape Hatteras, North Carolina||128|
|Harlem Railroad||July 4, 1839||Locomotive||United States||14th Street, New York City||2||5|
|Surprise||November 10, 1840||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Bromsgrove||2||?|
|SS Henry Eckford||April 27, 1841||Marine (Civilian)||United States||New York City, New York||1||2|
|Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Richmond||September 2, 1844||Locomotive||United States||Reading, Pennsylvania||4|
|London and North Western Railway 122 Goliah||1847||Locomotive||United Kingdom|
|Great Western Railway Goliah||June 29, 1849||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Plympton, foot of Hemerdon Bank||1|
|London and North Western Railway 401 ||1850||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Longsight|
|Firth Woollen Mill||1850||Industrial||United Kingdom||Halifax, West Yorkshire||12||17|
|The Hague Street Explosion||February 4, 1850||Industrial||United States||New York City, New York||67||50|
|Midland Railway 363 (ex Bristol and Gloucester Railway 7 Wickwar) ||January 8, 1853||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Clay Hill, Bristol|
|Erie Railroad ||June 16, 1853||Locomotive||United States||Susquehanna, Pennsylvania||5|
|SS Canemah||August 8, 1853||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Champoeg, Oregon||1|
|SS Shoalwater||May 1853||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Rock Island, Oregon|
|SS Gazelle||April 8, 1854||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Oregon City, Oregon||24||many|
|Fieldhouse Mills||July 15, 1855||Industrial||United Kingdom||Rochdale, Greater Manchester||10||13|
|Georgiana||November 23, 1855||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Petaluma, California||1||2||0|
|SS Pennsylvania||June 13, 1858||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Memphis, Tennessee||250|
|London and North Western Railway 249||July 4, 1861||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Rugby, Warwickshire||1|
|Erie Railroad ||October 25, 1862||Locomotive||United States||Jersey City docks||5|
|Great Western Railway Perseus||November 1862||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Westbourne Park shed|
|Hembrigg Mills||June 27, 1863||Industrial||United Kingdom||Morley, West Yorkshire||9|
|SS Ada Hancock||April 23, 1863||Marine (Civilian)||United States||San Pedro Bay, California||26||23|
|Tugboat Greenwood||June 15, 1863||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Barrytown, New York||7||3||3|
|Calcutta Explosion||1863||India||Kolkata, West Bengal|
|Merrick Sons, Southwark Foundry||April 6, 1864||Industrial||United States||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||7||13|
|USS Chenango||April 15, 1864||Marine (Military)||United States||New York City New York||28||6|
|Midland Railway 356||May 5, 1864||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Colne, Lancashire||1||2|
|Great Northern 138||May 5, 1864||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Metropolitan Railway's Bishop's Road station (now Paddington)|
|? 108||1864||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Leominster, Shrewsbury and Hereford Joint Railway|
|New York Central Railroad ||June 18, 1864||Locomotive||United States||Syracuse, New York||3|
|USS Tulip||November 11, 1864||Marine (Military)||United States||Potomac River, Maryland||49|
|Sultana||April 27, 1865||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Memphis, Tennessee||1800|
|Spa Well Mill, Elland||December 15, 1873||Industrial||United Kingdom||Elland, nr Huddersfield,||3||4|
|Town & Son Factory||June 9, 1869||Industrial||United Kingdom||Bingley, West Yorkshire||15|
|SS Senator||May 6, 1875||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Portland, Oregon|
|HMS Thunderer||July 14, 1876||Marine (Military)||United Kingdom||Portsmouth Harbour||45||70|
|Boston Stamping Company, under Seavey & Co.||April 6, 1878||Industrial||United States||East Cambridge, Massachusetts||3||6|
|Railway Explosion||December 21, 1881||Locomotive||Australia||New South Wales|
