List of brigadier generals in the United States Regular Army before February 2, 1901

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This is a complete list of brigadier generals in the United States Regular Army before February 2, 1901. The grade of brigadier general (or one-star general) is ordinarily the fourth-highest in the peacetime Army, ranking above colonel and below major general (two-star general).

The grade of brigadier general was the highest peacetime rank in the Regular Army during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and the second-highest for most of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was also rare: until 1901 there were fewer than twenty brigadier generals on active duty at any given time. Even during times of war, the number of Regular Army brigadier generals remained relatively constant, because rather than expand the permanent military establishment to meet transient wartime requirements, the Regular Army served as a cadre for a much larger temporary force of volunteers and conscripts. Many famous generals of the American Civil War held high rank only in the volunteer service, and reverted to much lower permanent grades in the Regular Army when the volunteers were disbanded after the war.[1]

The number of Regular Army brigadier generals increased dramatically when the Army was reorganized after the Spanish–American War. In addition to increasing the number of brigadier generals of the line from six to fifteen, the Army instituted a practice of funneling a succession of senior colonels through each vacancy in the grade of brigadier general, each officer in turn being promoted and retired at the higher rank and retired pay after only one day in grade. The reorganization took effect on February 2, 1901.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Historically, the United States Army included two components: the permanently established Regular Army, which constituted the peacetime force; and, during time of war, a much larger non-permanent establishment comprising various volunteer, conscript, and federalized state forces.[3]

There were two types of brigadier generals in the Regular Army:

  • A brigadier general of the line was an officer who was commissioned in the permanent grade of brigadier general and therefore maintained that personal rank regardless of assignment.[4]
  • A brigadier general of the staff was an officer who held the ex officio rank of brigadier general only while occupying an office designated by statute to carry that rank.[4]

Brigadier generals in the non-permanent or non-federal establishments included the following:

  • A brigadier general of militia was appointed or elected to that rank in one of the state militia forces.
  • A brigadier general of levies was appointed to that rank in the federal volunteer forces raised during the Northwest Indian War.
  • A brigadier general of volunteers was appointed to that rank in the United States Volunteers during the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, or the Spanish–American War.[5]
  • A brigadier general of state volunteers was appointed to that rank in one of the non-federal volunteer forces raised by individual states during the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, or the Spanish–American War.
  • A brigadier general in the Provisional Army was appointed to that rank in the non-permanent Regular Army augmentation force authorized during the Quasi-War by the Act of May 28, 1798.[6]
  • A brigadier general in the Eventual Army was appointed to that rank in the non-permanent Regular Army augmentation force authorized during the Quasi-War by the Act of March 2, 1799.[6]

Brigadier generals in other establishments included the following:

  • A brigadier general in the Continental Army was appointed to that rank in the United States Army's predecessor organization during the American Revolution.
  • A brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate States Army equivalent of a Regular Army brigadier general during the Civil War.
  • A brigadier general in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States was the Confederate States Army equivalent of a brigadier general of volunteers during the Civil War.

In addition, honorary brevet ranks of brigadier general were conferred in several organizations:[7]

  • A brevet brigadier general was awarded that brevet rank in the Regular Army, typically for actions in the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War.
  • A brevet brigadier general of volunteers was awarded that brevet rank in the United States Volunteers, typically for actions in the Civil War or the Spanish–American War.
  • A brevet brigadier general of militia was awarded that brevet rank in one of the state militia forces.

List of brigadier generals before February 2, 1901[edit]

The following list of brigadier generals includes all officers appointed to that rank in the line or staff of the United States Regular Army prior to February 2, 1901.[8] It does not include officers who held that rank solely by brevet or in the non-permanent or non-federal establishments, such as brigadier generals of militia or volunteers.

Entries are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was appointed to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the officer's name; date of rank;[9] date the officer vacated the active-duty rank;[10] number of years on active duty as brigadier general (Yrs);[11] and other biographical notes.[12]

The list is sortable by active-duty appointment order, last name, date of rank, date vacated, and number of years on active duty as brigadier general.

