List of loanwords in Indonesian

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The Indonesian language has absorbed many loanwords from other languages, including Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi, Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese and other Austronesian languages.

Indonesian differs from the Malaysian language in a number of respects, primarily due to the different influences both languages experienced and also due to the fact that majority of Indonesians speaks their native language as their first. Bahasa Indonesia function as lingua franca that unites 200 various languages over the archipelago.

Vice versa, many words of Malay-Indonesian origin have also been borrowed into English. Words borrowed into English (e.g., bamboo, orangutan, dugong, amok, and even "cooties") generally entered through Malay language by way of British colonial presence in Malaysia and Singapore, similar to the way the Dutch have been borrowing words from the various native Indonesian languages. One exception is "bantam", derived from the name of the Indonesian province Banten in Western Java (see Oxford American Dictionary, 2005 edition). Another is "lahar" which is Javanese for a volcanic mudflow. Still other words taken into modern English from Malay/Indonesian probably have other origins (e.g., "satay" from Tamil, or "ketchup" from Chinese).

At its development stage, various native terms (mostly Javanese) from all over the archipelago made its way to the language. The Dutch adaptation of the Malay language during colonial period had resulted significant amount of Dutch loanwords and vocabulary. The event significantly affected the original Malay language which gradually developed into the modern Indonesian language.

Chronology[edit]

The study on Indonesian etymology and loan words reflected its historical and social context. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings probably in the Srivijaya period, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and the ones from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked.[1]

  • Early Hindu and Buddhist influence from India results in many Sanskrit words in Indonesian (and especially adopted through Javanese influence). Indian traders may have contributed words as well, in Tamil and Sanskrit-related languages.
  • Indonesian has involved in trade with Chinese since ancient times and also significant of Chinese immigrants began to migrate to Indonesia, as the result some of Chinese language, especially Hokkien dialect being absorbed into Indonesian.
  • Muslim influence, which came at first through Arabic and Persian traders, over a number of centuries results in an extensive Arabic influence and also Persian.
  • Portuguese contact, trade and colonization in the 16th century was the first contact between Indonesia and European culture, and had an influence that remains today, in spite of the relatively short time period of that influence.
  • Dutch colonization and administration, lasting from the 17th century to the 20th, extensively affected the vocabulary. As Dutch-trained linguists determined the rules for the official Indonesian language, Dutch thus affected the structure of the language as well. For example, suffixes such as "-as" (e.g., kualitas = quality), "-asi" (e.g., administrasi = administration), and "-if" (e.g., fiktif = fictive) were applied with consistency. Some loan words are still intensively used today, although there are Indonesian equivalents of them.
  • Modern Indonesian regularly adapts new words from other languages, particularly English. In contrast to the large number of mechanical terms borrowed from Dutch (e.g., automotive parts), hitech words are typically taken from English (e.g., internet).

But the processes may also be ‘out of period’; for example, Indonesian words are still being concocted from Sanskrit, and the influence of the Dutch language certainly continued after the Dutch themselves left.[1]

Indonesian has also generalized brand names into common (lower-case) nouns as generic name. For example, "sanyo" refers to any electrical well pump, regardless of manufacturer or "odol" as all of toothpastes. This is similar to the type of generalization that occurs in English words like "xerox" or "tampax" or "polaroid".

List of loanwords[edit]

From Austronesian languages[edit]

From Minangkabau[edit]

Most of Indonesian's vocabulary is natively derived from Malay, but some might be ultimately loanwords from Minang language. Yet it is unclear, since Malay and Minang are closely related, and some might consider Minang to have been an ancestral dialect of Malay.[2]

Word Meaning Original word
acuh careful acuah
anjungan pavilion anjuang
awak you (regional), crew, member awak
bantah denies bantah
baruh lowland baruah
bernas spirited boneh
bunda mother bundo
buyung sonny buyuang
cabul lewd cabua
cakak fight cakak
campin skilled campin
cegak vigorous cegak
celoteh babble ciloteh
cemeeh jeer cemeeh
cengang amazed cangang
dara girl, virgin, dove daro
dadih buttermilk dadiah
dendang sing dendang
gadang large gadang
gadis girl, virgin gadih
gaek aged gaek
galau confusion galau
gelimang mixed galimang
gengsi prestige gengsi
heboh commotion, fuss heboh: noisy
himbau call imbau
jangat skin jangek
jenjang ladder janjang
jerang boiled jarang
jinjing pick-up jinjiang
junjung respectful junjuang
kelok meanders kelok
lamban slow lamban
lancang sassy lancang
nan which, who (connecting word) nan
ngarai canyon ngarai
nian very, really, truly nian
pencak art (martial art) pancak
penghulu chief of family panghulu
ranah realm, domain ranah: land
rancak beautiful rancak
rantau foreign country rantau
rendang rendang randang
sanak family sanak
semarak splendor semarak
silat silat (martial art) silek
surau mosque surau
tandas demolished tandeh
teroka open up new areas taruko
terompah sandals tarompah
tuah good luck tuah
tungkai leg tungkai
usang obsolete usang

From Javanese[edit]

Compared to the Malay language spoken as the native regional language in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula or the standardized version of Malaysian, Indonesian differs profoundly by the large amount of Javanese loanwords incorporated into their already rich vocabulary. This is mostly contributed by Java's position as the center of Indonesian politics, education, and culture, since the capital is located in Jakarta on Java island, albeit in the area where the Javanese are not the majority. The disproportionate number of Javanese that dominate Indonesian politics is reflected by the fact that six out of seven Indonesian presidents have been ethnic Javanese. The result is that the Javanese began to pour their own vocabulary into Indonesian to describes terms and words that do not have exact counterparts in the Malay language. It is also important to note that most of Indonesian's Sanskrit loanwords have been transmitted through Old Javanese, a language whose Sanskrit borrowings number almost 50% of the total vocabulary.

Word Meaning Original word
adem cool temperature adhem
adiluhung/adiluhur refined, highly sophisticated taste adiluhung
amblas vanish amblas
ambruk collapse ambruk
among nurture among
ampuh potent ampuh
anggun graceful anggun
angker haunted angker
anjlok dropped anjlok
antek stooge antek
anyar new anyar
apik neat, nice apik
asri beautiful (scenery/nature), neat, clean, nice asri
ayu beautiful (women), pretty, gorgeous, graceful, elegant ayu
ayom give shade, foster, protect ayom, hangayomi
baluwarti palace fortified wall baluwerti
bangsal hall bangsal, ultimately from Sanskrit: sala (room)
batik batik mbatik, from: amba-nitik
bejat depraved bejat
beres completed beres
betot pull suddenly betot
bopong carry bopong
brandal thugs brandalan
bromocorah criminal bromocorah
buron/buronan runaway or fugitive buron: from buru-an (to be hunted)
candi temple candhi
canggih sophisticated canggih
cebol midget cebol
celingukan look around celingukan
ceplas ceplos speak out frankly ceplas ceplos
copet pickpocket copet
dengkul knee dengkul
doyan be fond doyan
edan crazy edhan
empu maestro, master craftsman mpu
ganteng handsome ngganteng
gebrakan blow gebrakan
gede big gede
gembok padlock gembok
gendong pickaback gendong
gerebek raid grebeg: traditional ceremony involving mass competing to grab sacred objects
gilas run over giles
gosong scorched gosong
irit frugal irit
jagal butcher jagal
jago skillful, expert jago: rooster
jagoan tough guy, hero jago: rooster
jajan snack jajan
kedut twitching kedutan
kemben torso wrap kembhen
kesurupan possessed surup: fit, enter
konde bulbous hairdo or hair extension on the back of the head kondhe
lara sadness (poetic) lara: sickness
larung intentionally swept or send away through water (river/sea) larung
lapik base lapik
luhur noble, high dhuwur, luhur
manut obedient manut
melengos looked away melengos
minggat flee minggat
mumpuni accomplished mumpuni
nganggur idle, jobless nganggur
nusantara Indonesian archipelago, archipelago nusantara
pagar langkan balustrade pagar langkan
pamrih intention pamrih
pemirsa viewers pemirsa
pendopo roofed front open hall pendhopo, ultimately from Sanskrit: mandapa (front hall as part of temple)
pilek flu pilek
resik clean, well maintained resik
sedot suck sedot
selaras harmonious slaras
selingkuh affair selingkuh
semberono careless sembrono
semrawut complicated mess, out of order semrawut
sungkan shy sungkan
tembang song tembang
tentram peaceful tentrem
titisan reincarnated nitis
tuntas complete tuntas
undakan stages undhak
unduh download unduh
unggah upload munggah
umpak base umpak

From Sundanese[edit]

Other than Javanese, Sundanese is another local language that has influenced Indonesian's vocabulary, albeit to a lesser extent. This is attributed to the fact that the capital, Jakarta, was formerly a part of West Java, a province which, together with Banten before it too was divided, constitutes the Pasundan (Sundanese world), the most significant non-Javanese region in an otherwise Javanese-dominated Java island. Some of the most populated cities in Indonesia are also located in the Pasundan, including West Java's capital, Bandung, and Jakarta's four satellite cities (Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, and Tangerang).

Word Meaning Original word
aci tapioca flour aci sampeu
amburadul mess, something out of order amburadul
anjangsana high official visiting anjangsana
balairung hall bale riung: traditional building for meeting
bloon (spelled blo-'on) stupid blo'on/o'on
getol active getol
hatur to express, to send (polite) haturkeun
jangkung tall jangkung
juara champion, winner jawara: tough guy, fighter, hero
kedap proof as in "kedap air" (waterproof) kedap
kesima awe, amaze kesima
kesohor famous kasohor
kolot old fashioned kolot: old
lalap raw vegetable, consumed lalab
majikan boss majikan
menyaru pretending, camouflaging verbal form of saru: undistinguishable
patungan chip in, joint-venture, collecting money to buy something for common use patungan
pemulung waste picker noun of the verb pulung: pick
pengaruh influence pangaruh
pepes cooking method using banana leaf wrapping papais: plural form of pais
risih uneasy, uncomfortable risih
siksa torture siksa: education
uwa uncle or aunty older than parent uwa

From Betawi[edit]

Betawi is a Malay-based creole that arose from influences by foreign traders who stopped at the capital, Jakarta, including the Chinese and the Arabs. Most of its speakers are the inhabitants of Jakarta, and its influence upon Indonesian is attributed to its frequent usage in Indonesian mass media, including radio and television. Its status as a "hip" language by other aspects of Indonesian society is another contributing factor as well.

Word Meaning Original word
abal-abal fake, false abal-abal
bangkotan aged bangkotan
begah replete begah
butut old-fashioned butut
cebur splash cebur
entot copulate entot
gelandang football midfielder, bringer gelandang
gelandangan homeless gelandangan
mampus dead mampus
ngamen street performance ngamen
ribet complicated, hard, not easy ribet
rombeng rags rombeng
timpuk throw timpuk
udak chase udak

From Nias[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
anda you (respectful) anda

From Batak[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
molek voluptuous molek

From Maluku[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
beta I, me, myself béta

From Manado[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
pasti surely so pasti

From Balinese[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Balinese
Word
Balinese
Transliteration
Balinese
Meaning
Note
acah
bebekel
bendésa bendésa related to word désa (literally village)
caturjalma
Cokorda
dewa

From Indian languages[edit]

From Sanskrit[edit]

Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit, the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem, and its status is comparable with that of Latin in English and other Western European languages. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms; these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. For example, the name of Jayapura city (former Hollandia) and Jayawijaya Mountains (former Orange Range) in the Indonesian province of Papua were coined in the 1960s; both are Sanskrit origin name to replace its Dutch colonial names. Some Indonesian contemporary medals of honor and awards, such as Bintang Mahaputra medal, Kalpataru award and Adipura award, are also Sanskrit derived names.