|North East Dundas Tramway||June 18, 1892||Locomotive||Australia||Tasmania|
|Annie Faxon||April 14, 1893||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Columbia River||8|
|Zeehan||May 1, 1899||Locomotive||Australia||Tasmania|
|Great Eastern Railway No. 522||September 25, 1900||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Westerfield, Suffolk||2||2|
|Grover Shoe Factory disaster||March 20, 1905||Industrial||United States||Brockton, Massachusetts||58||150|
|HMS Implacable||July 12, 1905||Marine (Military)||United Kingdom||2|
|USS Bennington||July 21, 1905||Marine (Military)||United States||San Diego, California||66|
|HMS Implacable||August 16, 1906||Marine (Military)||United Kingdom||2|
|Hemingway Paint & Colour Manufacturers boiler explosion||August 23, 1907||Industrial||United Kingdom||Millwall, London||2|
|Central of Georgia Railway||October 12, 1907||Locomotive||United States||Reynolds, Georgia||2||2||0|
|Rhymney Railway 97||1909||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Rhymney Railway's Cardiff shed||3||3|
|SS Sarah Dixon||January 18, 1912||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Kalama, Washington||3|
|Southern Pacific Roundhouse||March 18, 1912||Locomotive||United States||San Antonio, Texas||26|
|Rumney Shed||April 21, 1912||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Cardiff, Wales|
|SS City of Liverpool||February 24, 1913||Marine (Civilian)||United Kingdom||Manchester Ship Canal, Nr Runcorn||1|
|SS James T. Staples||January 10, 1913||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Bladon Springs, Alabama||26||21|
|Destroyer Ikazuchi||October 9, 1913||Marine (Military)||Japan||Ominato|
|Maine Central Railroad ||1915||Locomotive||United States||Ayers Junction|
|Medina-Salamanca Railway No.2||January 10, 1918||Locomotive||Spain||Medina del Campo, VA||15||15||0|
|London and North Western Railway 132||November 11, 1921||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Buxton, Derbyshire||2||1|
|LMS 6399 Fury||February 10, 1930||Locomotive||United Kingdom||1|
|Elkhorn Piney Coal Company||January 27, 1934||Locomotive||United States||Powellton, West Virginia||16|
|Deutsche Reichsbahn 02 101||April 3, 1939||Locomotive||Germany|
|Canadian National 242||August 9, 1941||Locomotive||Canada||Montreal, Quebec||1||1|
|Pennsylvania Railroad 520||November 14, 1942||Locomotive||United States||Cresson, Pennsylvania||2||4|
|SS Cascades||1943||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Portland, Oregon|
|New York Central Railroad J-3a No. 5450 while hauling the Twentieth Century Limited||September 7, 1943||Locomotive||United States||Canastota, New York||3|
|USATC S160 Class||1943, 1944||Locomotive||United Kingdom|
|Great Northern 2581||January 9, 1947||Locomotive||United States||Crary, North Dakota||?||?|
|RL Smith Lumber Company 91||February 14, 1948||locomotive||United States||Canby, California||2||2|
|Union Pacific 9018||October 20, 1948||Locomotive||United States||1.97 miles east of Upland, Kansas||3|
|Deutsche Reichsbahn 95 6679||May 4, 1951||Locomotive||East Germany||Meiningen Steam Locomotive Works||11|
|Chesapeake and Ohio Railway 1642||June 9, 1953||Locomotive||United States||Hinton, West Virginia||3|
|British Railways||January 24, 1962||Locomotive||United Kingdom||Bletchley, Buckinghamshire||0||2|
|USS Basilone||February 5, 1973||Marine (Military)||United States||7|
|Deutsche Reichsbahn 01 1516||November 27, 1977||Locomotive||East Germany||Bitterfeld railway station||9||45|
|Gettysburg Railroad 1278||June 16, 1995||Locomotive||United States||Gardners, Pennsylvania||2|
|USS Willamette||June 29, 1995||Marine (Military)||United States||0||7|
|Medina County Fair Ground ||July 29, 2001||Antique Steam Tractor||United States||Medina County||5||~40|
|SS Norway||May 25, 2003||Marine (Civilian)||United States||Miami, Florida||8||17|
|Orewa College||June 24, 2009||Industrial||New Zealand||Orewa, Auckland||1||1|
|Loy-Lange Box Company||April 3, 2017||Industrial||United States||St. Louis, Missouri||4||3|
-SS Helen McGregor, Boiler Explosion, Memphis, TN, February 1830.