Name Date of rank[9] Date vacated[10] Yrs[11] Notes[12]
1 James Wilkinson 5 Mar 1792   2 Mar 1813   21   (1757–1825) Promoted to major general, 2 Mar 1813. Continental Army brevet brigadier general, 6 Nov 1777–6 Mar 1778; brigadier general of Pennsylvania militia, 1782–1784.
2 John Brooks 11 Apr 1792   1 Nov 1796   5   (1752–1825)[13][14] Major general of Massachusetts militia, 1786–1796.
3 Rufus Putnam 4 May 1792   14 Feb 1793   1   (1738–1824)[15] Continental Army brigadier general, 7 Jan 1783–3 Nov 1783.
4 Thomas Posey 14 Feb 1793   28 Feb 1794   1   (1750–1818)[15] Major general of Kentucky militia, 1809–1810.
5 William Washington 19 Jul 1798   15 Jun 1800   2   (1752–1810)[13] Brigadier general of South Carolina militia, 1794.
6 William North 19 Jul 1798   15 Jun 1800   2   (1755–1836)[13][16] Adjutant General.
7 Wade Hampton 15 Feb 1809   2 Mar 1813   4   (1752–1835) Promoted to major general, 2 Mar 1813.
8 Peter Gansevoort 15 Feb 1809   2 Jul 1812   3   (1749–1812) Brigadier general of New York militia, 26 Mar 1781, and major general, 8 Oct 1793. Died in office.
9 Joseph Bloomfield 27 Mar 1812   15 Jun 1815   3   (1753–1823)[13] Brigadier general of New Jersey militia, 1794.
10 James Winchester 27 Mar 1812   31 Mar 1815   3   (1752–1826)[15] Brigadier general of North Carolina militia, 1788; of Tennessee militia, 1796.
11 Morgan Lewis 3 Apr 1812   2 Mar 1813   1   (1754–1844) Quartermaster General. Promoted to major general, 2 Mar 1813.
12 William Hull 8 Apr 1812   25 Apr 1814   2   (1753–1825) Dismissed.
13 Thomas Flournoy 18 Jun 1812   13 Sep 1814   2   (1775–1857)[15]
14 Thomas H. Cushing 2 Jul 1812   15 Jun 1815   3   (1755–1822)[13][17] Brigadier general detailed as Adjutant General, 6 Jul 1812–12 Mar 1813.
15 John Armstrong Jr. 6 Jul 1812   13 Jan 1813   1   (1758–1843)[15]
16 Alexander Smyth 6 Jul 1812   3 Mar 1813   1   (1765–1830)[18] Inspector General. Legislated out.
17 John Chandler 8 Jul 1812   15 Jun 1815   3   (1760–1841)[13] Major general of Massachusetts militia, Feb 1812–Nov 1812.
18 William Henry Harrison 22 Aug 1812   2 Mar 1813   1   (1773–1841) Promoted to major general, 2 Mar 1813. Brevet major general of Kentucky militia, 20 Aug 1812–31 Aug 1812. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1818.
19 John P. Boyd 26 Aug 1812   15 Jun 1815   3   (1764–1830)[13]
20 Zebulon M. Pike 12 Mar 1813   27 Apr 1813   0   (1779–1813) Adjutant and Inspector General. Killed in action at Battle of York.
21 Thomas Parker 12 Mar 1813   1 Mar 1814   1   (1753–1820)[15]
22 George Izard 12 Mar 1813   24 Jan 1814   1   (1776–1828) Promoted to major general, 24 Jan 1814.
23 William H. Winder 12 Mar 1813   15 Jun 1815   2   (1775–1824)[13] Brigadier general detailed as Adjutant and Inspector General, 19 May 1814–2 Jul 1814.
24 Duncan McArthur 12 Mar 1813   15 Jun 1815   2   (1772–1839)[13] Major general of Ohio militia, 20 Feb 1808.
25 Lewis Cass 12 Mar 1813   6 Apr 1814   1   (1782–1866)[15] Major general of Ohio militia, Dec 1812.
26 Benjamin Howard 12 Mar 1813   18 Sep 1814   2   (1760–1814) Died in office.
27 Robert Swartwout 21 Mar 1813   5 Jun 1816   3   (1778–1848)[13] Quartermaster General.
28 David R. Williams 9 Jul 1813   6 Apr 1814   1   (1776–1830)[15]
29 Jacob J. Brown 19 Jul 1813   24 Jan 1814   1   (1775–1828) Promoted to major general, 24 Jan 1814. Brigadier general of New York volunteers, 12 Jun 1813–19 Jul 1813. Awarded Thanks of Congress and Congressional Gold Medal, 1814.
30 Leonard Covington 1 Aug 1813   14 Nov 1813   0   (1768–1813) Mortally wounded at Battle of Crysler's Farm.
31 Alexander Macomb 24 Jan 1814   1 Jun 1821   7   (1782–1841)[19] Promoted to major general, 24 May 1828. Brevet major general, 11 Sep 1814. Awarded Thanks of Congress and Congressional Gold Medal, 1814.
32 Thomas A. Smith 24 Jan 1814   17 May 1815   1   (1781–1844)[15] Brevet brigadier general, 14 Jan 1814.
33 Daniel Bissell 9 Mar 1814   17 May 1815   1   (1768–1833)[20] Brevet brigadier general, 9 Mar 1814.
34 Edmund P. Gaines 9 Mar 1814   6 Jun 1849   35   (1777–1849) Brevet major general, 15 Aug 1814. Awarded Thanks of Congress and Congressional Gold Medal, 1814. Died in office.
35 Winfield Scott 9 Mar 1814   25 Jun 1841   27   (1786–1866) Promoted to major general, 25 Jun 1841. Brevet major general, 25 Jul 1814; brevet lieutenant general, 29 Mar 1847.
36 Eleazar W. Ripley 15 Apr 1814   1 Feb 1820   6   (1782–1839)[15] Brevet major general, 25 Jul 1814. Awarded Thanks of Congress and Congressional Gold Medal, 1814.
37 Andrew Jackson 19 Apr 1814   1 May 1814   0   (1767–1845) Promoted to major general, 1 May 1814. Major general of Tennessee militia, 1 Apr 1803–30 May 1814; major general of volunteers, 10 Dec 1812–30 May 1814. Awarded Thanks of Congress and Congressional Gold Medal, 1815.
38 Daniel Parker 22 Nov 1814   1 Jun 1821   7   (1782–1846)[21] Adjutant and Inspector General.
39 Thomas S. Jesup 8 May 1818   1 Jun 1860   42   (1788–1860) Quartermaster General. Brevet major general, 8 May 1828. Died in office.
40 Henry Atkinson 13 May 1820   1 Jun 1821   1   (1782–1842)[22] Brevet brigadier general, 13 May 1820.