The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India long ago before the 1st century.[3] The words are either directly borrowed from India or through the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. In the classical language of Java, Old Javanese, the number of Sanskrit loanwords is far greater. The Old Javanese — English dictionary by Prof. P.J. Zoetmulder, S.J. (1982) contains no fewer than 25,500 entries. Almost half are Sanskrit loanwords. Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Sanskrit Word Sanskrit Transcription Sanskrit Meaning Note
abrak clear mining product, such as glass, mica अभ्रक abhraka talc, mica
acara event, item in a programme आचार ācāra custom, practice, behavior
adakala sometimes कदा काल kadā-kāla kada: some time, kala: time lit. whenever-time
ada presence, have, true आधा ādhā hold, possess
adalah to be (definition) आधारः ādhāraḥ vessel, comprehension, relation
adi- (b.m.) ultimate (poetic) अधि adhi above, beside
adicita ideology अधि
चित्त
adhi
citta
above, beside
thinking, aim, reason
adikara powerful, rampant अधिकार adhikāra supremacy, authority
adikarya masterpiece अधि
कार्य
adhi
kārya
above, beside
work, oeuvre, product
adikuasa superpower अधि
वश
adhi
vaśa
above, beside
power, control, dominion
adimarga great road अधि
मार्गः
adhi
mārgaḥ
above, beside
road
adipati, dipati noble (title),
local government
अधि
पति
adhi
pati
above, beside
govern
adiraja emperor, caesar अधि
राज
adhi
raja
above, beside
king
adiratna great jewel अधि
रत्न
adhi
ratna
above, beside
jewel
adisiswa honor student, valedictorian अधि
शिष्यः
adhi
śiṣyah
above, beside
student
aditokoh hero, protagonist अधि adhi above, beside tokoh means character.
adiwangsa great nation, nobleman अधि
वंश
adhi
vaṁśa
above, beside
lineage, dynasty
see bangsa.
adiwarna very beautiful, very good अधि
वर्ण
adhi
varṇa
above, beside
color
agama religion आगम āgama traditional doctrine, sacred teaching
ahimsa not injuring anything अहिंसा ahiṃsā not injuring anything
ajnabi (arch.) stranger (classic word) अज्ञाति ajñāti not a kinsman, not related अज्ञ (ajñā) = unknown.
aksara letter अक्षर akṣara letter
alpa negligent अल्प alpa small, minute
amerta immortal, eternal, unforgotten अमृत amṛta immortal, drink of the gods
ananda, anakda, nanda son धर्मनन्दन
नन्दन
dharmanandana
naṃdana
"dharma-'s joy or son"
son
aneka multifarious, varied, all sorts अनेक aneka many, various a- (not), eka (one)
anekaragam variety show अनेक ग्रामः aneka-rāgam various scale
anekawarna multi-colored अनेक वर्ण aneka-varṇa various color
anggota limb, member अङ्गता aṅga-jāḥ born from the body, limbs, member
angka numerical figure अङ्क aṅka numerical constant
angkara insolence, cruel अहंकार ahaṁ-kāra ego, pride-maker
angkasa sky आकाश ākāśa sky
angkasawan astronaut आकाश वन ākāśa-vān the sky + having; possessing
angsa goose हंस haṁsa swan
angsana Pterocarpus indicus असन asana Terminalia Tomen Indica
aniaya maltreatment, abuse, injustice, tyranny अन्याय anyāya sinful activities, mischief
antara,
antar-
among, (in) between अन्तर् antar among, between, in the middle
antariksa outer space अन्तरिक्ष antarikṣa the middle of the three spheres or regions of life
atmosphere or space deity
anugerah award, honour, grace अनुग्रह anugraha to bestow blessings, compassion
anumerta posthumous, posthumous military award for achievement अनुमृत् anumṛt dying after, following in death
anuswara nasal sound, especially nasal consonants अनुस्वारः anusvāra nasal sound, see anusvara
arti meaning अर्थ
-
artha
krti
meaning
understanding
for example, अर्थकथा (arthakathā) = explaining meanings.
arya 1. title for high official in Java in the past
2. ancestor of Indian, Persian and European
आर्य ārya (honourable) man, master see Aryan
asa hope आशा āśā hope
asana 1. foot position (representing the deva)
2. chair, throne
आसन āsana sitting (according peculiar pose to the custom of devotees), see asana
asmara love, passion स्मरः smaraḥ love
asrama dormitory आश्रम āśrama religious order, college, hermitage
asta- (b.m.) eight अष्ट aṣṭa eight
atau or अथवा athavā alternatively, or, either
atma soul, life आत्मन् ātman breath, life, spirit, soul see atman
ayah father आर्य
-
ārya,
ayya
man (same in Tamil and Telugu)
baca read वाच् vāc words, talk
bagai as if, like भग bhaga good fortune
bagi for, give भाग bhāga (to) divide
baginda majesty भाग्य bhāgya good fortune + -nda: Austronesian suffix
bagus fine, good, exemplary भग bhaga good fortune, happiness, welfare
bahagia blissful, lucky, blessed, happy भाग्य bhāgya good fortune, luck, happiness
bahasa language भाषा bhāṣā sign, description
bahaya danger भय bhaya fear
bahtera ship वहित्र vahitra a boat, ship
bahu shoulder बाहु bāhu arm
bahu- (b.m.) many बहु bahu many
bahwa that (conj.) भव bhava become, state of being
baiduri opal (gem) वैडूर्य vaiḍūrya cat's eye (gem)
baja, waja steel, strong metal वाज vāja strength
bakti, bhakti homage, devotion, service etc. भक्ति bhakti bhakti
bala disaster, calamity; also means help, assist बल bala power, strength, force
bangsa nation, race वंश vaṁśa lineage, dynasty see vaṃsa
bangsawan noble वंश वन vaṁśa-vān of the dynasty + having, possessing
barat west भरत bhārata India India is located west from Indonesia.
baruna sea god वरुण varuṇa Varuna
basmi eliminate, destroy भस्मन् bhasman devour, consume, pulverize (to ashes)
bayu wind (poetic) वायु vāyu Vayu: Hindu god of wind
bela defend वेला velā time-limit, boundary, interval
belaka merely बालक bālaka young
belantara jungle वनान्तर vanāntara (interior of a) forest
belia youth बाल्य bālya childhood age, infancy
bencana disaster, calamity वञ्चन vañcana deception
benda object भाण्ड bhāṇḍa goods
bendahara treasurer भाण्डार bhāṇḍāra store, storehouse
berahi, birahi passionate love विरहिन् virahin separated (especially from beloved person)
berhala idol, image of a god भट्टार bhaṭṭāra lord
berita news वार्ता vārtā news see warta.
besi iron (metal) वाशी vāśī pointed knife
bestari clever (vast of knowledge) विस्तारिन् vistārin extending, large, broad
biara monastery विहार vihāra Buddha or Jaina convent see wihara.
biarawan male monasticism विहारवन vihāra
van
Buddha or Jaina convent
-man
see wihara.
biasa habitual, usual, ordinary अभ्यास abhyāsa habit, repetition, custom, practice
biaya expense व्यय vyaya loss, expense, spending
bicara speak विचार vicāra discussion, consideration
bidadari apsara, nymph, lesser female deities विद्याधरी vidyādhari fairy, sylph, (fem.) bearer of knowledge
bidan midwife विद्वान vidvān wise, vidwan vidvān: nom. masc. of vidvant
bija seed बीजं bījaṃ seed classical word, for the modern one see biji.
bijak clever, wise विचक्ष्
विचक्षण
vicakṣ
vicakṣana
vicakṣ: to see distinctly
bijaksana clever, wise विचक्षण vicakṣaṇa clever, wise, experienced
biji seed बीजं bījaṃ seed
biksu bhikkhu भिक्षु bhikṣu beggar, bhikkhu
biksuni bhikkhuni भिक्षु bhikṣu beggar, bhikkhuni
bila when वेला vela time
bina to build भिन्न bhinna different, fresh, new
binaraga bodybuilding भिन्न bhinna from combined words bina: to build and raga: body
binasa die, death, destroyed विनाश vināśa destruction
bisa venom, malice विष viṣa poison bisa also means can, able, potent
boga food भोग bhōga object of enjoyment (such as food), eating
buana world (poetic) भुवन bhuvana world, earth, place of being
budaya culture बुद्धि
दय
buddhi
daya
combination of boddhi: virtue and dhaya: power. give, move, protect
budi reason, virtue बुद्धि buddhi intellect, discernment, judgment
budiman kind, wise बुद्धिमान buddhimān nom. of buddhi
bujangga scholar भुजंग bhujaṅga snake, dissolute friend of prince
bukti proof भुक्ति bhukti enjoyment, fruition, possession
bumi earth भूमि bhūmi land
bupati head of second level administrative area in Indonesia भूमिपति bhūpati lord of the earth see bumi and patih
busana clothing भूषण bhūṣaṇa ornament, decoration
cabai, cabe Capsicum sp. (Chili Peppers) चवि cavi Piper chaba (Pepper)
cahaya light छाया chāyā lustre, light
cakra disk, sphere etc.
Chakra
चक्र chakra wheel, circle, cycle, Chakra
cakram disk, sphere etc.
disc in discus throw
चक्र chakra wheel, circle, cycle, Chakra
cakrawala horizon चक्रवाल cakravāla mythical mountains at the edge of light and dark, horizon
candi temple चण्डिका caṇḍika another manifestation of Durga as goddess of death
candu 1. opium (Papaver somniferum)
2. favorite, hobby
छन्दु chandu pleasing
candra, chandra moon (poetic), lunar चन्द्र candra Chandra: Hindu moon god
cangkang shell शङ्ख śaṅkha winged shell attribute of Vishnu, shell
cara way, style, customs चारी cāra course, way
cari search, look for चारी cārī particular step
catur chess चतुर
चतुरंगं
catura
caturaṃgaṃ
swift, quick, dexterous, clever, skilful
chess
catur- (b.m.) quad- चतुर् chatur quad-
cedera injury छिद्र chidra defect
celaka mishap छलक chalaka delusive
cempaka Magnolia sp. चंपक campaka Magnolia sp.
cendala (classical) lowly, bad person चण्डाल caṇḍāla outcaste
cendana Santalum album चन्दन candana Santalum album
cenderawasih paradisaeidae (bird-of-paradise) चन्द्र candra Chandra: Hindu moon god
ceria 1. clean, holy, pure
2. shining, clear,
3. word expression during monarch accession (archaism)
चर्य carya due observance of all rites and customs, proceeding
cerita story चरित carita narration, story e.g. Buddhacarita
cerna digest जीर्ण jīrṇa old, digested, decayed
cinta love चिन्ता cintā thought (fem.)
cipta create चित्त citta thinking, aim, reason
cita hope, idea, future goals चित्त citta thinking, aim, reason
citarasa delicious चित्त
रस
citta
rasa
thinking, aim, reason
flavor, taste
citra image चित्र citra picture (Hindi, Sanskrit)
citrum pixel चित्र citra picture singular form back-formation of "citra"
cuci clean शुचि śuci clean, pure, correct
cuka vinegar चुक्र cukra vinegar
curi steal चोर cōra thief, robber
curiga suspicious छुरिका churikā knife
dana donation, funds दान dāna donation, gift, oblation, paying back
dara virgin दार dāra wife
darma, dharma duty, good deeds (i.e. charity), truth etc. धर्म dharma Dharma
dasawarsa decade दशन्
वर्ष
daśan
varṣa
ten
year, rain
daya power दया dayā compassion, mercy
denda fine, punishment दण्ड daṇḍa punishment
derma alms giving धर्म dharma good works, justice
desa village देशा deśa place, spot, region, country
dewa god देव deva god
dewata godness देवता devata deity
dewi goddess देवी devī goddess
dina (classical) day दिनं dinaṃ day
dina (b.m.) poor दीन dīna poor only in hina dina (phr.)
dirgahayu long live दीर्घ
आयु
dīrgha
āyu
long
age
āyuṣā = with a life span
dosa sin दोष doṣa fault; vice
duka sadness दुःख duḥkha pain, sorrow, affliction, distress, unhappiness, difficulty, trouble
dupa incense धूप dhūpa incense, see dhupa
duta envoy दूत dūta messenger, envoy, ambassador, negotiator
durjana evil, wicked, malicious दुर्जन durjana bad man, villain, scoundrel
malicious, wicked
dusta lie दुष्ट duṣṭā wrong, false, guilty
dwi (b.m.) two, bi- द्वि dvi two, bi-
eka (b.m.) one, mono- एक eka one, mono-
gajah elephant गज gaja elephant
gapura gate गोपुरं gōpuraṃ gate lit. city way (way + city)
garuda, geroda garuda गरुड़ garuḍa garuda
gaya stylish, fashionable गय gaya wealth, property
gelita dark गलित galita waning, lost, perished
genta bell घण्ट ghaṇṭa bell
gerha, graha building, office, house, etc. गृह gṛha house
gerhana eclipse ग्रहण grahaṇa seizure, possession, eclipse
gita song (poetic) गीत gīta singing, song
guna utilize, use, purpose गुण guṇa quality, attribute
guru teacher, guru गुरुः guru teacher
harta asset अर्थः arthaḥ wealth
hasta forearm (measurement unit) हस्तः hastaḥ hand
hina lowly, inferior हीन hīna small, lesser, petty, deficient, left, blamable
hina dina (phr.) inferior and poor, unworthy, very inferior हीन
दीन
hīna
dīna
lesser, etc.
poor
husada health औषधं auṣadhaṃ medicine as in panti husada, health center.
indra sense (organs) इन्द्रिय indriya sense (organs)
istri wife स्त्री strī wife (lit. bearer of children)
jaga awake, guard जागृ
जागर
jāgṛ
jāgara
to watch over, awake
jagat universe जगत् jagat world, universe
jaksa attorney अध्यक्ष adhyakṣa inspector, superintendent
jala net, casting net जाल jāla net
jam hour, clock याम yāma time
jambu Myrtaceae जम्बु jambu Myrtaceae
jampi incantation जप japa muttering, whispering (prayer)
janda widow रण्डा raṇḍā widow see randa.
jasa merit, service, etc. यशस्
व्यास
yaśas
vyāsa
worth, glory;
service
jati Tectona grandis (Teak) जाति jāti Jasminum grandiflorum
jawa Java, Javanese यव yava barley, grain On Java context, it means rice or paddy.
jaya glorious जय jaya conquest, victory, triumph
jelata common people जनता janata a number of men, assemblage of people, community, subjects, mankind
jelita lovely ललित lalita lovely, charming, favourite, liked
jelma incarnation, to become, to turn into जन्म janma birth
jentera spinning, wheel यन्त्र yantra instrument
jiwa life, soul, sanity जीव jīva (personal) soul
juta million अयुत ayuta ten thousand, myriad
jutawan very rich अयुत वन ayuta+vān ten thousand + having, possessing
kaca glass काच kāca glass
kacamata glasses, spectacles काच kāca glass
kala time काल kāla time
kalah defeat कलह kalaha quarrel, fight
kalau if काल kāla time
kali time(s), in mathematics काल kāla time
kalpataru 1. tree of life and hope,
2. environmental award from government of Indonesia
कल्पतरु kalpataru wishing or wonder tree, see Kalpavriksha
kanta, suryakanta lens सूर्य्यकान्त
कान्त
sūryyakānta
kānta
sun-crystal, crystal lens
precious stone
kapas cotton कर्पास karpāsa cotton
karena because कारण kāraṇa cause
karma 1. personal work in world
2. law of causality
कर्म karma karma
karsa initiative, will कर्ष karṣa pulling, obtaining, mastering (√kṛṣ)
kartika star (poetic) कृत्तिका
कार्त्तिक
kṛttikā
kārttika
Pleiades, corresponding month (Oct-Nov)
karunia blessing करुण karuṇa compassion
karya work, oeuvre, product कार्य kārya work see kerja.
kasturi Tapeinochilus ananassae कस्तूरी kastūrī 1. musk,
2. Hibiscus abelmoschus,
3. Amaryllis zeylanica
kata word कथा kathā speech, talk, story
kati a hundred thousand कोटि koṭi ten million
kelahi quarrel, fight कलह kalaha quarrel, fight
keling Indian, black-skinned कालिङ्ग kāliṅga related to Kalinga
keluarga family कुल
वर्ग
kula
varga
kula: family, race, tribe or caste, kin.
varga: group
see also, warga.
kemala, gemala, kumala jade, gemstone कोमल komala gracious, charming
kamboja Plumeria acuminata काम्बोज kāmboja 1. related to Kámbója,
2. Rottlera tinctoria,
3. white mimosa,
4. Gunja
kencana gold, golden, grand, glorious काञ्चन kāñcana gold
kendi water-pitcher कुण्ड
कुण्डी
kuṇḍa
kuṇḍī
jar, pitcher kuṇḍī: fem. form of kuṇḍa
kepala head कपाल kapāla skull, cranium
keranda coffin करण्ड karaṇḍa basket, box
kerja work कार्य kārya the work, the manifest products see karya.
ketika moment, when घट ghaṭa G'har'í or Indian clock
kian become more, as much (many) as कियत् kiyān how much
kirana 1. ray (lit.)
2. beautiful
किरण kiraṇa ray of light
kosakata vocabulary कोश
कथा
kośa
kathā
kośa:dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary
kata: speech, talk, story
kota city, town कोट्ट koṭa stronghold
krida 1. action
2. sport
क्रीडा krīḍā sport, play, amusement
ksatria warrior, knight क्षत्रिय kṣatriya military, reigning, princely caste, supremacy
kuasa power वश vaśa power, control, dominion
kuda horse घोटकः
-
ghōṭakaḥ
kudda
horse
kumba pot कुंभ kuṃbha pot, jar
kunci key कुञ्चिका kuñcikā key
kungkuma saffron कुंकुम kuṅkuma saffron
kurnia mercy कारुण्य kāruṇya compassion, praiseworthy, excellent
kusta leprosy कुष्ठ kuṣṭha leprosy
kusuma, kasuma, kesuma flower कुसुम kusuma flower, blossom, bud
labu gourd अलाबु alābu gourd
lagu song लघु laghu gentle (sound)
laksa ten thousand लक्ष lakṣa ten thousand, lakh
laksana 1. like, as if
2. good sign (classical)
लक्षण lakṣaṇa indirect indication, favourable mark
laksamana admiral लक्ष्मण lakṣmaṇa Lakshmana
laksmi beautiful, Lakshmi लक्ष्मी lakṣmī Lakshmi, beautiful
lata crawling, creeping animal (usually snake) लता latā creeping plants, see vine
lawang door, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.), Nutmeg (Myristica sp.) लवंग lavaṅga Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
lela graceful movement, elegant लीला līlā play
lena sleep soundly लीन līna lying or resting on
lencana seal, emblem, badge लाञ्छन lāñchana mark, sign, vestige
lingga lingam लिङ्गम् liṅgam lingam
loba greedy लोभ lobha greed
loka world, place, realm, abode लोक loka space, room, place, world
madu honey
co-wife
मधु madhu sweet food or drink, incld. honey, milk, wine, etc.
madya, madia middle मध्य madhya middle
maha great, super, hyper, very महा mahā great
mahadewa supreme god mahā+deva supreme god
mahadewi supreme goddess mahā+devi supreme goddess
maha esa all-mighty maheśa = mahā+īśa supreme lord īśa (ईश): owning, possessing, powerful, supreme, capable, lord
mahaguru professor mahā+guru great teacher
maharaja king महाराज mahārāja great king
maharani queen mahārani see rani.
mahasiswa (male) college/university student महा
शिष्यः
mahā-śiṣyah great-student (masc.)
mahasiswi (female) college/university student महा
शिष्यः
mahā-śiṣyāh great-student (fem.)
mahesa, mahisa buffalo महिषः mahiṣaḥ buffalo
mahkota crown मुकुट mukuṭa crown
mala stain, dirt मल mala dirt, filth, impurity
malapetaka calamity, disaster महा
पातक
mahā
pātaka
great
sin or collapse
manakala when māna-kāla in honor of time
mani sperm मणि maṇi 1. pearls, gem, jewel,
2. glans penis
manik bead, sequin, jewel मणि maṇi 1. pearls, gem, jewel,
2. glans penis
mantra, mantera mantra मन्त्र mantra mantra
manusia human मनुष्य mānuṣa human being
marga road मार्गः mārgaḥ road
matra measurement unit, of length, height, depth मात्रा mātrā measurement unit
maya illusion माया māyā Maya (illusion)
menteri minister (head of a government department) मन्त्रि mantri king's counsellor, minister
merdeka freedom, liberty महा
ऋद्धि
mahā
ṛddhi-ka
great
prosperity
merdu sweet, melodius मृदु mṛdu soft
mitra partner मित्र mitra friend
muda young मूढ mūḍha stupid, silly, simple
mudah easy मूढ mūḍha stupid, silly, simple
muka face मुख mukha face
mula to start, to begin मूल mūla origin
nadi blood vessel नदि nadi stream, river
naga dragon, nāga नाग nāga serpent deities
nama name नामन् nāman name
nawa- (b.m.) nine नव nava nine
negara country नगर nagara city
negeri city (lit.) नगरी nagarī city (fem.)
neraka hell, underworld नरक naraka naraka
nirwana an ideal condition of harmony or joy निर्वाण nirvana nirvana
niskala amorph, abstract निश्चल niścala immovable; steady; unal terable, immutable
nusa island (poetic) नूस nūsa
nyata 1. clearly shown,
2. real,
3. proven
नियत niyata Constant, Ascertained, Positive
paduka foot, footwear पादुक pāduka shoe, slipper
paduka honorary title for official, nobility, or king पादुका pādukā impression of the feet of a god or a holy person for the idea, see Ciaruteun inscription.
pahala merit, reward (for moral conduct) फल phala fruits, of results
paksa to force पक्ष pakṣa side, faction, partisan, adherent, army, position
pala Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) फल phala fruits, of results
panca- (b.m.) five पञ्च pañca five
pariwisata tourism परि
विशति
pari
viśati
around
enter
to enter around
patih, -pati 1. obidient, submissive
2. Lord (government)
पति pati master, owner see bupati.
pekerti character, nature प्रकृति prakṛti origin, character, nature, pattern
pendapa, pendopo hall मण्डप maṇḍapa open hall, pavilion, temple through Javanese pendhapa
pendeta priest पण्डित paṇḍita learned, scholar, skilled
percaya believe प्रत्ययः pratyayaḥ familiarity
perdana first प्रधान pradhāna first, chief
perkara problem, affairs प्रकार prakāra difference, similitude
perkasa powerful, forceful, manly प्रकाश prakāśa shining, manifest, renowned
perkosa rape प्रकाश prakāśa shining, manifest, renowned
perpustakaan library पुस्तक pustaka book, manuscript see pustaka with circumfix per⟩...⟨an'
pertama first प्रथम prathama first
pertiwi Mother Earth पृथ्वी pṛthvī
pṛthivī
Prithvi, Hindu earth deity
perwira high-ranked military official प्रवीर pravīra brave or eminent man, hero, chief
pra (b.m.) pre- प्रा pra before, forward to, in front of, on, forth
prabu king (title) प्रभु prabhu master, lord, king
prakarya handworks प्रकार्य prakārya to be manifested
praja city, state प्रजा prajā people, subject (of prince), child
pria man/men प्रिय priya beloved, dear
puasa fasting उपवास upavāsa fasting, abstinence
puja worship, adore पूजा pūjā worship, respect, homage of superiors or adoration of the gods
punya have, possessive verb पुण्य puṇya merit, virtue
pura Hindu temple, city पुर pura city/walled enclosure
purba ancient पूर्व pūrva former, ancient, old, etc.
puri palace पुर pura city/walled enclosure
purna- (b.m.) complete, finished पूर्ण pūrṇa finished, complete, satisfied see also sempurna, purnama
purnama full moon, a month पूर्णमा pūrṇamā full-moon (day)
pustaka book पुस्तक pustaka book, manuscript
puspa flower (poetic) पुष्प puṣpa flower
putra, putera son, prince पुत्र putra son
putri, puteri daughter, princess पुत्री putrī princess
raga body राग rāga color, feeling, beauty
rahasia secret रहस्यं rahasya secret
raja king राजन् rāja king
rajalela rage, raging, at large, rampant राज
लीला
raja
līlā
king
play
raksasa giant, monster राक्षस rākṣasa beast-like demon
randa, rangda widow रण्डा raṇḍā widow see janda.
rani queen राज्ञी
राणी
rājñī
rāṇī
queen rāṇī (राणी) is corruption of rājñī (राज्ञी).
rasa emotion, feeling, taste रस rasa to love, flavor, taste
ratna jewel, gemstone (poetic) रत्न ratna jewel, gem
resmi official रश्मि raśmi string, leash, ray of light in Sanskrit, रश्मि (raśmi) is synonym of पक्ष (pakṣa).
rupa look, appearance रूप rūpa form, likeness
sabda proclamation (poetic) शब्दः śabda voice, speech
sadu best साधु sādhu good, excellent
sahaya servant साहाय्य sāhāyya help, assistance
saksi witness साक्षिन् sākṣin witness
sakti powerful शक्ति śakti power, energy
sama same सम sama same, equal
samudra ocean समुद्र samudra ocean
sangga 1. monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns), see Sangha.
2. smallest unit in Scouting
संघ saṃgha association, clerical community, brotherhood of monks
sapta- (b.m.) seven सप्त sapta seven
sarira body शरीरं śarīraṃ body via Javanese word sarira
sasana training hall शासन śāsana teaching, order, ruling
sastra literature शास्त्र śāstra scripture, teaching, order, book
satwa fauna, animals सत्त्व sattva sentint being, "that which is", existence
seka wipe, rub निषेक niṣēka wash
semadi, samadi, semedi, samedi meditation, contemplation समाधि samādhi deep meditation, silenece, religious vow
semesta whole, total समस्त samasta united, whole, all
sempurna perfect सम्पूर्ण sampūrṇa entirely, complete
sengsara suffering संसार saṃsāra continuous flow of reincarnation
senopati general, military leader (archaic) सेनापति senāpati senā "military" + pati "leader"
seteru enemy शत्रु śatru enemy
setia loyal, truthful सत्य
सती
satya
satī
truth, correct, sincere, faithful
faithful wife
serba all, everything, complete सर्व sarva all or everything
seru to call loudly श्रु śru to be heard
sila base, courtesy, moral शील śīla habit, custom, usage, character, moral precept can mean cross-legged sitting or refined order
singa lion सिंहः siṃha lion, breavest, king, ruler
singgasana throne सिंहासन siṃhāsana the lion throne Lion is allusion to king.
siswa (school) student शिष्यः śiṣyah student for tertiary education student, see mahasiswa.
sri title for king श्री śrī 1. Prefix to the names,
2. Fortune, prosperity, success, thriving,
3. Light
stupa stupa स्तूप stūpa heap, a pile of earth
suami husband स्वामि svāmī master, lord, husband
suara sound स्वर svara sound, voice, accent, musical tone or note
suci clean, holy शुचि śuci clean, pure, correct
suka like, happy सुख sukha easy, pleasant, comfortable, happy
sukma soul सूक्ष्म sūkṣma subtle, atomic
sunyi quiet (situation) शून्य śūnya zero, nothing
surga heaven स्वर्ग svarga heaven
surya sun (poetic), solar सूर्य sūrya Surya, Hindu sun god
susila modesty, appropriate सुशील suśīla good character
swa- (b.m.) do something by oneself स्व sva- self, own
tali rope, string talli
tapa asceticism, meditation, self-discipline तप tapa tapas
tata order, to arrange तथा tathā thus, in that manner
tri- (b.m.) three (cardinal) त्रि tri three
udara air उदार udāra rising fog or vapour, raising, sublime
unta camel उष्ट्र uṣṭra camel
upacara ceremony उपचार upacāra ceremony, religious ritual
usaha effort उत्साह utsāha effort, thread, happiness, firmness
usia age आयुष āyuṣa life-span
utama ultimate, the most important, foremost उत्तम uttama upmost, highest, first or best
utara north उत्तर uttara north
wacana verbal communication, conversation वचन vacana speech
wadah container आधारः ādhāraḥ container
wahana ride, vehicle वहन vahana conducting, carrying, bearing
wana forest (poetic) वन vana forest
wangsa dynasty, royal house वंश vaṁśa lineage
wanita woman, lady वनिता vanitā wife, woman
warga 1. members of family, society, etc.,
2. social stratification (uncommon)
वर्ग varga class, tribe, club
warna colour वर्ण varṇa colour
warta news वार्ता varta news see berita.
warta berita news broadcast वार्ता varta news
wibawa 1. authority, influence,
2. power
विभवः vibhavaḥ power
wihara Buddhist Temple विहार vihāra Buddha or Jaina convent see biara.
wira hero, brave वीर vīra heroic, brave
wisesa supreme leader, supreme power विशेष viśēṣa excellence, superiority
wreda, werda 1. old age, geriatric
2. experienced
वृद्ध vṛddha 1. old,
2. wise
yoga Yoga योगः yoga Yoga
yudha war, battle (poetic) युद्ध yuddha battle