-Staten Island Ferry, Westfield II, FT boiler explosion: July 30, 1871.
-Ford's River Rouge Plant, Dearborn, Michigan, Gas Boiler explosion, 6 killed 2/1/99.
-St Mary's Hospital, Pennington Avenue, Passaic, New Jersey: Cleaver Brooks boiler Explosion 7/15/06.
-Dana Corporation, Paris Tennessee, 400 Hp fire-tube boiler explosion 6/19/07
-Givaudan Corporation, Delawanna Avenue, Clifton, New Jersey: Portable Fire Tube Boiler Explosion (1990s)
Key safety developments
|1847||Institution of Mechanical Engineers||Technical Society||United Kingdom||IMechE formed, emphasizing the importance of specialized mechanical knowledge, particularly with respect to steam power (i.e., see also Institution of Civil Engineers)|
|1855||Steam Users' Association||Technical Society||United Kingdom||In Manchester, the "Association for the Prevention of Steam Boiler Explosions, and for effecting Economy in the Raising and Use of Steam" is formed and, eschewing direct regulation, advocates creation of trained inspectors. Later adds the prefix "Manchester Steam Users' ..." to the name.|
|1855||Ramsbottom Safety Valve||Safety valve||United Kingdom||John Ramsbottom (engineer) invented a tamperproof safety valve.|
|1864||Bengal Act VI of 1864||Legislation||India||Provided for the inspection of steam boilers in and around Kolkatta|
|1866||The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company||Commercial||United States||The first boiler insurance company in the U.S. is established in Hartford, CT|
|1880||American Society of Mechanical Engineers||Technical Society||United States||ASME formed, largely in response to calls for improvements in boiler safety|
|1882||Boiler Explosions Act, 1882||Legislation||United Kingdom||Required notice of a boiler explosion to be sent to the Board of Trade within 24 hours of occurrence and established inquiry authorizations|
|1884||ASME Boiler Testing Code||Safety Standard||United States||The "Code for the Conduct of Trials of Steam Boilers", the first U.S. code for conducting boiler tests, is issued|
|1890||Boiler Explosions Act, 1890||Legislation||United Kingdom||Extended 1882 requirements to marine vessels|
|1911||Uniform Boiler Rules, Massachusetts||Legislation||United States||The Commonwealth of Massachusetts adopts uniform boiler rules, the first statewide boiler code to apply in the U.S. Equivalent rules are quickly adopted by other states (e.g., Ohio)|
|1915||ASME Boiler Code||Safety Standard||United States||The ASME Boiler Code Committee issues "Standards for Specifications and Construction of Boilers and Other Containing Vessels in Which High Pressure is Contained"|
-1887 Robert Henry Thurston's book Steam Boiler Explosions in Theory, and in Practice is published
- Le Van, William Barnet (1892). Safety-Valves: Their History, Antecedents, Invention and Calculation. New York: Norman W. Henley & Co. pp. 134–135. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Hewison 1983, p. 26.
- Grohman, Adam M. (April 2011). "Sentinels and Saviors of the Sea" (PDF). Boating World U. S. Coast Guard Series. River & Sound Publishing of NY, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-27. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Baxter 1986, p. 65.
- Shaw 1978, p. 16.
- Shaw 1978, pp. 46–47.
- Baxter 1978, p. 13.
- Schroder, Henry (1851), "Explosion of a Steam Packet Boiler at Hull", The annals of Yorkshire from the earliest period to the present time, 1, Crosby & Co., Leeds, pp. 303–4
- "Abstract of the evidence at the inquest relating to the explosion of the boiler of the "Union" steam packet at Hull", The Mechanics' magazine, museum, register, journal, and gazette, 27, W.A. Robertson, London, 1837, pp. 189–192
- Timperley, J.; Cubitt, W.; MacNeill, J.; Buddle, J.; Field, J. (1838). "On the Explosion of One of the Boilers of the Union Steam Packet, at Hull. (Includes Discussion)". Minutes of the Proceedings. 1 (1838): 41. doi:10.1680/imotp.1838.24811.