41 John E. Wool 25 Jun 1841   16 May 1862   21   (1784–1869) Promoted to major general, 16 May 1862. Brevet brigadier general, 29 Apr 1826; brevet major general, 23 Feb 1847. Awarded Thanks of Congress and Congressional Sword, 1854.
42 David E. Twiggs 30 Jun 1846   1 Mar 1861   15   (1790–1862) Confederate States Provisional Army major general, 22 May 1861–15 Jul 1862. Brevet brigadier general, 30 Jun 1846; brevet major general, 23 Sep 1846. Awarded Congressional Sword, 1847. Dismissed.
43 Stephen W. Kearny 30 Jun 1846   31 Oct 1848   2   (1794–1848) Brevet major general, 6 Dec 1846. Died in office.
44 Franklin Pierce 3 Mar 1847   20 Mar 1848   1   (1804–1869)[15]
45 George Cadwalader 3 Mar 1847   20 Jul 1848   1   (1806–1879)[13] Major general of Pennsylvania volunteers, 19 Apr 1861–19 Jul 1861; major general of volunteers, 25 Apr 1862–5 Jul 1865. Brevet major general, 13 Sep 1847.
46 Enos D. Hopping 3 Mar 1847   1 Sep 1847   0   (1805–1847) Died in office.
47 Persifor F. Smith 30 Dec 1856   17 May 1858   1   (1798–1858) Brigadier general of Louisiana volunteers, 15 May 1846. Brevet brigadier general, 23 Sep 1846; brevet major general, 20 Aug 1847. Died in office.
48 William S. Harney 14 Jun 1858   1 Aug 1863   5   (1800–1889) Brevet brigadier general, 18 Apr 1847; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
49 Joseph E. Johnston 28 Jun 1860   22 Apr 1861   1   (1807–1891)[15] Quartermaster General. Major general of Virginia militia, 23 Apr 1861–27 Apr 1861; Provisional Army of Virginia major general, 27 Apr 1861–4 May 1861, and brigadier general, 4 May 1861–14 May 1861; Confederate States Army brigadier general, 14 May 1861–4 Jul 1861, and general, 4 Jul 1861–2 May 1865.
50 Edwin V. Sumner 16 Mar 1861   21 Mar 1863   2   (1797–1863) Major general of volunteers, 4 Jul 1862–21 Mar 1863. Brevet major general, 31 May 1862. Died in office.
51 Joseph K. F. Mansfield 14 May 1861   18 Sep 1862   1   (1803–1862) Major general of volunteers, 18 Jul 1862–18 Sep 1862. Brevet brigadier general, 6 May 1861. Mortally wounded at Battle of Antietam.
52 Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861   25 Nov 1872   12   (1818–1885) Promoted to major general, 25 Nov 1872. Major general of volunteers, 14 Mar 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet major general, 14 Mar 1865.
53 Robert Anderson 15 May 1861   27 Oct 1863   2   (1805–1871) Brevet major general, 3 Feb 1865.
54 Montgomery C. Meigs 15 May 1861   6 Feb 1882   21   (1816–1892)[23] Quartermaster General. Brevet major general, 5 Jul 1864.
55 William S. Rosecrans 16 May 1861   28 Mar 1867   6   (1819–1898)[24] Major general of volunteers, 21 Mar 1862–15 Jan 1866. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1863.
56 Lorenzo Thomas 3 Aug 1861   22 Feb 1869   8   (1804–1875) Adjutant General. Brevet brigadier general, 7 May 1861; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
57 James W. Ripley 3 Aug 1861   15 Sep 1863   2   (1794–1870) Chief of Ordnance. Brevet brigadier general, 4 Jul 1861; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
58 Philip S. G. Cooke 12 Nov 1861   29 Oct 1873   12   (1809–1895) Brigadier general of volunteers, 12 Nov 1861–28 Nov 1861. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
* Clement A. Finley 14 Apr 1862   (none)   0   (1797–1879)[25] Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
59 William A. Hammond 25 Apr 1862   18 Aug 1864   2   (1828–1900)[26] Surgeon General. Dismissed.
60 John Pope 14 Jul 1862   26 Oct 1882   20   (1822–1892) Promoted to major general, 26 Oct 1882. Brigadier general of volunteers, 17 May 1861–21 Mar 1862; major general of volunteers, 21 Mar 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
61 Joseph Hooker 20 Sep 1862   15 Oct 1868   6   (1814–1879) Retired as major general, 15 Oct 1868. Brigadier general of volunteers, 17 May 1861–5 May 1862; major general of volunteers, 5 May 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1864.
62 Joseph P. Taylor 9 Feb 1863   29 Jun 1864   1   (1796–1864) Commissary General of Subsistence. Died in office.
63 Joseph G. Totten 3 Mar 1863   22 Apr 1864   1   (1788–1864) Chief of Engineers. Brevet brigadier general, 28 Mar 1847; brevet major general, 21 Apr 1864. Died in office.
64 George G. Meade 3 Jul 1863   18 Aug 1864   1   (1815–1872) Promoted to major general, 18 Aug 1864. Brigadier general of volunteers, 31 Aug 1861–29 Nov 1862; major general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–18 Aug 1864. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1864 and 1865.
65 William T. Sherman 4 Jul 1863   12 Aug 1864   1   (1820–1891) Promoted to major general, 12 Aug 1864; to lieutenant general, 25 Jul 1866; to general, 4 Mar 1869. Brigadier general of volunteers, 17 May 1861–1 May 1862; major general of volunteers, 1 May 1862–12 Aug 1864. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1864.
66 James B. McPherson 1 Aug 1863   22 Jul 1864   1   (1828–1864) Brigadier general of volunteers, 15 May 1862–8 Oct 1862; major general of volunteers, 8 Oct 1862–22 Jul 1864. Killed in action at Battle of Atlanta.