From Pali[edit]

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language and belongs to the Indo-European language family together with Sanskrit. As Sanskrit is the language vehicle of Hinduism, Pali is the language vehicle for Buddhism, especially the Theravada tradition which is mainly adhered to by Buddhists within Indosphere Southeast Asia. Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Middle Indo-Aryan languages, the Prakrits. The relationship to Vedic Sanskrit is less direct and more complicated; the Prakrits were descended from Old Indo-Aryan vernaculars.

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Pali Word Pali Transcription Pali Meaning Note
belanja shopping, expense valañja that which is spent or secreted
biku bhikkhu (classical) bhikkhu beggar, bhikkhu see also biksu from Sanskrit.
bikuni bhikkhuni (classical) bhikkhuṇī beggar, bhikkhuni see also biksuni from Sanskrit.
dana allocated money dhana treasure
dana donation, funds dāna giving, liberality; offering, alms cognate of Sanskrit दान (dāna).
duka sadness dukkha stress; suffering; pain; distress; discontent
mara calamity māra mara (demon) cognate of Sanskrit मार (māra).
merana sick, sadness māraṇa killing, slaughter, murder cognate of Sanskrit मारण (māraṇa).
loba greed lobha greed; passion; unskillful desire.
percaya believe paricaya familiarity cognate of Sanskrit प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ)
raga (physical) body rāga lust; greed

From Hindi[edit]

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi is an Indo-Germanic or Indo-European language. It is descended from Sanskrit and is considered part of the New Indo-Aryan subgroup.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Hindi
Word
Hindi
Transcription
Hindi
Meaning
Note
abaimana anus, genital अपमान्य apamānya disreputable, dishonourable
acar pickles अचार achaar pickles
antari cloth अंतरीय antarīya under garment
gari, argari handcuffs हाथकड़ी hath-kaṛī hand+link
ayah (Malaysia) Indian female housemaid आया āyā ayah, nanny
bahana 1. loud sound (n.),
2. great, bright (adj.)
भनक bhanak a low or distant sound, hum, buzz, ring
हनना hannā to speak, to break silence
bakdul rein बागडोर bāgḍor rein
banglo perforated crates to keep the fish in the dam area banglā
bangsal ward, shed, public building भनसाल bhansāl storehouse, magazine, granary see भण्डसाल (bhanḍsāl) < भण्डसार (bhaṇḍasāra) storehouse, magazine, granary
barua procuress bhaṛuā
basi stale, spoilt बासी bāsī stale, rancid
bel bell bel
belati dagger विलायती vilāyatī foreign
bendahari, bendari female trasurer भंडारी bhaṇḍārī store keeper
bendi two-wheeled cart bhinḍī
benian बनियान baniyān under garment, vest
beta I (first-person pronoun) (classical, Moluccas) बेटा beṭā son
bêti proof beṭī
bi aunt
cacar pox (disease) चेचक cecak pox (disease)
cakela brothel, whorehouse (archaic) चकला caklā brothel, whorehouse
candu opium चण्डू caṇḍū opium from Sanskrit चण्ड+उकः
cap stamp  ?
छापा
chāp
ṭhappā
 ?
stamp
capal leather sandal चप्पल cappal slipper
celana pants, trousers चोलना ćolnā short breeches, reaching half-way down the thighs
cempa campā
ceri cherry (Muntingia calabura) curī
ceteri tent (in boat) (arch.) छत्री ćhatrī covering, canopy Sanskrit tadbhava word छत्रिका
cindai flowery silk cunrī
coli (arch.) colī
culim smoking pipe चिलम cilam smoking pipe see also chillum
cura funny churā
curi steal चूरी
चोरी
ćūrī
corī
steal
cuti leave छुट्टी chuṭṭī leave
dal bean दाल dāl dried, split pulses see dal.
dam check (pattern) दाम dām net, snare
dandi a kind of musical instrument डोंडी ḍoṅḍī small kettle-drum Sanskrit tadbahva दुन्दुभी
dera lash durrā to whip
dian small lamp दिया dīyā light, lamp, lantern
dobi laundry worker धोबी dhobī laundry worker (male)
dol 1. indian drum,
2. mast
ढोल ḍhol dhol
डोल ḍol mast probably from Arabic دلو (dalw)
duhai an interjection word दुहाई duhāī cry for help
duli dust; foot; honorary word for official, nobility, or king डोली ḍolī a kind of sedan see also paduka.
dura far दूर dūr far
gajus cashew (Anacardium occidentale) दूर kājū cashew (Anacardium occidentale) possibly from Tupian acajú through Portuguese caju
gala-gala small bee gūgal
ganda small bee gāna
ganja Cannabis sativa गांझा gāṅjhā Cannabis sativa probably from Sanskrit गृञ्ज+कः, or गृञ्जनकः
gap 1. sound of slapping on a table.
2 sound of heartbeat.
gap the sound made by a blow, or in swallowing
geleca cake (arch.) gālīcā
guli marbles गोली golī ball from Sanskrit गोल+इका
gusar angry g̠uṣṣa choking, anger from Arabic غصة, from. غصّ 'to be choked'

From Tamil[edit]

Loanwords from Tamil, while also an Indian language (though not Indo-European like Sanskrit), mainly exist in cuisine, like Chinese and unlike Sanskrit. It is a Dravidian language and not an Indo-Aryan language. However, Hinduism had great impact in Tamil, there are several Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil and they are possibility to list them in Indo-Aryan loanwords, such as Sanskrit.

Interaction between Tamil speakers and Malay speakers has been established from ancient time. Tamil influence has been around such as Palava usage as ancient script in Indonesia (Palava dynasty was existed on 275 CE–897 CE) and Chola invasion of Srivijaya in 1025. It mainly entered the lexicon of Malay (and by extension, Indonesian) with the immigration of South Indian traders who settled around the Strait of Malacca.

Indonesian Word Indonesian Meaning Tamil Word Tamil Transliteration Tamil Meaning Note
acaram 1. ring,
2. earnest money
அச்சகாரம் accāram earnest money
acu mould, model அச்சு accu mould
andai if, suppose அண்டை aṇṭai near, support
apam kind of cake அப்பம் appam appam, rice cake, bread pastery
badai storm வாடை vāṭai wind, north wind
bagai sort of வகை vakai kind, sort
baji wedge வசி vaci cleft, point, edge
banci adze வாய்ச்சி vāycci adze, instrument for cutting the surface of bricks
banian, benian jewelry box வணிகம் vaṇikaṃ trademan, merchant
basi 1. commission, fee
2. overtime or extra pay
3. reduction (in price), discount
வாசி vāci 1. difference
2. rate, as of interest; portion
3. discount, in changing money
batil copper bowl, plate, tray வட்டில் vaṭṭil a brass tray, a platter; basket
bedil gun, rifle வெடி veṭi explosion, as of gun via Javanese bedhil
belaka entirely, only, merely வணிகம் vilaku to deviate from; to go astray; to err;  ?
belenggu fetters, handcuffs, thumbcuffs விலாங்கு vilāṅku eel  ?
benara laundryman வண்ணான் vaṇṇāṉ washerman
bicu lever வீச்சு vīccu blow, stroke
biram 1. elephant,
2. double-headed snake,
3. red
வேழம் vēḻam elephant
canai grindstone சாணை cāṇai-k-kal grindstone
cemeti whip சம்மட்டி cammaṭṭi 1. (horse-)whip,
2. large hammer
cerpelai mongoose (Herpestes sp.) கீரிப்பிள்ளை kīri-p-piḷḷai common Indian mungoose, Indian ichneumon, Herpestes mungo
cerpu leather sandals (terompah-like) செருப்பு ceruppu leather sandals, slippers, shoes
cerutu, serutu cigar சுருட்டு curuṭṭu 1. curling, coiling;
2. cigar
ceti money lender செட்டி ceṭṭi mercantile caste, traders from Prakrit sēṭṭišrēṣṭhin
cukai excise tax, custom சுங்கம் cuṅkam duty on goods, customs, tolls from Prakrit šuṅkašulka
cuku dried gambier roots சுக்கு cukku dried ginger
culiah specific customer சோழியன் cōḻiyaṉ title of certain sub-castes of Brahmins, Vēḷāḷas, etc.
cuma only, no others சும்மா cummā leisurely, without any occupation or work  ?
dendam revenge, grudge, resentment தெண்டம் teṇṭam punishment, penalty
gembala shepherd gō-pālan *?
gudang warehouse கிடங்கு kiṭaṅku warehouse, storehouse loanword from Malay gaḍong.
gula sugar குளம் kuḷam sugar *?
gulai kind of curry குலை gulai *?
gundu marbles குண்டு kuṇṭu ball; anything globular and heavy
gurindam two lines rhyme கிரந்தம் kirantam 1. book, treatise
2. A verse or prose containing 32 syllables, šlōka
from grantha.
helai sheet இலை ilai leaf, petal
idam craving, desire இட்டம் iṭṭam 1. desire, wish, inclination of mind, will
2. love, attachment
ikat to tie கட்டு kaṭṭu to tie, bind, fasten, shackle
jodoh, joli mate, partner சோடி cōṭi couple, pair loanword from Hind. jōḍi.
joli royal sedan டோலி ṭōli a kind of sedan loanword from Hind. ḍōlā.
kalam writing tool கலம் kalam Vessel; hollow utensil; Bottle-shaped vessel; Document written on palm-leaf
kambi wooden frames to strengthen the edges of doors கம்பி kampi wall plate
kapal boat கப்பல் kappal ship, sailing vessel
kari curry கறி kaṟi curry
karpai bullet container கரி kari the hard part of timber
kata to say, word காதை kaṭai 1. (to tell) story, narrative
2. word, term
3. to speak
katai, katik small, short கடை kaṭṭai short, low, dwarfish
defect, deficiency
katelum bastion கொத்தளம் kottalam part of a rampart, bastion, defensive erection on the top of a rampart from Pāli koṭṭhaka
kati a measure of weight = 6¼ ons கட்டி kaṭṭi a measure of weight = 25 palams
katik 1. Paspalum scrobiculatum,
2. Treron curvirostra,
3. area measurement (of land or field)
கட்டை kaṭṭai mile
katil bed கட்டில் kaṭṭil 1. cot, bedstead, couch, sofa,
2. Throne
kawal guard, escourt காவல் kāval defence, protection, watchman, guard
kedai foodstall கடை kaṭai bazaar, shop, market
kedelai Glycine max கடலை kaṭalai Cicer arietinum, Melastoma malabaricum Kanarese, Travancore usage kaḍale, Malayalam kaḍala
kelam dark களம் kaḷam blackness, dark colour; cloud
keledai Equus asinus கழுதை kaḻutai Equus asinus
ketumbar Coriandrum sativum கொத்தமல்லி kottamalli Coriandrum sativum from Sanskrit कुस्तुम्बुरु (kustumburu)
kodi twenty units கோடி kōṭi 1. Crore, ten millions,
2. large number
kolam pool, pond, basin, tank குளம் kuḷam tank, pond, reservoir, lake
konde, kundai dressing of hair in large coil on the head கொண்டை koṇṭai tuft, dressing of hair in large coil on the head related to Telugu koṇḍe, Kanarese Travancore goṇḍe, Malayalam koṇṭa
korundum natural Aluminum oxide குருந்தம் kuruntam corundum, emery
kota city கோட்டம் kōṭṭam city
kudai basket made of rattan கூடை kūṭai basket made of rattan, ola or bamboo
kuil temple கோயில் kōyil 1. Palace,
2. Temple, Sanctuary
kulai limp குலை kulai to untie, loosen, dishevel
kuli physical worker கூலி kūli 1. wages, pay;
2. fare, hire, freight
kundi clay craftsman kuṉṟi  ?
kutu trade union கூட்டாளி kūṭṭāḷi associate, companion (trade)  ?
ladam horseshoe லாடம் lāṭam horseshoe
lebai mosque employees லப்பை lappai Tamil-speaking Muhammadans
logam metal உலோகம் ulōkam metal from lōha metal
madali a musical instrument மத்தளம் mattaḷam a kind of drum
malai strands மாலை mālai anything strung together
maligai royal chamber in palace மாளிகை māḷikai top floor of a storied building  ?
mamak māmā  ?
mami māmi
mangga mango மாங்காய் māṅkāy mango
manik beads maṇi
manikam diamond மாணிக்கம் māṇikkam gem, precious stone
merikan, marikan clothes from America மரிக்கன் marikkaṉ from America
maru disturbing ghost மாற்று māṟṟu to change, alter
to conceal, hide
to shift; to transfer, as from a place
matu grade of gold மாற்று māṟṟu degree of fineness of gold or silver
mempelam mango மாம்பழம் mā-m-paḻam mango fruit
merunggai Moringa oleifera முருங்கை muruṅkai Moringa pterygosperma
metai bed மெத்தை mettai bed, cushion
meterai seal, stamp முத்திரை muttirai 1. impress, mark
2. seal, signet
3. stamp, as for postage, for court fees
misai mustache மீசை mīcai 1. upper part,
2. cf. šmašru. moustache
modal capital, stock முதல் mutal 1. beginning
2. principal, fund, capital, money yielding interest
3. stock, store
mundam large tub for royal bathing முந்தை muntai small vessel
mutu 1. quality, purity of gold
2. sad
3. In pinch (chess)
முட்டு muttu difficulty, as in passing,
hindrance, obstacle, impediment
nali volume unit =16 gantang =1/50 koyan நாழி nāḻi tubularity; tube,
a measure of capacity, =8 ollocks
related to nāḍi
nelayan fisherman  ?
நுளையன், கரையான், வலையன், வலைஞன்
neḻiyaṉ,
nuḷaiyaṉ, karaiyāṉ, valaiyaṉ, valaiñaṉ,
fisher(man)
nila indigo நீல nila blue, black, common indigo, blue nelumbo
nilai value நிலை nilai standing
character, quality, temper, nature
nilakandi indigo (color, stone): blue vitriol நீலகண்டன் nīla-kaṇṭaṉ blue vitriol
nilam Pycnonotus aurigaster
Pogostemon cablin
நீலம் nīlam blue, azure or purple colour
ondé-ondé jian dui உண்டை uṇṭai ball, globe, sphere; anything round or globular
panai wooden tray பானை pāṉai 1. large earthen pot or vessel
2. measure of capacity
3. oil measure = 4 cempu
pancalogam mixture of five (many) metals பஞ்சலோகம் pañcalōkam 1. The five kinds of metal, poṉ, irumpu, cempu, īyam, veḷḷi;
2. Amalgam of the five metals
pandam resin (in the grip of keris) பண்டம் pantam 1. substance, material, utensils.
2. belly, body
from bhāṇḍa
pandu guide பந்து pantu relation, kinsman from bandhu.
patam, petam ornament, jewelry பட்டம் paṭṭam plate of gold worn on the forehead, as an ornament or badge of distinction
petaram, pateram small keris used by women பத்திரம் pattiram beauty, grace
caution, carefulness
safety, security
pawai 1. parade, procession
2. royal equipments
பவனி pavaṉi parade
pelbagai various 1. பல
2. வகை
1. pala
2. vakai
1. many
2. division, class, manner, way, nature, goods, places, detail
perisai shield பரிசை paricai 1. shield, buckler (come from phara)
2. large umbrella, as a badge of honour
perli satire, mockery புரளி puraḷi 1. Lying, falsehood;
2. Mischief, waggishness;
3. Quarrel, wrangle, broil;
peti chest, box பெட்டி peṭṭi chest, trunk, coffer, box
pitam headache, dizziness பித்தம்
பித்தம்
pittam
pitta
lunacy, madness
dizziness
puadai red carpet பாவாடை pāvāṭai red carpet
pualam marble பவளம் pavaḷam red coral
pudi small diamond பொடி poṭi small gem
putu kue putu புட்டு puṭṭu puttu
ragam various ராகம் (i)rākam desire, color, redness, music
roti bread ரொட்டி roṭṭi bread, wheaten cake
sambal sambal சம்பாரம் campāram spicy condiments, curry stuff 1. from Sanskrit सम्बार (sambāra) 'spices'.
2. related to sambar (சாம்பார் cāmpār)
satai, saté satay சதை catai flesh
sedelinggam red paint material சாதிலிங்கம் cātiliṅkam cermilion, red sulphurate of mercury
sekutu alliance கூட்டுறவு kūṭṭuṟavu friendship, alliance prefix se- means one
senam calisthenics சானம்
சனம்
cāṇam
caṉam
meditation (dhyāna)
people, crowd, herd
sengketa to dispute ஸங்கடம் saṅkaṭam trouble
senar string நார் nār string, cord prefix se- means one
talam tray without feet தாலம் tālam 1. eating- plate, porringer, usually of metal.
2. Salver
tatak tray தட்டு, தட்டல் taṭṭu, taṭṭal tray
tali rope தளை taḷai cord, rope
tambi 1. younger brother (Indian)
2. helper
தம்பி tampi younger brother (Indian)
tandil overseer தண்டல் taṇṭal tax-collector
tandu palanquin தண்டு taṇṭu pole of a palanquin or other vehicle
tembaga copper செம்பு cempu copper, gold, metal vessel
teman friend தமன் tamaṉ friend (male)
terusi, tursi blue vitriol துருசு turucu blue vitriol
tirai curtain திரை tirai curtain
tolan friend தோழன் tōlan friend (male)
topi hat தொப்பி toppi cap
tunai cash துணை tuṇai measure, extent, degree, quantity, number  ?
Wéda Vēdas வேதம் vētam Vēdas