- Lloyds Steamboat Disasters
- Shaw 1978, p. 47.
- Rolt 1982, p. 69.
- Shaw 1978, pp. 47–48.
- Baxter 1978, p. 16.
- Rolt 1982, pp. 69–70.
- Baxter 1978, p. 22.
- "Boiler Explosion at Halifax". The Mechanics' Magazine. LIII (1428): 488–489. 21 December 1850. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Leeds Intelligencer 22 March 1851
- Common Council, New York, NY (1850). Report of the Special Committee: Catastrophe In Hague Street. New York: McSpedon & Baker. Retrieved 2009-06-13. Also see: Little, George P. (1860). The Fireman's Own Book, Chapter: Explosion and Fire in Hague Street. pp. 259–277. Retrieved 2009-06-13. "The Dreadful Explosion in New York". The Friend: A Religious and Literary Journal: 176. February 16, 1850. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Baxter 1982, p. 27.
- Shaw 1978, p. 48.
- Dodsley, James (1855). The Annual Register, Entry for July 15, 1854: Terrific Boiler Explosion At Rochdale. London: F. & J. Rivington. p. 112. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 10, Number 1456, 24 November 1855 p.2, col.5
- Rolt 1982, p. 71.
- Rolt 1982, p. 72.
- William, Smith (1866). Rambles about Morley. London: John Russell Smith. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Rolt 1982, pp. 72–73.
- Rolt 1982, p. 73.
- Huddersfield Chronicle, 17 Dec 1873, p4, printed in Huddersfield, England
- Burke, Edmund (1869). The Annual Register, Entry for June 9, 1869. p. 55. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Lt.-Col. P G von Donop, R.E. (November 13, 1900). (PDF) http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/documents/BoT_Westerfield1900.pdf. Retrieved 15 July 2017. Missing or empty
- Lincolnshire Echo, 24 Aug 1907, p4, col3, printed in Lincoln, England
- Rolt 1982, pp. 74–75.
- Directors minutes of North Lonsdale Ironworls Co, BDB47 box 16 at CRO, Barrow
- Ward, Rufus (2010). The Tombigbee River Steamboats: Rollodores, Dead heads, and Side-wheelers. Charleston, South Carolina: History Press. pp. 129, 169. ISBN 978-1-59629-285-7.
- James V. Swift (May 14, 2001). "This Southern Steamboat Had A Tragic Ending" (PDF). Waterways Journal. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Shaw 1978, p. 49.
- «La Horrorosa Catástrofe de Medina (The terrible disaster of Medina)», article in El Adelanto de Salamanca (The Forward of Salamanca), 11-01-1918, page 2. Ministry of Culture of Spain historic newspaper server.
- "Accident at Buxton on 11th November 1921". Railways Archive. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- Morgan, David P. (April 1988). "The Greatest Century of all: New York Central's 1938 20th Century Limited". Model Railroader. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing: 81.
- Keyes, Norman C., Jr; Middleton, Kenneth R. (Autumn 1980). "The Great Northern Railway Company:All-Time Locomotive Roster, 1861-1970". Railroad History. Boston: The Railway & Locomotive Historical Society, Inc. (143).
- Kratville, William W.; Bush, John E. (1995). The Union Pacific Type, Volume II. Omaha, Nebraska. pp. 282–289. LCCN 90082171.
- Long, Roy (October 29, 2002). "Railroad Recollections: More About Engine 1642 Explosion". The Hinton News. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
- "Steam Locomotive Firebox Explosion on the Gettysburg Railroad Near Gardners, Pennsylvania June 16, 1995" (PDF). ntsb.gov. National Transportation Safety Board. November 15, 1996. Retrieved 2017-08-13.
- Boiler Explosion in Ohio, USA First Hand Observations from Andrew Semple
- "Steam Engine Blast At Ohio Fairgrounds Leaves 4 Men Dead". The New York Times. 30 July 2001. Retrieved 26 December 2017 – via NYTimes.com.