67 George D. Ramsay 15 Sep 1863   12 Sep 1864   1   (1802–1882) Chief of Ordnance. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
68 George H. Thomas 27 Oct 1863   15 Dec 1864   1   (1816–1870) Promoted to major general, 15 Dec 1864. Brigadier general of volunteers, 3 Aug 1861–25 Apr 1862; major general of volunteers, 25 Apr 1862–15 Dec 1864. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1865.
69 James B. Fry 21 Apr 1864   27 Aug 1866   2   (1827–1894)[27] Provost Marshal General. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
70 Richard Delafield 22 Apr 1864   8 Aug 1866   2   (1798–1873) Chief of Engineers. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
71 Joseph Holt 22 Jun 1864   1 Dec 1875   11   (1807–1894) Judge Advocate General.
72 Amos B. Eaton 29 Jun 1864   1 May 1874   10   (1806–1877) Commissary General of Subsistence. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
73 Winfield S. Hancock 12 Aug 1864   26 Jul 1866   2   (1824–1886) Promoted to major general, 26 Jul 1866. Brigadier general of volunteers, 23 Sep 1861–29 Nov 1862; major general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–26 Jul 1866. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1866.
74 Joseph K. Barnes 22 Aug 1864   30 Jun 1882   18   (1817–1883) Surgeon General. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
75 Alexander B. Dyer 12 Sep 1864   20 May 1874   10   (1815–1874) Chief of Ordnance. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
76 Philip H. Sheridan 20 Sep 1864   8 Nov 1864   0   (1831–1888) Promoted to major general, 8 Nov 1864; to lieutenant general, 4 Mar 1869; to general, 1 Jun 1888. Brigadier general of volunteers, 1 Jul 1862–31 Dec 1862; major general of volunteers, 31 Dec 1862–8 Nov 1864. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1865.
77 John M. Schofield 30 Nov 1864   4 Mar 1869   4   (1831–1906) Promoted to major general, 4 Mar 1869; to lieutenant general, 8 Feb 1895. Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Nov 1861–29 Nov 1862 and 4 Mar 1863–12 May 1863; major general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–4 Mar 1863 and 12 May 1863–1 Sep 1866. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1861.[28]
78 Oliver O. Howard 21 Dec 1864   19 Mar 1886   21   (1830–1909) Promoted to major general, 19 Mar 1886. Brigadier general of volunteers, 3 Sep 1861–29 Nov 1862; major general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–1 Jan 1869. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862; Thanks of Congress, 1864.
79 Alfred H. Terry 15 Jan 1865   3 Mar 1886   21   (1827–1890) Promoted to major general, 3 Mar 1886. Brigadier general of volunteers, 25 Apr 1862–20 Apr 1865; major general of volunteers, 20 Apr 1865–1 Sep 1866. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 26 Aug 1864. Awarded Thanks of Congress, 1865.
* Gabriel R. Paul 16 Feb 1865   (none)   0   (1813–1886)[29] Brigadier general of volunteers, 5 Sep 1862–4 Mar 1863 and 18 Apr 1863–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 23 Feb 1865.
80 John A. Rawlins 3 Mar 1865   12 Mar 1869   4   (1831–1869)[15] Chief of Staff to the Lieutenant General, 3 Mar 1865–25 Jul 1866; to the General, 26 Jul 1866–12 Mar 1869. Brigadier general of volunteers, 11 Aug 1863–3 Mar 1865. Brevet major general, 9 Apr 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 24 Feb 1865.
81 Edward O. C. Ord 26 Jul 1866   6 Dec 1880   14   (1818–1883)[23][30] Promoted to major general on the retired list, 28 Jan 1881. Brigadier general of volunteers, 14 Sep 1861–2 May 1862; major general of volunteers, 2 May 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
82 Edward R. S. Canby 28 Jul 1866   11 Apr 1873   7   (1817–1873) Brigadier general of volunteers, 31 Mar 1862–7 May 1864; major general of volunteers, 7 May 1864–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Killed on duty.
83 Benjamin W. Brice 28 Jul 1866   1 Jun 1872   6   (1809–1892) Paymaster General. Brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
84 Andrew A. Humphreys 8 Aug 1866   30 Jun 1879   13   (1810–1883) Chief of Engineers. Brigadier general of volunteers, 28 Apr 1862–8 Jul 1863; major general of volunteers, 8 Jul 1863–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
* Francis Fessenden 1 Nov 1866   (none)   0   (1839–1906)[31] Brigadier general of volunteers, 10 May 1864–9 Nov 1865; major general of volunteers, 9 Nov 1865–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
85 Lovell H. Rousseau 28 Mar 1867   7 Jan 1869   2   (1818–1869) Brigadier general of volunteers, 1 Oct 1861–8 Oct 1862; major general of volunteers, 8 Oct 1862–30 Nov 1865. Brevet major general, 28 Mar 1867. Died in office.
* Eli Long 16 Aug 1867   (none)   0   (1837–1903)[32] Brigadier general of volunteers, 18 Aug 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
* Richard W. Johnson 12 Oct 1867   (none)   0   (1827–1897)[32] Brigadier general of volunteers, 11 Oct 1861–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