From Middle Eastern languages[edit]

From Arabic[edit]

The loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam. Allah is the word for God even in Christian Bible translations. Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations, this practice has been discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew word. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa, but is now spelt as Yesus. Psalms used to be translated as Zabur, the Arabic name, but now it is called Mazmur which corresponds more with Hebrew.

Word Meaning Original word Transcription, notes
abdi servant عَبْد ʻabd
adab civilize, proper أَدَب adab
adat custom عادة ʻāda
ahad Sunday (Islamic) الأحد al-ahad
ajaib magical عجائب ʻajāʼīb
akad contract, promise عَقْد ʻaqd
akal reason عَقْل ʻaql
akhir end آخِر ʼākhir
akhirat hereafter آخِرة ākhira
akhlak character, nature (of person) أَخْلاق akhlāq
alam nature عالَم ʻālam: world, earth
alami natural عالَميّ ʻālamiyy
aljabar algebra الجَبْر al-jabr
amal alms giving, good deed عَمَل ʻamal: work
aman safe, secure أمان ʼamān
anda you (formal) أَنْتَ anta
asal origin أَصْل ʼaṣl
asas foundation, basis أَساس ʼasās
asasi foundational, basic أَساسيّ ʼasāsiyy
asli real, original أَصْليّ ʼaṣliyy
awal beginning أَوَّل ʼawwal
badan body بَدَن badan
bahari maritime, naval, of the sea بَحْريّ baḥriyy
batin inner self بَطْن baṭn: stomach
berkah, berkat blessing بَرَكة baraka
daftar list دَفْتَر daftar: notebook
dakwah sermon دَعْوة da'wa
dunia world دُنْيا dunyā
fakir poor person, pauper فَقير faqīr
hadiah gift, present هدية hadiyyah
halal religiously lawful حَلال ḥalāl
hak right حَقّ ḥaqq
hakikat truth, base حَقيقة ḥaqīqa
hakiki true, real حَقيقيّ ḥaqīqiyy
hakim judge (in court of law) حاكِم ḥākim
haram religiously unlawful حَرام ḥarām
harfiah literal حِرَفيّ ḥirafiyy
hayati living حَياتيّ ḥayātiyy
hewan animal حَيَوان ḥayawān
hikmah wisdom, deeper meaning حِكْمة ḥikma
hukum law حُكْم ḥukm
huruf letter (of an alphabet) حُروف ḥurūf
ijazah diploma إجازة ʼijāza: license
ikhlas sincere مخلَص mukhlāṣ
ikrar pledge, declaration إقْرار ʼiqrār
ilmiah scientific عِلْميّ ʻilmiyy
ilmu knowledge, science عِلْم ʻilm
istirahat rest, break, pause, recess اسْتَراحة istarāḥa
izin permission, to permit إذْن ʼidhn
jadwal schedule جَدْوَل jadwal
jahanam cursed, damned جَهَنَّم jahannam: hell
jahil prank, practical joke جاهِل jāhil: ignorant, uninformed
jawab answer جَواب jawāb
jenazah corpse جَنازة janāza: funeral
jilbab hijab, head covering جلباب jilbāb: loose coat
Jumat Friday الجُمْعة al-jumʻa
kabar news خَبَر khabar
kafan white shroud (to cover the dead) كَفَن kafan
kafir infidel كافِر kāfir
Kamis Thursday الخَميس al-khamīs
kamus dictionary قاموس qāmūs
kertas paper قِرْطاس qirṭās
khas specialty خاصّ khāṣṣ
khitan circumcision خِتان khitān
khusus special, particular خصوص khuṣūṣ
kitab religious book كِتاب kitāb
korban sacrifice قُرْبان qurbān
kuliah college كُلّيّة kulliyya: faculty
kurma date palm كَرْمة karma: grapevine
kursi chair كُرْسيّ kursiyy
kurun span (of time) قُرون qurūn: centuries
lahir to be born; physical, external, outer ظاهر ẓāhir
laskar soldier العَسْكَر al-ʻaskar
lisan verbally, tongue لِسان lisān
maaf sorry, to apologise ما أَفَّ ma affa
mahkamah court of law مَحْكَمة maḥkama
majelis assembly, board, council مَجْلِس majlis
makna meaning مَعْنًى maʻnan
maksud meaning, purpose مَقْصود maqsūd
maktub written مَكْتوب maktūb
malaikat angel مَلائكة malāʼika
masalah problem مَسْأَلة masʼala
masjid mosque مَسْجِد masjid
maut dead, deadly مَوْت mawt
menara tower مَنارة manāra
Mesir Egypt مِصْر miṣr
miskin poor مِسْكين miskīn
mubazir useless مُبَذِّر mubaḏḏir
muflis bankrupt مُفْلِس muflis
mungkin maybe مُمْكِن mumkin
munafik hypocrite مُنافِق munāfiq
murtad apostate مُرْتَدّ murtadd
musim season مَوْسِم mawsim
mustahil impossible مُسْتَحيل mustaḥīl
nabi prophet نَبيّ nabiiy
nafsu desire نَفْس nafs: self, soul
najis impure, unclean نَجِس najis
nasihat advice نَصيحة naṣīḥa
nikah to marry نيكَ niika
paham to understand فَهْم fahm
petuah lesson, advice فَتْوى fatwā
pikir to think فِكْر fikr
Rabu Wednesday الأَرْبِعاء al-ʼarbiʻāʼ
rahim uterus, womb رَحِم raḥim
rahmat blessing رَحْمة raḥma
rakyat people, citizen رَعيّة raʻiyya
rasul prophet, apostle رَسول rasūl
rehat, rihat rest راحة rāḥa
saat moment ساعة sāʻa: hour
sabar patient صَبْر ṣabr
Sabtu Saturday السَبْت as-sabt
sabun soap صابون ṣābūn
sahabat close friend صَحابة ṣaḥāba
salat to pray (for Muslims) صَلاة ṣalāh
saleh pious صالِح ṣāliḥ
salju snow ثَلْج thalj
saum fasting صَوْم ṣawm
sebab cause, reason سَبَب sabab
sedekah charitable gift, alms صَدَقة ṣadaqa
sehat healthy صِحّة ṣiḥḥa
selamat safe, well-being سَلامة salāma
Selasa Tuesday الثُلاثاء ath-thulāthāʼ
Senin Monday الإثْنَيْن al-ithnayn
serikat company, federation شَرِكَة syarika
siasat strategy, trick سِياسة siyāsa: policy, strategy
sifat characteristic, trait, quality صِفة ṣifa
soal question, problem سُؤال suʼāl
surat letter سورة sūra
subuh early morning صباح ṣabāḥ
sultan king سلطان sultan
syariat Islamic law شَريعة sharīʻa
syukur gratitude شُكْر shukr
taat obedient طاعة ṭāʿa
tabib traditional healer طَبيب ṭabīb
terjemah to translate تَرْجَمة tarjama
tertib orderly تَرْتيب tartīb
umum common, public عُموم ʻumūm
umur age عُمْر ʻumr
unsur element عُنْصُر ʻunṣur
wahid one, the only واحِد wāḥid
wajah face وَجْه wajh
waktu time وَقْت waqt
waris to inherit وارِث wārith
wilayah region, area وِلاية wilāya
yakin confidence, sureness, belief يَقين yaqīn
Yunani Greece يونان yūnān
zaitun olive زَيْتون zaytūn
zakar male genitalia ذَكَر dhakar
zakat alms زَكاة zakāh
zaman era زَمَن zaman
zamrud emerald زُمُرُّد zumurrud
ziarah pilgrimage زيارة ziyāra: visit
zinah adultery زِناء zināʼ

From Persian[edit]

Word Meaning Original word Transcription, notes
anggur grape انگور an-gur
bandar port بندر bandar
cadar veil چادر chādar
dewan assembly, meeting دیوان divan (administration)
firdaus eden, bountiful garden فردوس firdaus
gandum wheat گندم gandum
juang battle جنگ jang
kaisar emperor قیصر qeysar
kismis raisin کشمش kishmish
kurma date خرما khurmā
medan area, field, square میدان meidan
nakhoda captain of a ship ناخدا nākhodā
pahlawan hero پ‍ﮩ‍لوان pahlwān
pasar market/bazaar بازار bāzār
pesona charm افسون afsūn
piala cup, trophy پیاله pyāla (cup, bowl)
pirus turquoise سنگ فیروزه firuze
rubah fox روباه rubah
sihir magic سِحْر sihr
syahbandar portmaster شاهِ بندر shah-e bandar (lit. "king of the port")
takhta throne تخت takht
ustad teacher (religious, Islam) اُستَاذ ustad
zirah armor زره zirah

From Hebrew[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Hebrew
Word
Hebrew
Transliteration
Hebrew
Meaning
Note
bethel 1. holy place,
2. a Christian denomination
בֵּיתאֵל beth.el house of God usually loan rendered as bait Allah (bait is a loanword from the cognate word بَيْت (bayt) in Arabic).
haleluya alleluia, hallelujah הַלְּלוּיָהּ halleluya alleluia, hallelujah
mazmur psalms מזמור mizmor a lyric ode, or a song set to music see psalms.
rabi rabbi רַבִּי rab.bi rabbi
sabat shabbat שַׁבָּת‎‎ shab.bat shabbat 1. see Shabbat and Sabbath.
2. see also sabtu, loanword from Arabic.
Yahwe Yahweh יהוה‎ *see note Yahweh 1. see Yahweh, Judeo-Christian God.
2. see also tetragrammaton.

From East Asian languages[edit]

From Chinese[edit]

The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just exclusively things Chinese. According to the 2000 census, the relative number of people of Chinese descent in Indonesia (termed the peranakan) is almost 1% (totaling to about 3 million people, although this may likely be an underestimate due to an anti-Chinese sentiment that exists in some circles of the population), yet the peranakan are the most successful when it comes to business, trade, and cuisine.[citation needed] Words of Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien/ Mandarin pronunciation derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu – knife), mie (T:麵, S:面, Hokkien mī – noodles), lumpia (潤餅 (Hokkien = lūn-piáⁿ) – springroll), teko (T:茶壺, S:茶壶 = cháhú [Mandarin], teh-ko [Hokkien] = teapot), 苦力 kuli = 苦 khu (bitter) and 力 li (energy) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien 'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 你 – meaning 'I/ me' and 'you'). Almost all loanwords in Indonesian of Chinese origin come from Hokkien (福建) or Hakka (客家). Loan words in Indonesian with Chinese origins.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Chinese Character
(Traditional)
Chinese Character
(Simplified)
Chinese Variant Chinese Transliteration Chinese Meaning Note
acik, aci older women, such as older sister, aunt 阿姊 阿姊 Hakka â-chí, â-chè, â-che elder sister
Min Nan a-chí, a-ché
akeo son 阿哥 阿哥 Min Nan a-ko son
amah Chinese female house-assistant 阿嫲 阿嫲 Cantonese aa3 maa4 paternal grandmother
amoi Chinese girl 阿妹 阿妹 Hakka amoi younger sister
angciu cooking wine used for food flavour enhancer 紅酒 红酒 Min Nan âng-chiú red wine
angkak food coloring from rice fermentation by Monascus purpureus Min Nan âng-khak grains of red sticky rice (Oryza glutinosa), see also Monascus purpureus
anglo small stove 洪爐 洪炉 Min Nan âng-lô͘ furnace
ang.lung pavilion Min Nan âng-lô͘ red building perhaps related to "Dream of the Red Chamber" (紅樓夢, 红楼梦)
angpau, angpao gift money for Chinese New Year 紅包 红包 Min Nan âng-pau red envelope see also loanword from Mandarin "hongbao".
angsiau angsiau 紅燒 红烧 Min Nan âng-sio âng-sio type of cooking style in which fish or meat is braised in soy sauce
apek addressing parent, mister 阿伯 阿伯 Hakka â-pak paternal uncle, old man see also empek
baba, babah addressing Chinese male 爸爸 爸爸 Mandarin bàba father
bacang, bakcang glutinous rice dumpling filled with meat Min Nan bak cang sticky rice dumpling
batau mantou 麵頭 面头 Min Nan bán-thâu mantou
bak (Chinese black) ink Min Nan ba̍k 1. Chinese ink or ink in general,
2. black; ink-coloured; dark
bakiak wooden clog 木屐 木屐 Min Nan ba̍k-kia̍h clog
bakmie (meat) noodle Min Nan bah-mī meat noodle
bakpao, bakpau bun Min Nan bah-pâu meatbun
bakpia bakpia Min Nan bah-piáⁿ bakpia related to piáⁿ
bakso meatball ? ? Min Nan bah-kiû Meatball
baktau madam (of a brothel), procuress 媌頭 媌头 Min Nan bâ-thâu madam (of a brothel), procuress
bakwan bakwan 肉丸 肉丸 Min Nan bah-oân
ban ten thousand Min Nan bān ten thousand
banci (Malaysia) census 民籍 民籍 Cantonese man4-zik6 census
Min Nan bîn-chi̍p
bangking A pomegranate-shaped container from brass or lacquer 網筐 网筐 Min Nan bǎng-kheng round lacquer box for storing clothes
banji decorative grilles used in windows 卍字 卍字 Amoy bān jī swastika-like pattern in lattice work
barongsai, baronsai Chinese lion dance 弄獅 弄狮 Min Nan lāng-sai lion dance
becak, beca cycle rickshaw 馬車 馬車 Min Nan bé-chhia horse-drawn carriage
benteng defense building, defense wall 防城? 防城? Min Nan hông sêng
bihun rice vermicelli 米粉 米粉 Min Nan bí-hún 1. rice vermicelli
2. rice flour
bohsia (Malaysia) pleasure-loving girl 無聲 无声 Min Nan bô-siaⁿ pleasure-loving girl? noiseless; voiceless; silent
boksu Chinese Christian pastor 牧師 牧师 Min Nan bo̍k-su pastor, minister, clergyman, priest, chaplain
bokcoi bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) 白菜 白菜 Min Nan be̍h-chhài bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis)
bolui have no money 沒鐳 没镭 Min Nan bu̍t-lûi have no money
bong Chinese graveyard Min Nan bōng tomb
bongmeh feel the pulse, feel the feeling 摸脈 摸脉 Min Nan bong-me̍h to feel the pulse
bongpai gravestone 墓碑 墓碑 Min Nan bōng-pi grave stele
bopeng pockmarked 麻斑 麻斑 Min Nan môa/bâ-pan pockmarked
bopok 1. heavyly damaged,
2. too frail
無卜 无卜 Min Nan bô-pok not going to; will not
boto (Jakarta) beautiful 無_ 无_
bungkuk slouch, gibbous
bun small brass box Min Nan bûn to cover
ca Cuisine made from a mixture of meat (shrimp) and vegetables (mushrooms, petai, broccoli, bamboo shoots, cauliflower), little broth and starch Hokkien
Teochew
chhá
ca2
to stir fry, to sauté
cabo (Jakarta) prostitute, whore (woman) 查某 查某 Min Nan cha-bó͘ woman, girl
caima nuns in the temple who served to help the dead 菜媽 菜马 Min Nan chhài-má vegetarian nun, or woman
caisim Green mustard, Brassica chinensis 菜心 菜心 Min Nan chhài-sim Choy sum
cakiak wooden clog 柴屐 柴屐 Min Nan chhâ-kia̍h wooden clog
calo passenger recruiter, ticket scalper
broker
查佬 查佬 Cantonese caa4-lou2,lou5,liu4 man who guides passengers to bus or train for payment, broker
calui like to eat money (like to accept bribes or bribe) 食鐳 食镭 Min Nan chia̍h-lûi, chiā-lûi to take bribes
camca teaspoon 茶勺 茶勺 Min Nan chhâ-chiak teaspoon
cang snacks made from glutinous sticky rice, chopped meat, wrapped with bamboo leaves and steamed (tasty savory)
Min Nan chàng zongzi
cah vegetable dishes (mustard greens, mushrooms, shrimp, chicken liver, and so on) are a little juicy Min Nan chhá
ca2
to stir fry, to sauté
cap ten Min Nan cha̍p ten
cap cai stir fried vegetable dish 杂菜 杂菜 Min Nan cha̍p-chhài mixed vegetables
capgome lantern festival, part of Chinese new year 十五暝 十五冥 Min Nan cha̍p-gō͘-mê
cha̍p-gǒ͘-mê
lantern festival, part of Chinese new year
capjiki lottery twelve numbers (letters) 十二枝 十二枝 Min Nan cha̍p-jī-ki
cat paint Min Nan chhat 1. varnish, lacquer, paint
2. varnish tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum)
catut 1. tweezers.
2. tongs, pincers.
3. black marketer, scalper, corrupter.
查突 查突 Min Nan châ-tu̍t man who guides passengers to bus or train for payment, broker
cau leave, bye Min Nan cháu, chó͘, chó to go, to leave
cawan cup 茶碗 茶碗 Mandarin cháwǎn teacup
ceban ten thousand 一萬 一万 Min Nan chi̍t-bān ten thousand
cece great-grandchildren
ceceng one thousand 一千 一千 Min Nan chi̍t-chheng one thousand
cek elder sister