- "The Final Report on the Tragedy at the Medina County Fairgrounds - Steam Engines - Steam Traction". Farm Collector. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- Ruscoe, Kim (25 June 2009). "Death after school boiler explosion". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Byers, Christine (April 6, 2017). "4th victim who died from boiler blast near Soulard remembered as hard worker; funds set up for families". St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
- Bell, Kim; Byers, Christine; Kohler, Jeremy (April 4, 2017). "2 new employees filling out paperwork among dead in St. Louis boiler explosion". St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
- Fairbairn, William (1855). Useful Information For Engineers, Lecture III "On Boiler Explosions: The remedies applicable for the prevention of accidents arising from explosions" and Appendix IV "Association for the Prevention of Steam Boiler Explosions" (1st ed.). London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green (4th Ed.). pp. 75–83, 350–353 (4th Ed., 1864). Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Fletcher, Lavington E. (October 1869). "Boiler Explosions". Van Nostrand's Eclectic Engineering Magazine. I (X): 940–941. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Bombay Legislative Council (1870). Proceedings of the Council of the Governor of Bombay. Government Central Press. p. 85. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Zartman, Lester William (1909). Fire Insurance, Chapter XIX. Steam Boiler Insurance. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. pp. 352–353. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Great Britain (1882). The Law Journal Reports for the Year 1882, Boiler Explosions Act (Chapter 22). pp. 41–43. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Great Britain (1890). The Practical Statutes of the Session 1890, Boiler Explosions Act, 1890. London: Horace Cox. pp. 332–333. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Heine Safety Boiler Co. (1920). Steam Boiler Engineering. St. Louis, Missouri: Heine Safety Boiler Co. p. 51. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Croft, Terrell (Ed.) (1921). Steam Boilers, Division 4 "Boiler Codes and Inspection Laws". New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. pp. 73–76. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Baxter, Bertram (1978). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 2A: London and North Western Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-51-6.
- Baxter, Bertram (1982). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company.
- Baxter, Bertram (1986). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 5A: North Eastern Railway, Hull and Barnsley Railway. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-54-0.
- Hewison, Christian H. (1983). Locomotive Boiler Explosion. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8305-1.
- Rolt, L. T. C.; Kichenside, G. M. (1982). Red for Danger: A history of railway accidents and railway safety (4th ed.). Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8362-0. OCLC 9526651.
- Shaw, Robert B. (1978). A History of Railroad Accidents, Safety Precautions and Operating Practices. LCCN 78104064.
Contemporary listings and accounts
- Abel, F. A. (March 1875). "On Accidental Explosions". Notices of the Proceedings at the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution: 390–396. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1877). Parliamentary Papers, "361. Boiler Explosions" (For Years 1875-1876). London: HMSO. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Manchester Steam Users' Association for the Prevention of Steam Boiler Explosions (Founded 1855)
- Laxton, William (1866). "July 31st Meeting". The Civil Engineer & Architect's Journal. 29 (September 1): 265–267. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Laxton, William (1866). "September 25th Meeting". The Civil Engineer & Architect's Journal. 29 (November 1): 333–336. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Laxton, William (1866). "October 30th Meeting". The Civil Engineer & Architect's Journal. 29 (December 1): 359–. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Marten E.B. Records of Steam Boiler Explosions Various volumes, e.g. 1869 at Open Library; 1872 at Open Library; 1875, 1878, 1890 covering explosions in Britain.
- The National Boiler Insurance Company
- Laxton, William (1866). "Abstract of Report". The Civil Engineer & Architect's Journal. 29 (February 1st): 39–40. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Redfield, William C. (1839). Letter To The Secretary Of The Treasury, On The History and Causes of Steamboat Explosions And The Means Of Prevention. New York: william Osborn. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Stryker, James (March 1849). "Steam Boiler Explosions". Strykers American Register and Magazine. II (I): 100–101. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- Thurston, R. H. (1903). Steam-Boiler Explosions In Theory And In Practice, Chapter: The Statistics of Explosions (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- For a short status of European steam users' associations and boiler insurance companies c. 1897, see Hale, R. S. (April 1897). "European Boiler Practice". Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies. XVIII (4): 242–243. Retrieved 2009-06-13.