* Thomas J. Wood 9 Jun 1868   (none)   0   (1823–1906)[32] Brigadier general of volunteers, 11 Oct 1861–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
86 Edward D. Townsend 22 Feb 1869   15 Jun 1880   11   (1817–1893) Adjutant General. Brevet brigadier general, 24 Sep 1864; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
87 Christopher C. Augur 4 Mar 1869   10 Jul 1885   16   (1821–1898) Brigadier general of volunteers, 12 Nov 1861–9 Aug 1862; major general of volunteers, 9 Aug 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
* Thomas W. Sweeny 11 May 1870   (none)   0   (1820–1892)[31] Brigadier general of Missouri volunteers, 20 May 1861–14 Aug 1861; brigadier general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–24 Aug 1865. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Apr 1865.
* John B. McIntosh 30 Jul 1870   (none)   0   (1829–1888)[31] Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Jul 1864–30 Apr 1866. Brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
* Martin D. Hardin 15 Dec 1870   (none)   0   (1837–1823)[31] Brigadier general of volunteers, 2 Jul 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
* William F. Lynch 15 Dec 1870   (none)   0   (1839–1876)[31][33][34] Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 31 Jan 1865.
* Joseph B. Kiddoo 15 Dec 1870   (none)   0   (1840–1880)[31][33][34] Brevet brigadier general, 2 Mar 1867; brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 15 Jun 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 4 Sep 1865.
* Samuel Ross 1 Jan 1871   (none)   0   (1822–1880)[31][33] Reduced to colonel on the retired list, 3 Mar 1875. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Apr 1865.
* Samuel W. Crawford 19 Feb 1873   (none)   0   (1829–1892)[35] Brigadier general of volunteers, 25 Apr 1862–15 Jun 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
88 George Crook 29 Oct 1873   6 Apr 1888   14   (1828–1890) Promoted to major general, 6 Apr 1888. Brigadier general of volunteers, 7 Sep 1862–21 Oct 1864; major general of volunteers, 21 Oct 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 18 Jul 1864.
89 Alexander E. Shiras 23 Jun 1874   14 Apr 1875   1   (1812–1875) Commissary General of Subsistence. Brevet brigadier general, 17 Sep 1864; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
90 Stephen V. Benét 23 Jun 1874   22 Jan 1891   17   (1827–1895) Chief of Ordnance.
91 Robert Macfeely 14 Apr 1875   1 Jul 1890   15   (1826–1900) Commissary General of Subsistence.
92 William M. Dunn 1 Dec 1875   22 Jan 1881   5   (1814–1887) Judge Advocate General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
* William H. Emory 1 Jul 1876   (none)   0   (1811–1887)[36] Brigadier general of volunteers, 17 Mar 1862–25 Sep 1865; major general of volunteers, 25 Sep 1865–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
93 Benjamin Alvord 22 Jul 1876   8 Jun 1880   4   (1813–1884) Paymaster General. Brigadier general of volunteers, 15 Apr 1862–8 Aug 1865. Brevet brigadier general, 9 Apr 1865.
94 Randolph B. Marcy 12 Dec 1878   2 Jan 1881   2   (1812–1887) Inspector General. Brigadier general of volunteers, 23 Sep 1861–17 Jul 1862 and 13 Sep 1862–4 Mar 1863. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
95 Horatio G. Wright 30 Jun 1879   6 Mar 1884   5   (1820–1899) Chief of Engineers. Brigadier general of volunteers, 14 Sep 1861–19 Jul 1862 and 24 Mar 1863–12 May 1864; major general of volunteers, 18 Jul 1862–24 Mar 1863 and 12 May 1864–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
96 Nathan W. Brown 8 Jun 1880   6 Feb 1882   2   (1818–1893) Paymaster General. Brevet brigadier general, 15 Oct 1867.
97 Richard C. Drum 15 Jun 1880   28 May 1889   9   (1825–1909) Adjutant General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
98 Albert J. Myer 16 Jun 1880   24 Aug 1880   0   (1828–1880) Chief Signal Officer. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
99 William B. Hazen 15 Dec 1880   16 Jan 1887   6   (1830–1887) Chief Signal Officer. Brigadier general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–13 Dec 1864; major general of volunteers, 13 Dec 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
100 Nelson A. Miles 15 Dec 1880   5 Apr 1890   9   (1839–1925) Promoted to major general, 5 Apr 1890; to lieutenant general, 2 Feb 1901. Senior major general of the line commanding the Army with rank of lieutenant general, 6 Jun 1900–2 Feb 1901. Brigadier general of volunteers, 12 May 1864–21 Oct 1865; major general of volunteers, 21 Oct 1865–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 2 Mar 1867; brevet major general of volunteers, 25 Aug 1864. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1863.
101 Delos B. Sackett 2 Jan 1881   8 Mar 1885   4   (1822–1885) Inspector General. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
102 David G. Swaim 18 Feb 1881   22 Dec 1894   14   (1834–1897)[37] Judge Advocate General.
103 Daniel H. Rucker 13 Feb 1882   23 Feb 1882   0   (1812–1910) Quartermaster General. Brigadier general of volunteers, 23 May 1863–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 5 Jul 1864; brevet major general and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