Min Nan ché elder sister
cekak 1. size of circumference,
2. too small, not enough
ceki gambling with small rectangular cards 一枝 一枝 Min Nan chi̍t-ki
cemeh one eye blindness 睛盲 睛盲 Min Nan chhéng-mêe blind
cempiang warrior, ace 舂柄 舂柄 Min Nan cheng-pèng gang, robber
cengbeng tomb-sweeping day 清明 清明 Min Nan chheng-bêng qingming
cengkau broker 成交 成交 Min Nan sêng-kau to close a deal; to conclude a transaction
cengkeh banker (gambling) 莊家 莊家 Min Nan chong-kee 1. banker (gambling)
2. farmhouse
cengli 1. should be, reasonable
2. fair, honest
情理 情理 Min Nan chêng-lí reasonable
cepek one hundred 一百 一百 Min Nan chi̍t-pah one hundred
cepeng half a cent 一爿 一爿 Min Nan chi̍t-pêng half a cent
ci weight unit: 1/10 tahil (for opium) Min Nan chîⁿ money; a measure of weight for opium
ciaciu sitting party 餐桌 餐桌 Cantonese caan1 coek3 dining table
ciak, cia to eat Min Nan chiā to eat
cialat misfortune 食力 食力 Min Nan chiā-lia̍k misfortune, bad luck; difficult
ciami, ciamik extraordinarily good 食飽未? 食饱未?
cici elder sister 姐姐 姐姐 Min Nan chiá-chiá elder sister
cik elder sister

Min Nan ché elder sister
cim, encim married Chinese woman Min Nan chím aunt (wife of father’s younger brother)
cincai, cingcai flexible 凊彩 凊彩 Min Nan chhìn-chhái 1. any,
2. casual; easygoing
cincau, camcao, cingcau Cyclea barbata, and its grass or leaves jelly product 仙草 仙草 Min Nan sian-chháu Chinese mesona (Platostoma palustre), and its grass jelly product
cincu 1. ship owner representative,
2. ship captain
船主 船主 Min Nan chûn-chú shipowner
cingge cingge, march of people 妝藝 妆艺 Min Nan chng-gē cingge
ciu triple layer mat with gold decoration Min Nan chhio̍h mat
ciu, cu spirits, liquor Min Nan chiú alcoholic drink
ciut 1. narrow,
2. small-minded
Min Nan chiak, chek 1. narrow, tight
2. narrow-minded
cokek Betawi folk dance 唱曲 唱曲 Min Nan chhiòⁿ-khek sing
song
comblang (Jakarta) matchmaking 作媒人 作媒人 Min Nan chok-m̂-lâng matchmaker
compoh ship chef 總舖 总铺 Min Nan chóng-phò͘ chef
cong.ki xiangqi, the Chinese chess 象棋 象棋 Min Nan chhiōⁿ-kî xiangqi, the Chinese chess
cua afraid, tremble Min Nan 1. to fear; to be afraid,
2. to scare; to frighten
cuki xiangqi, game like dam 象棋 象棋 Min Nan chhiǔⁿ-kî, chhiūⁿ-kî, chhiōⁿ-kî xiangqi
cukin small drap covering the chest during meal 手巾 手巾 Min Nan chhiú-kin (hand) towel, handkerchief
cukong tycoon 主公 主公 Min Nan chú-kong Your Excellency; His Excellency
culan pacar cina (Aglaia odorata) 珠蘭 珠兰 Min Nan chu-lân
cun length unit 1/10 feet Min Nan chhùn
cunia large boat for transporting goods 船仔 船仔 Min Nan chûn-á a boat
dacin balance scale 檯秤 台秤 Min Nan tâi-chhèng platform scales
dimsum dim sum 點心 点心 Cantonese dim2 sam1 1. snack, light refreshment,
2. dim sum
ebi dried prawns, shrimps 蝦米 虾米 Min Nan hê-bí
hêe-bí
dried prawns, shrimps see also ebi in Japanese
empek father 阿伯 阿伯 Min Nan a-peh paternal uncle, old man see also, apek
empo to carry on the waist Min Nan phǒ͘, phō, phǒ 1. to heft in the arms; to carry
2. to hug; to embrace
encek pure-blood Chinese man 阿叔 阿叔 Min Nan a-chek uncle (father's younger brother)
engkah, kah sap (to attach wood), adhesive, glue 黃膠 黄胶 Min Nan n̂g-ka (yellow) glue, adhesive, gum, resin
engkoh elder brother 阿哥 阿哥 Min Nan a-ko elder brother
engkong grandfather 阿公 阿公 Min Nan a-kong paternal grandfather, maternal grandfather
engku maternal uncle 阿舅 阿舅 Min Nan a-kū, a-kǔ maternal uncle
esai can, may 會使 会使 Min Nan ē-sái, ē-saih, ě-sái can, may
fengsui,
hongsui
feng shui 風水 风水 Mandarin
Min Nan
fēngshuǐ
hong-súi
feng shui
gua I (slang) Min Nan góa I (first person, singular)
gincu 1. lipstick,
2. (cake, cookie) coloring
銀硃
銀朱
银朱 Min Nan gîn-chu
ginkang body movement mastery through inner power 輕功 轻功 Min Nan khin-kang
gingseng Pandare aralia ginseng 人參
人蔘
人参 Min Nan jîn-song ginseng (Panax sp.)
giok (batu giok) jade Min Nan gio̍k 1. jade (originally nephrite, now also including jadeite),
2. precious stone; gem,
3. pure; beautiful
giwang earring 耳環 耳环 Hakka ngí-vàn earring
gobang, benggol copper money with value 2.5 cent 五半 五半 Min Nan gō͘, gǒ͘, ngó͘, gó͘-
pòaⁿ, poàn
gocap fifty 五十 五十 Min Nan gǒ͘-cha̍p
gō͘-cha̍p
gongli girl who prostitutes herself for pleasure solely without fee 戇女 戆女 Min Nan gōng-lí stupid; foolish; simple; simple-minded + woman
gong xi fat cai 恭喜發財 恭喜发财 Mandarin gōngxǐfācái A Chinese new year greeting, literally "congratulations and be prosperous".
gopek five hundred 五百 五百 Min Nan
Hakka
gō͘-pah, gǒ͘-pah
ńg-pak
five hundred
gotun five 五百 五百 Min Nan gō͘-tún, gǒ͘-tún five shield
five (money)
money in this case refers to đồng, guilder, gulden, or rupiah
guci shiny-coated pitchers 罐子 罐子 Min Nan
Cantonese
koàn-chí
gun3 zi2
small jar
guo nian hao Mandarin A Chinese new year greeting.
haisom sea cucumber 海參
海蔘
海参 Min Nan hái-som sea cucumber
hap tin receptacle for prepared opium Hokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
ha̍p,a̍h,a̍p
ab8
hap6,hap6-2,haap6
(small) box; case
hia baru cina (Artemisia vulgaris) Min Nan hiāⁿ artemisia, mugwort
hio joss stick, Chinese incense Min Nan hioⁿ 1. fragrant; fragrance, perfume
2. joss stick; incense
hisit shark fin 魚翅 鱼翅 Min Nan hî-chhì shark fin
hengkang 1. retreat,
2. escape
解間? 解间? -kan, -gang1
hoana non-Han 番仔 番仔 Min Nan hoan-á non-Han
hoki luck, fortune 福氣 福气 Min Nan hok-khì good fortune
honcoe tobacco, opium pipe 煙吹
菸吹
烟吹 Min Nan ian-chhoe tobacco, opium pipe
honghouw queen 王后 王后 Min Nan
Hakka
Cantonese
ông-hō͘
vông-heu
wong5 hau6
queen consort
hongbao gift money for Chinese New Year 紅包 红包 Mandarin hóngbāo red envelope see also loanword from Min Nan "angpau".
Hokkian, Hokkien Fujian 福建 福建 Min Nan hok-kiàn Fujian see also fuk-kian, fuk-kien (Hakka) and fújiàn (Mandarin)
Hongkong, Hong Kong Hong Kong 香港 香港 Cantonese
Hakka
Min Nan
Min Nan
hoeng1 gong2
hiông-kóng
hiong-káng,
hiang-káng
hong kong
hopeng trusted relation 好朋友 好朋友 Min Nan
Hakka
hó-pêng-iú
hó-phèn-yû
good friend
Honji Chinese characters, Han characters 漢字 汉字 Cantonese
Min Nan
Hakka
Mandarin
hon-jih, hon3 zi6
hàn-jī, hàn-lī
hon55 sii55, hon-sṳ
hànzì
Chinese characters, Han characters
huakiau, hoakiau overseas Chinese 華僑 华侨 Min Nan hôa-kiâu, hoa-kiâu overseas Chinese
hujin, hunjin contribution money 分銀 分银 Min Nan hùn-gîn part, responsibility + money
hun weight measurement unit 1/100 taels = 0,378 g Min Nan hun minute see Chinese units of measurement
hunkue mung bean (Vigna radiata) flour, and its pastery 粉粿 粉粿 Min Nan hún-kóe, hún-ké fun guo
hwahwee Chinese association 華會 华会 Min Nan hôa-hōe Chinese association see Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK), Chung Hwa Hwee Koan, (中华会馆)
hwee association Min Nan hōe association
imlek Chinese lunar calendar 陰曆 阴历 Min Nan im-le̍k, im-lia̍k (Chinese) lunar calendar
incar drill (for boring holes) 引插 引插 Min Nan íⁿ, ín
chhah, chhap
to pull, to lead + to insert
jelangkung, jailangkung doll for spirit calling 伽籃公 伽篮公 Min Nan
Hakka
ch’ai-lâm-kong
kia làm kûng
jepang Japan 日本 日本 Min Nan ji̍t-pún Japan
ji two Min Nan two
jibun many 十分 十分 Min Nan si̍p-hun very, extremely, (lit. part of tenth)
jicap twenty 二十 二十 Min Nan jī-cha̍p twenty
jicapgo twenty five 二十五 二十五 Min Nan jī-cha̍p-gō͘ twenty five
jicing opium dust 煙燼
菸燼
烟烬 Cantonese jin1
zeon2, zeon6
smoke, tobacco, opium
cinders, ashes, embers
jinsom ginseng, root preparation 人參
人蔘
人参 Min Nan jîn-song ginseng (Panax sp.)
jintan Carum roxburghianum 仁丹 仁丹 Min Nan jîn-tan  ?
jitu accurate, precise 得著 得着 Min Nan tit-tio̍h 1. to get, to obtain, to receive
2. something gained (usually intangible)
 ?
jok seat, padded seating Min Nan
Cantonese
jio̍k
juk6
1. cotton-padded mattress, mattress, cushion
2. bedding
juhi dried squid 鰇魚 鰇魚 Min Nan jiû-hî squid
jung boat, Chinese junk Hokkien
Teochew
chûn, soân
zung5
boat, Chinese junk
kakak older sibling
addressing someone slightly older
哥哥 哥哥 Min Nan koko older brother, elder brother, big brother
kaleng tin, can
kalo strainer 過濾 过滤 Min Nan kè-lū to filter
kampuh covering 蓋布
蓋佈
盖布 Min Nan kah-pò͘ to put on, to apply,
cloth; textiles
kamsia to thank, to be grateful, to be appreciative 感謝 感谢 Min Nan kám-siā to thank, to be grateful, to be appreciative
kana 1. preserved olives
2. bunga tasbih (Canna oriantalis)
橄欖 橄榄 Min Nan káⁿ-ná, kaⁿ-ná, kán-ná, kan-ná Chinese olive (Canarium album), which is dried or candied, or are eaten (the nuts)
kang a large wide-mouthed bathing-jar Min Nan kong, kng earthen jug, crock, cistern
kangka gambier (Uncaria gambir) plantation
kangtau unexpected fortune, opportunity 空頭 空头 Min Nan khang-thâu 1. nominal; phony
2. (stock exchange) bear, shorts
kantong pocket
kau nine Min Nan káu nine
kau dog Min Nan káu dog
kecap soy sauce 茄汁 茄汁 Cantonese ke4-2 zap1 1. tomato juice
2. ketchup
ketchup is saus tomat, not kecap
kecoak (Jakarta) cockroach 虼蚻 虼蚻 Min Nan ka-choa̍h, kǎ-choa̍h, ka-chōa cockroach
kelong large sea fish trap with two or three compartments 雞籠, 鷄籠 鸡笼 Min Nan kelông, kelóng batteries (cages for hen)
kemoceng feather duster 雞毛筅
鷄毛筅
鷄毛鸡 Min Nan ke-mo͘ -chhéng, ke-mô͘-chhéng chicken+ feather+ brush
kenceng drill worked with a bow 弓鑽 弓钻 Min Nan keng-chǹg bow+drill
kerangkeng cage 空間 -间 Min Nan khang-keng empty room
kiaupau population 僑胞 侨胞 Min Nan kiâu-pau countryman living abroad, overseas compatriots
kimantu pure-blood Chinese 飢滿肚 饥满肚 Hakka
Min Nan
kî mân tú
ki-móa-tǒ͘
kimlo soup vegetable with meat 金爐 金炉 Min Nan kîm-lù
kin a unit of weight, catty; = 16 niún (= 600 gms) Min Nan kin catty, a unit of weight
kio stretcher 轿 Min Nan kiō palanquin, litter
kipsiau teapot 急燒 急燒 Min Nan kip-siau quick heat
kiwi supercargo, guest in ship 客位 客位 Min Nan kheeh-ūi guest+position
klenteng Chinese folk religion temple 觀音亭 觀音亭 Min Nan koan-im-têng Guanyin temple
koa name of game Min Nan kòa
kolesom ginseng 高麗參
高麗蔘
高麗参 Min Nan ko-lê-sim, ko-lê-sam, ko-lê-som Korean ginseng
Kong hu chu, kong cu Confucius, Confucianism 孔夫子
孔子
孔夫子
孔子
Min Nan Khóng Hu-chú
Khóng-chú
Confucius
kongkalikong intrigue, connivance with, gang up with, be in collusion with 公共你講 公共你讲 Min Nan kong-kā-lí-kóng public-shares-you-discuss
kongko (Jakarta) meaningless talk 講古 讲古 Min Nan kóng-kó͘ to tell stories
kongkoan 1. public building,
2. Chinese council building
公館 公馆 Min Nan kong-koán 1. imperial guesthouse,
2. grand residence of rich or important person
kongsi 1. commmercial association, partnership.
2. group, association.
3. landlord office
公司 公司 Min Nan kong-si 1. company, firm, corporation
2. Kongsi, clan hall
konian, kweni Chinese new year celebration 過年 过年 Hakka
Min Nan
ko-ngièn,ko-ngiàn
kè-nî,kèr-nî,kòe-nî
1. to spend (celebrate) the Chinese New Year
2. (colloquial) next year
koteng alone, friendless 孤丁 孤丁 Min Nan ko͘-teng loneliness+person
koyo medicinal plaster 膏藥 膏药 Hakka
Min Nan
kâu-yo̍k, kò-yo̍k
ko-io̍h, ko͘-io̍h
herbal plaster; medicated patch; poultice
ku tortoise; cake Min Nan ku, kui turtle; tortoise
kuaci watermelon seed, dried. 瓜子 瓜子 Min Nan koa-chí edible seed consumed as a snack
kuali pot, frying pan 罐_
鍋_
罐_
锅_
Min Nan koàn-
ko-
tin, jar
kucai Allium adorum 韭菜
韮菜
韭菜 Min Nan kú-chhài garlic chives; Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum) In Hakka, Allium tuberosum is 快菜 (khuai-chhoi, kuai4 coi4)
kue cake, pastries 粿 粿 Min Nan kóe rice cake
kuli slave, labourer 苦力 苦力 Min Nan ku-lí 1. labor; hard work
2. coolie; laborer
kui small casket
kungfu kung fu 功夫 功夫 Hakka
Cantonese
kûng-fû
gung1 fu1
kung fu
kungtau fist 拳頭 拳头 Min Nan kûn-thâu fist
kuntuan satin-like silk 裙緞 裙缎 Min Nan kûn-toān skirt, apron, dress
satin
kwetiau, kuetiau kway teow (flat noodle) 粿條 粿条 Min Nan kóe-tiâu kway teow
lampan to mine, to mold 淋板 淋板 Min Nan lâm-pán to pour + tin plate
lan phosphorus Cantonese leon4, leon6 phosphorus
lancia Two-wheeled carts, moved by people. rickshaw 人車 人车 Min Nan lâng-chhia rickshaw
langkan 1. balcony.
2. balustrade, railing.
欄杆 栏杆 Min Nan lân-kan railing, handrail, banister
langsai 1. paid, settled (debt).
2. curtain
langseng steamer basket 籠床
籠牀
笼床 Min Nan lâng-sn̂g steamer basket
lengkeng longan (Euphoria longana) 龍眼 龙眼 Min Nan lêng-kéng longan (Euphoria longana)
lianglong Chinese dragons played by a number of people 亮龍 亮龙 Min Nan liāng-liông bright+dragon
lici, leci lychee (Litchi chinensis) 荔枝 荔枝 Min Nan lē-chi lychee (Litchi chinensis)
lihai skillful 厲害 厉害 Min Nan lī-hāi fierce, serious
(informal) excellent; amazing; fantastic
ling measurement unit
lio burning bricks (tiles) Min Nan liâu shanty, hut, shack
liong Chinese dragon Min Nan liông Chinese dragon
lisong cigar
loak 1. second-hand,
2. trash bins
Min Nan lôa bamboo basket
lobak radish (Raphanus sativus) 蘿蔔 萝卜 Cantonese lo4 baak6 1. radish,
2. turnip,
3. daikon; Chinese radish
loceng bell 亂鐘 Min Nan lōan-cheng alarm clock
lokcuan Chinese silk 羅串 罗串 Min Nan lô-chhoàn, lô͘ -chhoàn
loki prostitutes 老妓 老妓 Min Nan ló͘, ló
kī, ki
old, experienced, always
prostitutes, female entertainer
lokio bawang batak, chives. (Allium schoenoprasum) 蕗蕎 蕗蕎 Min Nan lō͘-kiō, lō͘-giō scallion
loknan hardship 落難 落难 Cantonese lok6 naan6 to meet with misfortune; to be in distress
loksek bankrupt 蕗息 蕗息 Cantonese lok6 sik1 fall down+to cease
loksun dry cough 咯咯聲 咯咯聲 Cantonese lok1 lok1 seng1 cackle, chuck  ?
loktong prostitutes 樂桶 乐桶 Min Nan lo̍k-thóng enjoy, love  ?
loleng paper lantern 牢籠 Min Nan lô-lang  ?
lonte prostitute
loténg, laoteng 2nd storey of a house, attic 樓頂 楼顶 Min Nan lâu-téng upstair
lu you (slang)