104 William B. Rochester 17 Feb 1882   15 Feb 1890   8   (1826–1909) Paymaster General.
105 Rufus Ingalls 23 Feb 1882   1 Jul 1883   1   (1818–1893) Quartermaster General. Brigadier general of volunteers, 23 May 1863–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
106 Charles H. Crane 3 Jul 1882   10 Oct 1883   1   (1825–1883) Surgeon General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865. Died in office.
107 Ranald S. Mackenzie 26 Oct 1882   24 Mar 1884   1   (1840–1889) Brigadier general of volunteers, 19 Oct 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 31 Mar 1865.
108 Samuel B. Holabird 1 Jul 1883   16 Jun 1890   7   (1826–1907) Quartermaster General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
109 Robert Murray 23 Nov 1883   6 Aug 1886   3   (1822–1913) Surgeon General.
110 John Newton 6 Mar 1884   27 Aug 1886   2   (1822–1895) Chief of Engineers. Brigadier general of volunteers, 23 Sep 1861–30 Mar 1863 and 18 Apr 1864–31 Jan 1866; major general of volunteers, 30 Mar 1863–18 Apr 1864. Brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, and brevet major general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
111 David S. Stanley 24 Mar 1884   1 Jun 1892   8   (1828–1902) Brigadier general of volunteers, 28 Sep 1861–29 Nov 1862; major general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–1 Feb 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1864.
112 Nelson H. Davis 11 Mar 1885   20 Sep 1885   1   (1821–1890) Inspector General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
113 John Gibbon 10 Jul 1885   20 Apr 1891   6   (1827–1896) Brigadier general of volunteers, 2 May 1862–7 Jun 1864; major general of volunteers, 7 Jun 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
114 Absalom Baird 22 Sep 1885   20 Aug 1888   3   (1824–1905) Inspector General. Brigadier general of volunteers, 28 Apr 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 1 Sep 1864. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1864.
115 Thomas H. Ruger 19 Mar 1886   8 Feb 1895   9   (1833–1907) Promoted to major general, 8 Feb 1895. Brigadier general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–1 Sep 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 2 Mar 1867; brevet major general of volunteers, 30 Nov 1864.
116 Joseph H. Potter 1 Apr 1886   12 Oct 1886   1   (1822–1892) Brigadier general of volunteers, 1 May 1865–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
117 James C. Duane 11 Oct 1886   30 Jun 1888   2   (1824–1897) Chief of Engineers. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
118 Orlando B. Willcox 13 Oct 1886   16 Apr 1887   1   (1823–1907) Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Jul 1861–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 2 Mar 1867; brevet major general of volunteers, 1 Aug 1864. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1861.
119 John Moore 18 Nov 1886   16 Aug 1890   4   (1826–1907) Surgeon General.
120 Adolphus W. Greely 3 Mar 1887   10 Feb 1906   19   (1844–1935) Chief Signal Officer. Promoted to major general, 10 Feb 1906. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1935.
121 Wesley Merritt 16 Apr 1887   25 Apr 1895   8   (1836–1910) Promoted to major general, 25 Apr 1895. Brigadier general of volunteers, 29 Jun 1863–1 Apr 1865; major general of volunteers, 1 Apr 1865–1 Feb 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 19 Oct 1864.
122 John R. Brooke 6 Apr 1888   22 May 1897   9   (1838–1926) Promoted to major general, 22 May 1897. Brigadier general of volunteers, 12 May 1864–1 Feb 1866. Brevet brigadier general, 2 Mar 1867; brevet major general of volunteers, 1 Aug 1864.
123 Thomas L. Casey 6 Jul 1888   10 May 1895   7   (1831–1896) Chief of Engineers.
124 Roger Jones 20 Aug 1888   26 Jan 1889   0   (1831–1889) Inspector General. Died in office.
125 Joseph C. Breckinridge 30 Jan 1889   11 Apr 1903   14   (1842–1920) Inspector General. Promoted to major general, 11 Apr 1903. Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–30 Nov 1898.
126 John C. Kelton 7 Jun 1889   24 Jun 1892   3   (1828–1893) Adjutant General.
127 William Smith 10 Mar 1890   26 Mar 1895   5   (1831–1912) Paymaster General.
128 Benjamin H. Grierson 5 Apr 1890   8 Jul 1890   0   (1826–1911) Brigadier general of volunteers, 3 Jun 1863–27 May 1865; major general of volunteers, 27 May 1865–30 Apr 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 2 Mar 1867; brevet major general of volunteers, 10 Feb 1865.
129 Richard N. Batchelder 26 Jun 1890   27 Jul 1896   6   (1832–1901) Quartermaster General. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1863.
130 Beekman Du Barry 10 Jul 1890   4 Dec 1892   2   (1828–1901) Commissary General of Subsistence.
131 Alexander M. McCook 11 Jul 1890   9 Nov 1894   4   (1831–1903) Promoted to major general, 9 Nov 1894. Brigadier general of volunteers, 3 Sep 1861–17 Jul 1862; major general of volunteers, 17 Jul 1862–21 Oct 1865. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865.
132 Jedediah H. Baxter 16 Aug 1890   4 Dec 1890   0   (1837–1890) Surgeon General. Died in office.
133 Charles Sutherland 23 Dec 1890   29 Mar 1893   2   (1829–1895) Surgeon General.
134 Daniel W. Flagler 23 Jan 1891   29 Mar 1899   8   (1835–1899) Chief of Ordnance. Died in office.
135 August V. Kautz 20 Apr 1891   5 Jan 1892   1   (1828–1895) Brigadier general of volunteers, 7 May 1864–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 28 Oct 1864.
136 Frank Wheaton 18 Apr 1892   2 Apr 1897   5   (1833–1903) Promoted to major general, 2 Apr 1897. Brigadier general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–30 Apr 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 19 Oct 1864.
137 Robert Williams 5 Jul 1892   5 Nov 1893   1   (1829–1901) Adjutant General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
138 Eugene A. Carr 19 Jul 1892   15 Feb 1893   1   (1830–1910)[23] Brigadier general of volunteers, 7 Mar 1862–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 11 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862.
139 John P. Hawkins 22 Dec 1892   29 Sep 1894   2   (1830–1914) Commissary General of Subsistence. Brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Apr 1863–1 Feb 1866. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 30 Jun 1865.
140 William P. Carlin 17 May 1893   24 Nov 1893   1   (1829–1903) Brigadier general of volunteers, 29 Nov 1862–24 Aug 1865. Brevet brigadier general and brevet major general, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general of volunteers, 19 Mar 1865.
141 George M. Sternberg 30 May 1893   8 Jun 1902   9   (1838–1915) Surgeon General.
142 George D. Ruggles 6 Nov 1893   11 Sep 1897   4   (1833–1904) Adjutant General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
143 Elwell S. Otis 28 Nov 1893   16 Jun 1900   7   (1838–1909) Promoted to major general, 16 Jun 1900. Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–16 Jun 1900. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865; brevet major general, 4 Feb 1899.
144 Michael R. Morgan 8 Oct 1894   18 Jan 1897   2   (1833–1911) Commissary General of Subsistence. Brevet brigadier general, 9 Apr 1865.
145 James W. Forsyth 9 Nov 1894   11 May 1897   3   (1835–1906) Promoted to major general, 11 May 1897. Brigadier general of volunteers, 19 May 1865–15 Jan 1866. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 19 Oct 1864; brevet brigadier general, 9 Apr 1865.
146 Guido N. Lieber 3 Jan 1895   21 May 1901   6   (1837–1923)[37] Judge Advocate General.
147 Thaddeus H. Stanton 26 Mar 1895   30 Jan 1899   4   (1835–1900) Paymaster General.
148 Zenas R. Bliss 25 Apr 1895   14 May 1897   2   (1835–1900) Promoted to major general, 14 May 1897. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862.
149 John J. Coppinger 25 Apr 1895   11 Oct 1898   3   (1834–1909) Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–31 Oct 1898.
150 William P. Craighill 10 May 1895   1 Feb 1897   2   (1833–1909) Chief of Engineers.
151 Charles G. Sawtelle 19 Aug 1896   16 Feb 1897   0   (1834–1913) Quartermaster General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
152 Thomas C. Sullivan 18 Jan 1897   14 Nov 1897   1   (1833–1908) Commissary General of Subsistence.
153 John M. Wilson 1 Feb 1897   30 Apr 1901   4   (1837–1919) Chief of Engineers. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862.
154 George H. Weeks 16 Feb 1897   2 Feb 1898   1   (1834–1905) Quartermaster General.
155 William R. Shafter 3 May 1897   16 Oct 1899   2   (1835–1906) Promoted to major general on the retired list, 1 Jul 1901. Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–30 Jun 1901. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862.
156 William M. Graham 26 May 1897   28 Sep 1898   1   (1834–1916) Promoted to major general on the retired list, 4 Mar 1915. Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–30 Nov 1898. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
157 John K. Mizner 26 May 1897   7 Jun 1897   0   (1834–1898) Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
158 James F. Wade 26 May 1897   13 Apr 1903   6   (1843–1921) Promoted to major general, 13 Apr 1903. Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–12 Jun 1899. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Feb 1865.
159 Anson Mills 16 Jun 1897   22 Jun 1897   0   (1834–1924)
160 Caleb H. Carlton 28 Jun 1897   30 Jun 1897   0   (1836–1923)
161 Henry C. Merriam 30 Jun 1897   13 Nov 1901   4   (1837–1912)[38] Promoted to major general on the retired list, 19 Feb 1903. Major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–24 Feb 1899. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1865.
162 Samuel Breck 11 Sep 1897   25 Feb 1898   0   (1834–1918) Adjutant General. Brevet brigadier general, 13 Mar 1865.
163 William H. Bell 14 Nov 1897   28 Jan 1898   0   (1834–1906) Commissary General of Subsistence.
164 Samuel T. Cushing 28 Jan 1898   21 Apr 1898   0   (1839–1901) Commissary General of Subsistence.
165 Marshall I. Ludington 3 Feb 1898   12 Apr 1903   5   (1839–1919) Quartermaster General. Promoted to major general, 12 Apr 1903. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