Min Nan
you (second person, singular)
lumpia spring roll 潤餅 润饼 Min Nan lǔn-piáⁿ spring roll
makao woven yarn of cotton yarn, whitish color 馬狗 má-káu Macau
makaopo prostitute 馬狗婆 má-káu-pô͘ Macau
mesiu gunpowder 芒硝 芒硝 Min Nan mêe-siau 1. mirabilite,
2. sodium sulfate
mi, mie noodle Min Nan
Hakka

mien
flour, dough, noodle
mihun rice vermicelli 麵粉, 麪粉 面粉 Min Nan mī-hún flour
misoa misua 麵線, 麪線 面线 Min Nan mī-soàⁿ flour
mopit Chinese writing brush 毛筆 毛笔 Min Nan mô͘-pit calligraphy brush, inkbrush
mua eel Min Nan môa eel
nanyang Southeast Asia (nanyang) 南洋 南洋 Mandarin nányáng southern ocean
nopek two hundred 兩百 两百 Min Nan nō͘ -pah two hundred
nyolo censer 香爐 香炉 Min Nan hiuⁿ-lô͘ incense burner
nyonya madame, lady 娘惹 娘惹 Cantonese noeng3 ja1 beloved perfect woman
o black Min Nan black, dark such as in Kopi O
ong emperor, king Min Nan ông king, monarch, champion
ongji license, permit

Min Nan ông
king, monarch, champion
word, letter, contract
允許 允许 Min Nan ún-hí to permit, to allow
oto bib 圍兜 围兜 Min Nan û-to͘ bib
pai to pay respect with hands clasped before the chest Min Nan pài to do obeisance; bow; kowtow
pakau a Chinese card game 拍九 拍九 Min Nan phah-káu  ?
pakpui divination 卜杯 卜杯 Min Nan pok-poe
pangkin, pangkeng sleeping room, bed 房間 房间 Min Nan pâng-kuiⁿ, pâng-keng room
panglong lumber mill 枋廊 枋廊 Min Nan pang-lông timber gallery
pangsi black silk 紡絲 纺丝 Min Nan pháng-si spin, weave
silk
 ?
pangsi black silk 墨絲 墨丝 Min Nan ba̍k-si dark, black
silk
 ?
pangsit wonton 扁食 扁食 Min Nan pián-si̍t wonton
papa father, sir 爸爸 爸爸 Min Nan pa-pa, pa-pah father, sir
patka a talisman in the form of a sheet of paper written with Chinese characters 八卦 八卦 Min Nan pat-kòa eight divinatory trigrams of the I Ching
pauhi abalone 鮑魚 鲍鱼 Min Nan pau-hî abalone
pao-pao, opau small pocket 荷包 荷包 Min Nan hô-pau small pocket
pecai, pakcoi napa cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis) 白菜 白菜 Min Nan pe̍h-chhài napa cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis)
pecun, pehcun Dragon Boat Festival 扒船 扒船 Min Nan pê-chûn rowing
pehong venereal disease, syphilis 病瘋
瘡痕
病毒
病疯
瘡痕
病毒
Min Nan pēng-hong
chhng-hûn
pīⁿ-to̍k, pēⁿ-to̍k
fast+ill
sore
virus
 ?
pengki dustpan 畚箕 畚箕 Min Nan pun-kî bamboo or wicker scoop; dustpan
pia bet, stake Min Nan piàⁿ risk
picis ten cent 貝子 贝子 Min Nan
Hakka
pòe-chí
pi chṳ́
small shellfish, currency
pit Chinese brush Min Nan pit Chinese brush
pisau knife 匕首 匕首 Cantonese
Min Nan
bei6 sau2
pí-siú
dagger
po a gambling game Min Nan pó, pó͘ a kind of gambling device
poko bijanggut Mentha (Mentha arvensis) 薄荷 薄荷 Min Nan po̍h-hô, po̍k-hô mint (Mentha) plants, including peppermint
poo oil extract from merdinah (Mentha merdinah) and poko (Mentha orvensib) 薄荷 薄荷 Min Nan po̍h-hô, po̍k-hô mint (Mentha) plants, including peppermint
popi doll 保庇 Min Nan pó-pì to protect
potehi Chinese glove puppetry 布袋戲 布袋戏 Min Nan pò͘-tē-hì glove puppetry
potia overseer 部長 部長 Min Nan pō͘-tiúⁿ head of department, section chief
puatang fail, unlukcy 破桶 破桶 Min Nan phòa-tháng broken drum
punci alright, fortunately 本錢 本钱 Min Nan pún-chîⁿ capital, position, skill, experience
puyonghai, fuyonghai egg foo yung 芙蓉蛋 芙蓉蛋 Cantonese fu4 jung4 daan6-2 egg foo yung
芙蓉蟹 芙蓉蟹 Cantonese fu4 jung4 haai5 egg foo yung with crab
sam three Min Nan saⁿ, sam three
sai lion Min Nan sai lion
sampan sampan, a kind of boat 舢板
三板
舢板
三板
Min Nan san-pán sampan
samseng to go to someone mourning 三牲 三牲 Min Nan sam-sng, sam-seng three domestic animals three domestic animals (cattle, sheep, and pigs) used as sacrificed offerings during mourning.
samsu sugarcane liquor 三燒 三燒 Cantonese saam1 siu1 lit. thrice burnt
seh surname Min Nan
Cantonese
sèng, sìⁿ, sèⁿ
sing3, seng3
surname
samcam three-layered pork cut 三層 三层 Min Nan sam-chàn lit. three layer
sate satay 三疊 三叠 Min Nan saⁿ-tha̍h lit. three layer  ?
sekoteng a ginger-flavoured hot drink 四果湯 四果汤 Min Nan sì-kó͘,kó-thng,thong
sentiong Chinese graveyard 新塚 新塚 Min Nan sin-thióng new graveyard
si four Min Nan sì, sù, sìr four
sian such Min Nan siang towards each other, one another
siantan Ixora concinna 仙丹花 仙丹花 Min Nan sian-tan Ixora chinensis lit. elixir of life
siau cooled Min Nan siau dissolve, remove, lost weight, cost
sie-sie thanks 謝謝 谢谢 Mandarin xièxie thanks
sikak piece of iron starfruit (weapon) 四角 四角 Min Nan sì-kak four angle, four corner perhaps like caltrop or shuriken
sin.cia Chinese new year 新正 新正 Min Nan sin-chiaⁿ first month of the lunar new year, first day of the lunar new year, Chinese new year
sin.ci spirit tablet 神位 神位 Min Nan sîn-ūi spirit tablet
singkék Chinese newcomer (derogative), pure blooded Chinese, i.e. not of mixed ancestry 新客 新客 Min Nan sin-khek new guest, new outsider, new Hakka
singkong cassava (Manihot esculenta) 新光 新光 sin-kong new, fresh; bright  ?
sinsé Chinese medicine practitioner 先生 先生 Min Nan sin-seⁿ doctor, teacher see also sensei, Japanese loanword.
sio, shio Chinese zodiac 生肖 生肖 Min Nan sng-siàu, seng-siàu Chinese zodiac
sioca miss (term of address) 小姐 小姐 Min Nan sió-chiá, sia̋u-chê miss (term of address), young lady, prostitute
siong cigarette with rhubarb and incense



Min Nan siông
sang, song
siong, siòng
pear, fir
loose, relax
minister (Chinese chess)
siongka dammar gum, rosin 松膠 松膠 Min Nan siông-ka pine + resin, gum (松香, 松脂)
siuh "be off" Min Nan siu to put something away
siomay, siomai shumai (wrapped and steamed with fillings) 燒賣 烧卖 Min Nan sio-māi shumai
soe bad luck Min Nan soe 1. to grow weak, to decrease in strength
2. to have poor luck
sohun cellophane noodles, Chinese vermicelli 索粉 索粉 Min Nan soh-hún cellophane noodles, Chinese vermicelli synonym of 冬粉
soja to bow 作揖 作揖 Cantonese zok3 jap1 make a bow with hands clasped
som folds on the fabric edge Min Nan sûn border of a piece of clothing
sosi key 鎖匙 锁匙 Hokkien
Teochew
Hakka
Cantonese
só-sî
so2 si5
só-sṳ́, só-sṳ̀
so2 si4
key
soto soto 燒肚 烧肚 Min Nan sio-to cook + animal stomach (as food)  ?
shou sui to stay up late or all night on New Year's Eve 守歲 守岁 Mandarin shǒusuì to stay up late or all night on New Year's Eve
suah already, finished Min Nan soah finish, complete
suceng square, honest 四正 四正 Min Nan
Cantonese
sì-chiàⁿ
si3 zeng3
neat and proper
suhian brothel 私軒 私轩 Min Nan su-hian personal, private + pavilion
suhu teacher of the art of (Chinese) self-defence 師父 师父 Min Nan su-hū master, master worker
sun tobacco Min Nan sûn pure, clean
swike swikee 水雞
水鷄
水鸡 Min Nan súi-ke frog
swipoa, sempoa abacus, suanpan 算盤 算盘 Min Nan sǹg-pôaⁿ suanpan see soroban, Japanese loanword.
Sun Go Kong Sun Wukong 孫悟空 孙悟空 Min Nan Sun Ngō͘-khong Sun Wukong, Goku see also Son Goku from Japanese loan word.
taci elder sister 大姊 大姊 Min Nan tōa-chí, tōa-ché elder sister
tahang barrel Min Nan thóng pail, bucket
tahu tofu 豆腐 豆腐 Min Nan tāu-hū tofu, bean curd see also tofu, from Japanese
taifun tropical cyclone 颱風 台风 Hakka thòi-fûng tropical cyclone
taiko wealthy businessman
leprosy 癩哥 癞哥 Min Nan thái-ko leprosy (癩⿸疒哥)
Hakka thái-kô
taipan conglomerate 大班 大班 Cantonese daai6 baan1 tai-pan
takwa Chinese long gown 大褂 大褂 Min Nan tā-kòa Chinese long gown see Changshan (長衫, 长衫) or changpao (長袍, 长袍)
tangki, teng container 桶仔 桶仔 Min Nan tháng-chír small pail, bucket
tangkue sweetened dried melon slices 冬瓜 冬瓜 Min Nan tang-koe, tang-koa winter melon (Benincasa hispida)
tanglung lantern 燈籠 Min Nan teng-lang lantern
tangsi barrack 團舍 团舍 Min Nan thn̂g-sià barrack
taocang pigtail, braid 頭鬃 头鬃 Min Nan thâu-chang hair
taoci fish paste 豆豉 豆豉 Min Nan tāu-sīⁿ, tāu-sī douchi douchi, a food product made from salted, fermented black soybeans
taoco, tauco preserved food from bean, salted 豆醬 豆酱 Min Nan tāu-chiòⁿ tauco
taoge, tauge, toge bean sprout 豆芽 豆芽 Min Nan tāu-gê
tāu-gêe
bean sprout
taosi douchi 豆豉 豆豉 Min Nan tāu-sīⁿ, tāu-sī douchi douchi, a food product made from salted, fermented black soybeans
tauke, taoke, toke business owner, boss 頭家 头家 Min Nan thâu-ke business owner, boss
teh tea Min Nan tea
teko tea pot 茶壺 茶壶 Min Nan tê-ô͘, têe-ô͘, tē-ô͘ teapot
tekoh person in charge in store 大哥 大哥 Min Nan tōa-ko 1. eldest brother,
2. a term of address
tekoan tea pot 茶罐 茶罐 Min Nan tê-kuàn earthenware tea pot
tekong helmsman 舵舟 舵舟 Min Nan tō-chiu helmsman
tekpi, tikpi tekpi, short-handled trident 雙短鞭
鐵鞭
双短鞭
铁鞭
Min Nan pian-té-piⁿ
thih-piⁿ
double short whip/weapon
iron whip, chain whip
teng Chinese lantern Min Nan teng lamp, light, lantern
tengkoh prepared opium 燈膏 燈膏 Min Nan teng-ko, ko͘, kō lamp, light, lantern + to apply
tepo a gambling game
teyan fundrising 題捐 题捐 Min Nan tê-iân, tôe-iân to collect donations
tiam blow, hit, stroke Min Nan tiám to point, dot, place
tiap key money Min Nan thiap note, dose, submission
tim to stew by cooking in a covered pot Min Nan tīm to re-heay food
ting lantern Min Nan teng lantern
Tionghoa Chinese 中華 中华 Min Nan tiong-hôa Chinese
Tiongkok China 中國 中国 Min Nan tiong-kok China
to Taoist Min Nan way, path, road
to to go bankrupt Min Nan tó, tó͘, táu, tho̍h to go bankrupt, to close down
Toapekong, tohkong 1. Chinese god who worshipped in the temple,
2. Chinese temple
大道公 大道公 Min Nan Tāi-tō-kong Baosheng Dadi, a Chinese god.
tobang cook 廚房 厨房 Min Nan tû-pâng kitchen
toh birthmark
toko small shop 土庫 土库 Min Nan thó͘-khò͘ local storehouse
tong barrel Min Nan thóng pail, bucket
tongkang barge 艟舡 Min Nan tông-kang
tongsan to go home 唐山 唐山 Min Nan tn̂g-soaⁿ (mainland) China, Tang mountain, Tangshan
tongsit hair bun 唐式 唐式 Min Nan tn̂g-sit Tang (China) + model, fashion
topan, taupan, tofan windstorm 大風 大风 Hakka thai-fûng windstorm
topeng mask 倒反 倒反 Min Nan tò-péng another side
topo rag, cloth used for cleaning 桌布 桌布 Min Nan toh-pò͘ tablecloth
toya long stick (weapon) 槌仔 槌仔 Min Nan thûi-á
tui to gamble Min Nan tó͘ to gamble
to do again, false start Min Nan tó͘ to return
tukang 1. craftsmaster, artisan,
2. a rough person
土工 土工 Min Nan thó͘-kang construction worker
tun rupiah as 1 rupiah, 100 rupiah Min Nan tún, tún 1. shield,
2. money
money in this case refer to đồng, guilder; gulden, or rupiah
ubin floortile 油面 油面 Min Nan iû-bin to paint + surface
ungti big puppet with person inside
vetsin,
micin, pécin
glutamate flavoring 味精 味精 Mandarin wèijīng 1. glutamate flavoring,
2. Ve-tsin, glutamate flavoring product from Tien Chun
Cantonese mei6 zing1
Hakka mi-chîn
waitangkung a gymnastics 外丹功 外丹功 Mandarin wàidāngōng
wangkang canoe Min Nan báng-kah outrigger canoe disputed, considered a loanword to Chinese from Austronesian (which included Indonesian).
wotie, kuotie fried jiaozi 鍋貼 鍋贴 Min Nan oe-thiap, ko-thiap fried jiaozi
wushu wushu 武術 武术 Mandarin wǔshù martial art, wushu
yin yang yin yang (☯) 陰陽 阴阳 Mandarin yīnyáng yin yang (☯)

From Japanese[edit]

Japanese loanwords are usually related to either the culture of Japan or the Japanese colonial administration.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Japanese
New Form
Japanese
Old Form
Japanese
Transliteration
Japanese
Meaning
Note
aikido aikido 合気道 合氣道 aikidō aikido
anime anime アニメ アニメ anime animation contraction from アニメーション (animēshon), a loanword from English for animation
bakero stupid, Japanese swear word ばかやろう
バカやろう
ばかやろう
バカやろう
bakayarō stupid see baka
banzai Japanese long life cheers 万歳 萬歲 banzai long life cheers such as 天皇陛下万歳 (Tennōheika Banzai!) "Long live His Majesty the Emperor"
bogodan Japanese colonial police assistant in Sumatra 防護 防護 bōgodan protection + unit
bonsai miniature potted plant 盆栽 盆栽 bonsai tray plantting, bonsai
budanco platoon commander 分團長 budanchō platoon commander 分隊 (buntai) = platoon
bushido 1. way of warrior,
2. code of conduct for Japanese samurai
武士道 武士道 bushidō bushido
canoyu Japanese tea ceremony 茶の湯 茶の湯 chanoyu Japanese tea ceremony
cudanco company commander chūdanchō company commander
dakocan air-filled black plastic dolls ダッコ
-ちゃん
ダッコ
-ちゃん
Dakko-chan air-filled black plastic dolls the company mascot of Takara
dai great, large dai great, large such as 大日本 (dai nippon)
daidan battalion daidan battalion
daidancho battalion commander daidanchō battalion commander
dan rank for judo, karate, and kenpo dan dan, an East Asia ranking system
dokuritsu independence 独立 獨立 dokuritsu independence, separation such as in Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (独立準備調査会, Dokuritsu Junbi Chōsa-kai) and Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (独立準備委員会, Dokuritsu Junbi Inkai)
dohyo sumo ring 土俵 土俵 dohyō sumo ring, dohyō
dojo, doyo karate training place 道場 道場 dōjō dojo
ebi dried shrimp えび

海老
えび

海老
ebi prawn,  shrimp,  lobster,  crayfish
fujinkai women association 婦人 婦人 fujinkai women association
gakari duty

kakari, -gakari (person in) charge,  duty
geisha geisha 芸者 藝者 geisha geisha traditional Japanese female entertainer
giyugun Pembela Tanah Air 義勇軍 義勇軍 giyūgun volunteer army see Pembela Tanah Air (郷土防衛義勇軍, kyōdo bōei giyūgun)
gobo Arctium lappa 牛蒡
ゴボウ
牛蒡
ゴボウ
gobō Arctium lappa
gun district gun district see Administrative divisions of Japan
gunseikan Japanese military government 軍政 軍政官 gunseikan military government official refers to Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies
harakiri 1. ritual suicide;
2. (self-)disembowelment in Japan
腹切 腹切 harakiri ritual suicide, (self-)disembowelment see harakiri
haiku haiku 俳句 俳句 haiku haiku
heiho Japanese colonial auxiliaries 兵補 heiho auxiliaries
hentai 1. pornographic (adj.)
2. pornographic anime, manga or Japanese computer game.
変態 變態 hentai 1. metamorphosis, transformation
2. abnormality
3. pervert, hentai
1. Pervert meaning in Japanese based on contraction of 変態性欲 (hentai seiyoku, lit. perverse sexual desire.
2. The original meaning in the Japanese language is transformation or metamorphosis.
hiragana hiragana 平仮名
ひらがな
平仮名
ひらがな
hiragana hiragana
hokokai Japanese colonial mobilisation group 奉公 奉公 hōkōkai public service association such as Jawa Hokokai.
iaido iaido 居合 居合道 iaidō iaido
iaidoka judo practitioner 居合 居合道家 iaidōka iaido practitioner
jibaku,
berjibaku
1. suicide bomber
2. reckless, desperate attack
自爆 自爆 jibaku suicide bombing, self-destruction see also kamikaze.
judo judo 柔道 柔道 jūdō judo
judogi judo uniform 柔道着 柔道着 jūdōki judo uniform
judoka judo practitioner 柔道家 柔道家 jūdōka judo practitioner
jugun-ianfu comfort women 従軍慰安婦 從軍慰安婦 jūgun-ianfu comfort women
jujitsu jujutsu 柔術 柔術 jujutsu jujutsu see also yuyitsu.
ikebana flower arranging art 生花 生花 ikebana flower arrangement
ipon crushing victory 一本 一本 ippon 1.  one point,
2.  a blow
see ippon
kabuki kabuki, classical Japanese dance-drama 歌舞伎 歌舞伎 kabuki kabuki
kamikaze 1. divine wind (typhoon),
2. suicide attacks by military aviators from Japan in World War 2
神風 神風 kamikaze 1. divine wind,
2. suicide attacks by military aviators from Japan in World War 2
kampai lie supine, stretched out, irregular, powerless 完敗 完敗 kanpai complete defeat,  utter defeat,  annihilation
kanji kanji, Japanese- Chinese characters 漢字 漢字 kanji kanji, Japanese- Chinese characters see also Honji, from Chinese
karakuri karakuri, machine mechanism 絡繰り 絡繰り karakuri karakuri (lit. mechanism)
karaoke karaoke 空オケ 空オケ karaoke karaoke clipped compound of 空 (kara) empty and orchestra.
karate karate 空手
唐手
空手
唐手
karate karate
karategi karate uniform 空手着
唐手着
空手着
唐手着
karateki karate uniform
karateka karate practitioner 空手家
唐手家
空手家
唐手家
karateka karate practitioner
keibodan Japanese colonial police assistant 警防 警防團 keibōdan civil defense unit
kempetai Japanese military police 憲兵隊 憲兵隊 kenpeitai kempeitai, former Japanese military police current Japan military police is called (keimutai)
ken fist, clench ken fist, clench
ken regency (large district) ken 1. prefecture (of Japan),
2. county (of China)
see Administrative divisions of Japan
kendo kendo 剣道 劍道 kendō kendo lit. sword way
kenpo, kempo kenpō 拳法 拳法 kenpō kenpō lit. fist method
keki light machine gun 軽機 輕機 keiki light machine gun
kimono 1. Japanese traditional dress,
2. Bathrobe
着物 着物 kimono 1. cloth
2. kimono
koi koi carp koi carp
kotai change, relief (of guard) (mil.) 交代
交替
交替 kōtai alternation, change,  relief,  relay,  shift,  substitution
koci special area, principality 侯地
公地
侯地
公地
kōchi marquis,  lord,  daimyo, prince
land
ku ward, district ku ward, district see Administrative divisions of Japan
kumico people association leader 組長 組長 kumichō people association leader
manga manga, Japanese-style comics 漫画 漫畫 manga manga, refer to cartooning, comics, and animation 1. lit. impromptu sketches
2. sometimes, manga-influenced comics, such as Chinese manhua (漫畫, 漫画) and Korean manhwa (만화), are included in.
moci mochi, rice cake mochi mochi
mocitsuki mochi preparation for Japanese new year 餅搗き mochitsuki mochi preparation for Japanese new year
nikkeiren Japanese labour union 日経連 nikkeiren Japan Federation of Employers' Associations Nikkeiren is short form of Japan Federation of Employers' Associations (日本経営者団体連盟) which merged into Japan Business Federation.
ninja 1. ninja, covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan.
2. Unidentified killer with black clothes and mask
忍者 忍者 ninja ninja
noh noh noh
nippon Japan 日本 日本 nippon Japan nippon is more related to world war II and before; current reading prefers nihon than nippon.
nori nori 海苔 海苔 nori nori seaweed sheet
obi obi obi obi, traditional Japanese sash
okura okra オクラ
秋葵
オクラ
秋葵
okura okra
onagata male actor in female kabuki roles 女形
女方
女形
女方
onnagata male actor in female kabuki roles
origami origami 折紙 折紙 origami origami, art of paper folding
panko bread crumbs パン パン粉 panko bread crumbs
rengo trade union 連合 連合 rengo Japanese Trade Union Confederation
romusha rōmusha 労務者 勞務者 rōmusha rōmusha, lit. laborer
sabo erosion, sedimentation, landslide control system 砂防 砂防 sabō erosion control
sakura cherry blossom sakura cherry blossom
samurai samurai samurai samurai, Japanese military nobility
sashimi sashimi 刺身 刺身 sashimi sashimi
satori free from discrimination condition 悟り
覚り
悟り
覚り
satori 1. comprehension,  understanding
2. enlightenment (Buddhism)
seko observer, scout, spy 斥候 斥候 sekkō scout, patrol, spy
sendenbu Japanese colonial propaganda office 宣伝部 宣伝部 sendenbu public relation departement
sensei Japanese teacher, including Japanese martial arts teacher 先生 先生 sensei elder, scholar, teacher, doctor see also sinse, Chinese loanword.
seinendan Japanese colonial youth association 青年 青年團 seinendan youth association 青年 (seinen) = youth
shinkansen 1. high-speed passenger train, bullet train
2. high-speed passenger train in Japan, shinkansen
新幹線 新幹線 shinkansen shinkansen, high-speed passenger train in Japan lit. new trunk line
shinto shinto 神道 神道 shintō shinto
soba noodle 蕎麦 蕎麦 soba 1. buckwheat,
2. buckwheat noodle
Son Goku Son Goku 孫悟空 Son Gokū Sun Wukong, Goku see also Sun Go Kong from Chinese.
sogo 1. a giant trading company whose sales in retail,
2. Sogo, departement store chain
そごう そごう sogō Sogo, a department store chain Sogo is department store chain which was founded Ihei Sogo (十合 伊兵衛, Sogou Ihei).
soroban soroban 算盤 算盤 soroban soroban see suanpan, Chinese loanword.
subucho Japanese colonial officer 部長 候部長 subucho head of auxiliary departement
suiseki suiseki, art of natural stone 水石 水石 suiseki suiseki
sukiyaki sukiyaki 鋤焼
すき焼き
sukiyaki sukiyaki
sushi sushi すし,
寿司,
すし,
壽司,
sushi sushi
sumo sumo, Japanese traditional wrestling 相撲 相撲 sumō sumo, Japanese traditional wrestling
syodanco platoon commander 小団長 小團長 shōdanchō platoon commander
syogun, shogun shogun, Japanese governor in 17th—19th century 将軍 将軍 shōgun shogun, Japanese military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868
taiso Japanese gymnastics 体操 體操 taisho gymnastics,  physical exercises,  calisthenics
tatami sport play area tatami Japanese straw floor coverings, tatami
takeyari bamboo spear 竹槍 竹槍 takeyori bamboo spear
takoyaki takoyaki たこ焼き
蛸焼
たこ焼き
蛸焼
takoyaki takoyaki
tempura tempura 天ぷら
天麩羅
tenpura tempura
tenno heika 1. Emperor of Japan,
2. Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa
天皇陛下 天皇陛下 tennō heika His Imperial Majesty (of Japan) 1. originally refer to current Emperor in Japan;
2. as the term introduced at world war II, the phrase refers to Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989), the Emperor of Japan at that time.
3. 天皇 (tennō) = Japanese emperor, 陛下 (heika) = majesty
teriyaki teriyaki 照り焼き
照焼
照燒 teriyaki teriyaki
tekidanto grenade launcher 擲弾筒 擲彈筒 tekidantō grenade launcher
tepo gun, rifle 鉄砲
鉄炮
teppō gun
tofu extra soft tofu 豆腐 豆腐 tōfu tofu see also tahu, loan word from Chinese.
tobang military or police helper (or lackey) 当番 当番 tōban being on duty
tsuru crane-shaped origami tsuru crane
udon udon 饂飩,
うどん
udon udon
umami umami 旨味 umami umami, lit. "pleasant savory taste".
tsunami tsunami 津波 津波 tsunami 1. tsunami, tidal wave,
2. tidal bore
wagyu wagyu, Japanese beef or cow wagyū wagyu, Japanese beef or cow
wasabi wasabi 山葵,
わ さび
山葵,
わ さび
wasabi wasabi
wazari winning score in judo 技あり
技有り
waza-ari waza-ari, half-point
yakitori yakitori 焼き鳥 yakitori yakitori
yen yen en 1. yen, money,
2. circle
yuyitsu jujutsu 柔術 柔術 jujutsu jujutsu see also jujitsu.
zen Zen, school of Buddhism zen Zen, school of Buddhism

From European languages[edit]

European influence over Indonesian has been significantly influenced by European intervention and colonialism; The most significant consequence is the usage of Latin alphabet instead of various local scripts. The Portuguese first arrived in the archipelago and influenced the original Malay language after their conquest of Malacca. The Portuguese dominance over trade in the region and control of the spice islands of Moluccas had significantly increased Portuguese influence in trade and also through the introduction of Christianity in the region. Dutch however shows the most influence upon the language, with the Dutch having had control of Indonesia for 300 years after eliminating the Portuguese as a player over control of the archipelago. The Dutch language itself wasn't properly introduced into the archipelago before 1799, when the Netherlands' crown took over the colony from the already bankrupt VOC (Dutch East India company), previously the Malay language was adapted by VOC due to its trade and diplomatic benefit, which led to large numbers of loanwords being introduced into the language. English to an extent also exerted influence over the archipelago's language, being the third most favored foreign language by the educated in the colonial days. English however plays a larger role over the nation's official language more recently through recent globalization.

From Portuguese[edit]

Alongside Malay, Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail east to the "Spice Islands". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia.[4]

Word Meaning Original word
akta act (law) acta
algojo executioner algoz
armada fleet armada
bangku chair banco: bench
baret barrette barrete
Belanda Dutch, Holland Holanda
bendéra flag bandeira
beranda verandah, porch varanda
biola violin viola
bola ball bola
(kué) bolu (a type of) cake bolo
bonéka doll boneca
cerutu cigar charuto
dansa dance (not including traditional dance) dança
dadu dice dado
gagu mute gago: stutterer, stuttering
ganco hook gancho
garpu fork garfo
geréja church igreja
gratis free (not having to pay) gratis (Dutch: gratis)
jendéla window janela
kaldu broth caldo
kanal channel canal (Dutch: kanaal)
kéju cheese queijo
keméja shirt camisa
keréta chariot/cart carreta
kertas paper cartas (papel)
kredo creed credo
lelang auction leilão
lemari closet armário
meja table mesa
mentéga butter manteiga
Minggu Sunday domingo
misa mass missa
mitos myth mitos
nanas pineapple ananas
natal Christmas natal
noda stain nodoa
nona young woman dona
pasta paste pasta
pesiar cruise, excursion passear
pesta party festa
pigura picture, figure figura
pita ribbon fita
pompa pump bomba hidráulica, (Dutch: pomp)
roda wheel roda
saku pocket, bag saco
santo saint santo
sekolah school escola (Latin: schola)
sepatu shoe sapato
serdadu soldier soldado
témpo time tempo
tenda tent tenda
terigu wheat trigo
tinta ink tinta
tolol fool tolo
tukar exchange trocar

From Spanish[edit]

Spanish, also called Castilian (/kæˈstɪliən/), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world.

Around 75% of modern Spanish is derived from Latin. Ancient Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, where it had a great impact. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages French, Italian, Occitan, and Sardinian, as well as from Nahuatl, Quechua, and other indigenous languages of the Americas.[5][6][7]

Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages, such as Portuguese. For Spanish and Portuguese, lexical similarity is 89%. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication.[8]

As Portuguese, Spanish loan word come from colonialism in East Indies. In 1606, the Spaniards established some form of trade links with the Maluku Islands. In 1529, Charles I of Spain relinquished all claims to the Spice Islands to Portugal in the treaty of Zaragoza. Thus, there are less loanwords from Spanish than Portuguese or Dutch.[9]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Spanish
Word
Spanish
Meaning
Note
adios good bye, farewell adiós good bye, farewell
bonanza wealth, good fortune, or profits source bonanza fair weather, prosperity
canasta canasta canasta canasta
caudillo caudillo caudillo caudillo
cedilla cedilla cedilla cedilla
conquistador conquistador, Spanish conqueror in America conquistadores conquerors
entrenador trainer, coach entrenador trainer, coach
fandango fandango fandango fandango Fandango is a lively couples dance from Spain, usually in triple metre, traditionally accompanied by guitars, castanets, or hand-clapping.
hailai jai alai jai alai jai alai lit. happy party
havana Cuban cigar habana Habanos, producer Cuban cigars lit. (something) from Havana
kamisa shirt camisa shirt see also kemeja, from Portuguese
matador bullfighter matador killer Based on English usage, matador used in the English language as title for a bullfighter, which come from shortening of matador de toros (lit. "killer of bulls").
mestizo mestizo mestizo mestizo Mestizo is a person of combined European and Amerindian or Pacific Islander descent.
plaza 1. plaza, town square
2. shopping mall with parking lot
plaza plaza
ponco poncho poncho poncho originally loan word from Quechua punchu
retenidos remand (pre-trial detention) retenidos hold prisoner
señor mister, sir, (title conferred on an adult male) señor mister, sir, (title conferred on an adult male)
señora missus, Mrs (title given to a married woman) señora missus, Mrs (title given to a married woman)
señorita young woman, Miss (used as a title) señorita young woman, Miss (used as a title)
sista nap sista nap Sista is nap, especially an afternoon one taken after lunch.
sombrero sombrero sombrero hat
toreador bullfighter toreador bullfighter

From Dutch[edit]

The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left an extensive vocabulary. These Dutch loanwords, and also from other non Italo-Iberian, European languages loanwords which came via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords, having clusters of several consonants, pose difficulties to speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by insertion of the schwa. For example, Dutch schroef [ˈsxruf]sekrup [səˈkrup]. Many Indonesian vocabulary ending "-i" (e.g.:administras-i) also are known from the Dutch vocabulary influence "-ie" (e.g.:administrat-ie). All the months from January (Januari) to December (Desember) used in Indonesian are also derived from Dutch. It is estimated that 10,000 words in Indonesian language can be traced to the Dutch language.[10]

Word Meaning Original word
abolisi abolition abolitie
administrasi administration administratie
advokat lawyer advocaat
afdeling division, section afdeling
Agustus August augustus
aktual current (adj) actueel
aliansi alliance alliantie
amnesti amnesty, state-granted pardon amnestie
antik antique antiek
apartemen apartment appartement
apotek/apotik pharmacy apotheek
April April april
arde ground (electricity) aarde
arbéi strawberry aardbei
artikel article artikel
arloji watch horloge
asbak ashtray asbak
atret aback achteruit
ban tire band
barikade barricade barricades
baskom/waskom washbasin waskom
baterai battery batterij
baut & mur bolt & nut bout & moer
begel bracket beugel
beha brassiere beha (pronunciation of BH, abbreviation of bustehouder)
beken famous, notorious bekend
bekleding chair lining bekleding
béngkél workplace winkel: store, originally angle
besuk visiting bezoeken
bioskop cinema bioscoop
bis bus bus [bʏs]
bon receipt bon
brankas safe deposit box brandkast
branwir firefighter squad brandweer
bruder Roman Catholic friar broeder: brother
buku book boek
buncis green beans boontjes
cokelat chocolate chocolade
dah/dadah good-bye dag: (good) day
dak roof dak
dasi necktie das(je)
debat debate debat
departemen department departement
Desember December december
dinas administration dienst
diskusi discussion discussie
dokter medical doctor dokter
dosis dose dosis
duit money duit: a copper Dutch coin
egois selfish egoïst: egoist
émbér bucket emmer
éngsél hinges hengsel
Eropa Europe Europa
faktur invoice factuur
fantastis fantastic fantastisch
Februari February februari
frambus raspberry framboos
gaji wages gage
gang alley gang
gardu to guard, watch post garde
gerilya guerrilla guerrilla
gorden curtain gordijn
gubernur governor gouverneur
halo hello hallo
handuk towel handdoek
hanger hanger hanger
halte bus bus stop bushalte
helm helmet helm
hipotek mortgage hypotheek
ide idea idee
identik identical identiek
ilusi ilussion ilusie
imun immune immuun
indehoy forbidden sexual intercourse inhethooi:[11] in the hay
Indo Eurasian, mestizo abbreviation of Indo-European
infanteri infantry infanterie
insinyur engineer ingenieur
institut institute instituut
intim intimate intiem
Januari January januari
jas coat jas
Juli July juli
Juni June juni
jus juice jus
kabel cable kabel
kaisar emperor keizer
kakus toilet verb: kakken/noun: kakhuis
kalem calm kalm
kalkun turkey kalkoen
kamar room kamer
kantor office kantoor
karakter character karakter
karcis ticket kaartjes: plural for diminutive of kaart, card or ticket
kartu card kaart
kastanye chestnut kastanje
katun cotton katoen
kavaleri cavalry cavalerie
kelar ready, finished klaar
kelas class klas
keran faucet, tap kraan
knalpot (or kenalpot) muffler (on a motor vehicle) knalpot
kol cabbages kool
kolega colleague collega
komandan commander commandant
komentar comment commentaar
komersil commercial commercieel
komisaris commissioner commissaris
kondisi condition conditie
kongres congress congres
kopi coffee koffie
kopling clutch koppeling
kopor suitcase koffer
kor/koor choir koor
korsleting/konslet short circuit kortsluiting
korting/diskon discount korting/disconteren
korup corrupt corrupt
korupsi corruption corruptie
kos/indekos room rental kost:[11] cost; board
kuitansi receipt kwitantie
kulkas ice box or refrigerator koelkast
kursus course cursus
kusén window frame kozijn
laci deskdrawer laatje: diminutive form of la(de)
lampu lamp lamp
limun lemonade limoen: lemon
lisensi license licentie
listrik electric elektrisch
loket pay box loket
makelar broker makelaar
mantel coat mantel
Maret March maart
maskapai airline maatschappij: company
massa mass (bulk, load) massa
matras bed matras
mebel furniture meubel
media massa mass media massamedia
Mei May mei
meises sprinkles muisjes
merek brand merk
mesin machine, engine machine
migrasi migration migratie
minder not confident minder
misi mission missie
mobil car, automobile automobiel
montir mechanic monteur
motor motorcycle motorfiets
nanas pineapple ananas (Portuguese: Ananas, origin South America)
nomer number nummer
nol zero/nil nul
November November november
Oktober October oktober
om uncle oom
oma grandma oma
omzet/omset revenue omzet
onderdil components/spare parts onderdeel
ongkos cost & expenses onkosten
opa granddad opa
oranye orange (colour) oranje
orgel pipe organ orgel
otomatis automatic automatisch
pabrik factory fabriek
parkir parking parkeer
parlemen parliament parlement
paroki parish parochie
pas fit past (third person singular of "passen")
pastor pastor pastoor
paviliun pavilion paviljoen
pelopor frontrunner voorloper
pénsil pencil penseel (brush)
pensiun retirement pensioen
perboden prohibit (mainly used in street signs in Indonesian) verboden
permak alter, transform vermaken
permisi excuse me; permission permissie: permission
peron platform (railway) perron
pers press pers
persik peach perzik
persis precise, exactly the same, look alike precies
persneling gear versnelling
plafon ceiling plafond, from French
polisi police politie
potlot pencil potlood
potret portrait portret
preman gangster vrijman: freeman; outlaw
prestasi performance prestatie
prinsip principle principe
proyek project project
redaksi editorial office redactie
rékening account rekening
reklame advertisement reclame
rem brake rem
resep recipe recept
résléting zipper ritssluiting
resiko risk risico
rok skirt rok
rokok cigarette; smoke roken: to smoke
sakelar switch schakelaar
saldo balance saldo
satelit satellite satelliet
saus sauce saus
segel seal zegel
sekop shovel schop
sekrup screw schroef
seks sex seks
seksi section sektie
selang water hose slang
sempak swim briefs zwempak
senewen jumpy zenuwachtig
September September september
sepur train spoor
serius serious serieus
sertifikat certificate certificaat
setrika clothes iron strijkijzer
setrum current (electricity) stroom
sinterklas Santa Claus sinterklaas
sipir warden cipier
sirkulasi circulation circulatie
solusi solution solutie
spanduk commercial or information banner spandoeken
standar standard standaard
stasiun train station station
stopkontak power socket stopcontact
struktur structure structuur
suster nun, nurse, sister zuster
tang pliers tang
tas bag tas
tégel floor tile tegel
teh tea thee
teknologi technology technologie
telat late te laat (too late)
telefon telephone telefoon
televisi television televisie
tema theme thema
terompet trumpet trompet
teori theory theorie
tinta ink tint
tomat tomato tomaat (Portuguese: tomate, origin Central America)
topik topic topic
toren tower (usually for water tower in Indonesian) toren
traktir treat trakteer
tustel camera tools toestel: device, appliances
variabel variable variabel
vas vase vaas
versi version versie
visi vision visie
voorijder outrider voorrijder
vulkan volcano vulkaan
wastafel sink wastafel
wol wool wol
wortel carrot wortel
yuridis juridical juridisch
yustisi judiciary justitie
langsam slow langzaam
afdruk print afdrukken
kavir piano klavier
WC lavatory WC

From Greek[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Greek
Word
Greek
Transliteration
Greek
Meaning
Note
demokrasi democracy δημοκρατία dēmokratía through Dutch democratie
filsafat philosophy φιλοσοφία philasophia through Arabic: falsafah
mitos myth μῦθος mythos through Portuguese: mitos
sinagogê synagogue, Judaism prayer house συναγωγή synagogē assembly through Dutch synagoge
stadion stadium στάδιον stadion through Dutch: stadion

From Latin[edit]

It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilizes words that reflect the English usage (as used by its former colonial power, the British), while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage (e.g. aktiviti (Malaysian) vs. aktivitas (Indonesian), universiti (Malaysian) vs. universitas (Indonesian)).

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Latin
word
Latin
meaning
Indirect
Loanword
Source Note
ad interim temporarily ad interim
aktivitas activity activitas
almamater alma mater alma māter alma mater
fakultas faculty facultas faculty The Dutch loanword faculteit was used before.
forum forum forum public place, marketplace, forum forum Portuguese
humaniora humanities hūmāniōra humaniora Dutch
kantata song cantata cantada Portuguese
kualitas quality qualitas Dutch-influenced informal spelling kwalitas is used sometimes. The Dutch word is kwaliteit.
nihil nil, nothing, zero nihil
nota bene actually, after look carefully, also nota bene examine closely
oknum authority figure (police, soldier, prosecutor, judge) that perform unlawful or corrupted deed ocnum name personal (acc. form of ocnus "name")
status status status
universitas university universitas The Dutch loanword universiteit was used before.

From French[edit]

Word Meaning Original word
akur agree, get along well accord, through Dutch: akkoord
arsip archives archives, through Dutch: archief
bulat round boulette: ball
domisili place of staying domicile: house
garnisun garrison garnison, through Dutch: garnisoen
intrik intrigue intrigue, through Dutch: intrige
kado gift cadeau, through Dutch: kado/cadeau
kampanye campaign campagne, through Dutch: campagne
karantina quarantine quarantaine, through Dutch: quarantine
karoseri the body of vehicle, car, coach, or bus carrosserie, through Dutch: carrosserie
klise cliche cliché, through Dutch: cliché
kudeta coup coup d'État
legiun legion légion, through Dutch: legioen
letnan lieutenant lieutenant, through Dutch: lieutenant
libur free (not occupied) libre
manuver maneuver manœuvre, through Dutch: manoeuvre
mayones mayonnaise mayonnaise
sabotase sabotage sabotage, through Dutch: sabotage
sepeda bicycle vélocipède
supir driver chauffeur, through Dutch: chauffeur
tante aunt tante, through Dutch: tante
trotoar sidewalk trottoir, through Dutch: troittoir (also stoep, pronounced as "stoop")

From English[edit]

Many English words are adopted in Indonesian through globalization, due to this however many Indonesians mistake words that were originally adopted from Dutch with English due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages (both are Indo-European Germanic languages from the same branch, the West Germanic).

Word Meaning Original word
astronot astronaut astronaut
bisnis business business
diskon discount discount
elektronik electronic electronic
gosip gossip gossip
isu issue issue
katering catering service catering
komputer computer computer (Dutch: Computer)
komplit complete complete (Dutch: Compleet)
kondom condom condom
konter counter counter (Germans: konter)
modem modem modem
moderen modern modern (Dutch: moderne)
partner partner partner
pilot pilot pilot (Dutch: Piloot)
ponsel / HP read:Ha-Pé (shortened word from Hand Phone) cell phone hand phone (used in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and South Korea)
radar radar radar
roket rocket rocket
sistem system system (Dutch: Systeem)
stroberi strawberry strawberry
target target target

From German[edit]

There is several words come from German language.[12] German language is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
German
Word
German
Meaning
Notes
ablaut apophony ablaut apophony
an sich by itself, per se an sich by itself, per se possible a Dutch loanword.
auf wiedersehen good bye auf wiedersehen good bye lit. until we meet again
Aufklärung Enlightenment Aufklärung Enlightenment The Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century.
Ausdauer endurance Ausdauer constancy, endurance, perseverance, persistence, stamina
Autobahn Autobahn, freeway Autobahn Autobahn, freeway
Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg, a World War II German military tactics Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg
das Sein existance das Sein existance
das Sollen to be intended das Sollen should Sollen expresses moral duty or the suggestion that something ought to be done.
Deutschland über alles Germany above all else Deutschland über alles Germany above all else
Dichtung und Wahrheit Poetry and Truth Dichtung und Wahrheit Poetry and Truth
Eisen und Blut Blood and Iron Eisen und Blut Blood and Iron
entweder oder choice entweder oder choice Used only in the pair "entweder ... oder", like either-or in English
eforus leader of Batak Christian Protestant Church Ephorus superintendent, metropolitan
firn firn firn firn
Föhn Foehn wind Föhn Foehn wind Föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
Führer Führer, leader Führer Führer, leader
Geheime Staatspolizei Geheime Staatspolizei Geheime Staatspolizei Geheime Staatspolizei The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, or the Secret State Police, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Gestalt A collection of physical, biological, psychological or symbolic elements that creates a whole, unified concept or pattern which is other than the sum of its parts, due to the relationships between the parts (of a character, personality, entity, or being) Gestalt 1. shape, form,
2. image of some person,
figure, character (person)
Hitler-Jugend Hitler Youth Hitler-Jugend Hitler Youth
Kulturkampf Kulturkampf Kulturkampf Kulturkampf Kulturkampf (literally "culture struggle") refers to power struggles between emerging constitutional and democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
Lebensraum 1. living space, habitat
2. lebensraum
Lebensraum 1. living space, habitat
2. lebensraum
nazi Nazi Party nazi Nazi Party
opelet A sedan car whose seating arrangement is changed and adjusted as a public vehicle Opel Opel
realpolitik realpolitik realpolitik realpolitik
Schutzstaffel Schutzstaffel Schutzstaffel Schutzstaffel
Sitzkrieg Phoney War, warfare without progress, a stalemate Sitzkrieg Phoney War, warfare without progress, a stalemate
snorkel 1. snorkel (swimming gear, breathing tube)
2. submarine snorkel, snort
Schnorchel 1. snorkel (swimming gear, breathing tube)
2. submarine snorkel, snort
Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang Sturm und Drang
überhaupt at all; anyway; in the first place überhaupt at all; anyway; actually; even
Übermensch Übermensch Übermensch Übermensch 1. (in Nietzschean philosophy) An overman (“higher” man) who has overcome (transcended) his (mere) humanity.
2. (Nazism ideology) A member of the proposed Aryan super race.
umlaut diaeresis (diacritic) umlaut diaeresis (diacritic)
vopo police VoPo volkspolizei Deutsche Volkspolizei (German People's Police)
Zeitgeist spirit of the age Zeitgeist spirit of the age

From Danish[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Danish
Word
Danish
Meaning
Notes
fjord fjord fjord fjord Fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial erosion.
kjökkenmodding midden køkkenmødding midden cognate with Norwegian Kjøkkenmødding

From Russian[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Russian
Word
Russian
Transliteration
Russian
Meaning
Note
glasnost glasnost гла́сность glasnost publicity In 1986 the term was used by Mikhail Gorbachev as a political slogan for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopastnosti KGB, Committee for State Security Комитет Государственной Безопасности Komitet Gosudarstvennoj Bezopasnosti KGB, Committee for State Security The KGB, an initialism for Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
perestroika perestroika, restructuring of the political and economic system. перестройка perestroika rebuilding
rayon raion, a type of administrative unit район rajón raion, a type of administrative unit The term is a loanword from French rayon (lit. honeycomb, departement, radius).
rubel ruble, a currency unit рубль rublʹ ruble, a currency unit
samovar samovar, a kind of water boiler самовар samovar samovar, a kind of water boiler
sputnik sputnik Спутник spútnik sputnik, a fellow traveler, satellite

From Italian[edit]

Indonesian
Word
Indonesian
Meaning
Italian
Word
Italian
Meaning
Note
a prima vista at first sight a prima vista at first sight, (music) Sight-read.
a tempo according to original tempo a tempo time, on time, in time
accelerando A tempo mark directing that a passage is to be played at an increasing speed. accelerando accelerating
aggiornamento bringing up to date, modernization aggiornamento bringing up to date, modernization
allargando (music) decreasing in tempo; getting slower. allargando to broaden
allegretto (music) should be played rather fast and lively allegretto cheerful
arrivederci farewell, goodbye, see you later arrivederci farewell, goodbye, see you later
campanilla bell tower campanilla small bell, handbell
cantabile passage is to be played in a lyrical manner cantabile singable, capable being sung
cavatina an operatic song in slow tempo cavatina an operatic song in slow tempo
(celana) palazo palazo
che sarà, sarà whatever happens, happens che sarà, sarà whatever happens, happens 1. che sarà, sarà is not a grammatically correct Italian phrase, but rather borrowed from English che sara sara, in turn a popular phrase constructed from Italian words. The grammatically correct Italian phrase is quel che sarà, sarà.
con amore con amore
con dolore con dolore
con molta passione con molta passione
cosa nostra cosa nostra, Sicilian Mafia cosa nostra cosa nostra, Sicilian Mafia; lit. our thing
crescendo An instruction to play gradually more loudly crescendo An instruction to play gradually more loudly
da camera da camera
da capo (musical) from the beginning da capo (musical) from the beginning
da capo al fine (musical) from the beginning to the end da capo al end (musical) from the beginning to the end
decrescendo to play gradually more softly. decrescendo to play gradually more softly.
dolce far niente dolce far niente
fortissimo played very loud. fortissimo played very loud.
ghetto concentrations of other ethnicities and then non-ethnic groups ghetto concentrations of other ethnicities and then non-ethnic groups
il duce the Leader il duce the Leader
incognito without being known; in disguise incognito without being known; in disguise
larghetto Slower than adagio but not as slow as largo; nearly andantino. larghetto Slower than adagio but not as slow as largo; nearly andantino.
lento (music) very slow. lento (music) very slow.
lingua franca lingua franca lingua franca lingua franca (“Frankish language”) Lingua franca is a common language used by people of diverse backgrounds to communicate with one another, often a basic form of speech with simplified grammar.
mezzo mezzo
mezzo forte mezzo forte

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b C. D. Grijns et al. (eds). "Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay" (PDF). KITLV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  2. ^ Nurlela Adan, Ermitati, Rosnida M. Nur (2001). Kamus Bahasa Indonesia-Minangkabau. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. 
  3. ^ Becoming Indian: The Unfinished Revolution of Culture and Identity by Pavan K. Varma p.125
  4. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  5. ^ Robles, Heriberto Camacho Becerra, Juan José Comparán Rizo, Felipe Castillo (1998). Manual de etimologías grecolatinas (3. ed.). México: Limusa. p. 19. ISBN 9681855426. 
  6. ^ Comparán Rizo, Juan José. Raices Griegas y latinas (in Spanish). Ediciones Umbral. p. 17. ISBN 9789685430012. 
  7. ^ Quintana, Lucía; Mora, Juan Pablo (2002). "Enseñanza del acervo léxico árabe de la lengua española" (PDF). ASELE. Actas XIII: 705. : "El léxico español de procedencia árabe es muy abundante: se ha señalado que constituye, aproximadamente, un 8% del vocabulario total"
  8. ^ "Spanish". Ethnologue. 
  9. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990), History of the Filipino People (Eighth ed.), University of the Philippines, ISBN 971-8711-06-6 
  10. ^ http://www.reference.com/browse/indonesian+language
  11. ^ a b KOST (UITGAVE, LEVENSONDERHOUD)
  12. ^ Jones, R. (2008). Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta.

Bibliography[edit]

  • de Vries, Jan W., Grijns, C.D. and Santa Maria, L. 1983 Indonesian : a check-list of words of European origin in Bahasa Indonesia and traditional Malay Leiden : Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. ISBN 90-6718-004-1.
  • Badudu, J.S; Kamus Kata-kata Serapan Asing Dalam Bahasa Indonesia; Kompas, Jakarta, 2003
  • Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, Balai Pustaka: 1999, halaman 1185 s.d. 1188 berisikan Pendahuluan buku Senarai Kata Serapan dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta, 1996 (dengan sedikit penyaduran tanpa mengubah maksud dan tujuan seseungguhnya dari buku ini).

External links[edit]