166 Henry C. Corbin 25 Feb 1898   6 Jun 1900   2   (1842–1909)[39] Adjutant General with rank of brigadier general, 25 Feb 1898–6 Jun 1900; with rank of major general, 6 Jun 1900–15 Apr 1906. Promoted to lieutenant general, 15 Apr 1906. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865.
167 William H. Nash 21 Apr 1898   2 May 1898   0   (1834–1902) Commissary General of Subsistence.
168 Charles P. Eagan 3 May 1898   6 Dec 1900   3   (1841–1919) Commissary General of Subsistence.
169 Hamilton S. Hawkins 28 Sep 1898   4 Oct 1898   0   (1834–1910) Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–8 Jul 1898; major general of volunteers, 8 Jul 1898–30 Nov 1898.
170 Jacob F. Kent 4 Oct 1898   15 Oct 1898   0   (1835–1918) Promoted to major general on the retired list, 4 Mar 1915. Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–8 Jul 1898; major general of volunteers, 8 Jul 1898–30 Nov 1898.
171 Guy V. Henry 11 Oct 1898   27 Oct 1899   0   (1839–1899) Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–7 Dec 1898; major general of volunteers, 7 Dec 1898–12 Jun 1899. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 28 Oct 1864; brevet brigadier general, 27 Feb 1890. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1864. Died in office.
172 William S. Worth 29 Oct 1898   9 Nov 1898   0   (1840–1904) Brigadier general of volunteers, 12 Jul 1898–30 Oct 1898.
173 William M. Wherry 7 Jan 1899   18 Jan 1899   0   (1836–1918) Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Sep 1898–30 Nov 1898. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Mar 1865. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1861.
174 John H. Patterson 18 Jan 1899   6 Feb 1899   0   (1843–1920) Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Sep 1898–30 Nov 1898. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1864.
175 Asa B. Carey 30 Jan 1899   12 Jul 1899   0   (1835–1912) Paymaster General.
176 William Sinclair 8 Feb 1899   13 Feb 1899   0   (1835–1905)
177 Marcus P. Miller 15 Feb 1899   27 Mar 1899   0   (1835–1906) Brigadier general of volunteers, 27 May 1898–28 Feb 1899.
178 Frederick C. Ainsworth 2 Mar 1899   23 Apr 1904   5   (1852–1934) Chief of Records and Pension Office, 2 Mar 1899–23 Apr 1904; Military Secretary with rank of major general, 23 Apr 1904–5 Mar 1907; The Adjutant General with rank of major general, 5 Mar 1907–16 Feb 1912.
179 Edwin V. Sumner Jr. 27 Mar 1899   30 Mar 1899   0   (1835–1912) Brigadier general of volunteers, 27 May 1898–24 Feb 1899. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 28 Mar 1865.
180 Thomas M. Anderson 31 Mar 1899   21 Jan 1900   1   (1836–1917) Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–13 Aug 1898; major general of volunteers, 13 Aug 1898–12 Jun 1899.
181 Adelbert R. Buffington 5 Apr 1899   22 Nov 1901   3   (1837–1922) Chief of Ordnance.
182 Alfred E. Bates 12 Jul 1899   21 Jan 1904   5   (1840–1909) Paymaster General. Promoted to major general, 21 Jan 1904. Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–31 Oct 1898.
183 Alexander C. M. Pennington 16 Oct 1899   17 Oct 1899   0   (1838–1917) Promoted to major general on the retired list, 29 Aug 1916. Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–12 Apr 1899. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 15 Jul 1865.
184 Royal T. Frank 17 Oct 1899   18 Oct 1899   0   (1836–1908) Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–12 May 1899.
185 Louis H. Carpenter 18 Oct 1899   19 Oct 1899   0   (1839–1916) Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–12 Jun 1899. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1868.
186 Samuel Ovenshine 19 Oct 1899   20 Oct 1899   0   (1843–1932) Brigadier general of volunteers, 13 Aug 1898–17 Apr 1899 and 17 Apr 1899–20 Oct 1899.
187 Daniel W. Burke 20 Oct 1899   21 Oct 1899   0   (1841–1911) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862.
188 Gilbert S. Carpenter 5 Dec 1899   26 Dec 1899   0   (1836–1904) Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Sep 1898–12 May 1899.
189 Edgar R. Kellogg 5 Dec 1899   16 Dec 1899   0   (1842–1914) Brigadier general of volunteers, 1 Oct 1898–24 Feb 1899.
190 Samuel B. M. Young 2 Jan 1900   2 Feb 1901   1   (1840–1924) Promoted to major general, 2 Feb 1901; to lieutenant general, 8 Aug 1903. Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–8 Jul 1898 and 13 Apr 1899–10 Jan 1900; major general of volunteers, 8 Jul 1898–13 Apr 1899. Brevet brigadier general of volunteers, 9 Apr 1865.
191 Arthur MacArthur 2 Jan 1900   5 Feb 1901   1   (1845–1912) Promoted to major general, 5 Feb 1901; to lieutenant general, 15 Sep 1906. Brigadier general of volunteers, 27 May 1898–13 Aug 1898; major general of volunteers, 13 Aug 1898–18 Feb 1901. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1863.
192 William Ludlow 21 Jan 1900   30 Aug 1901   2   (1843–1901) Brigadier general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–7 Sep 1898 and 13 Apr 1899–21 Jan 1900; major general of volunteers, 7 Sep 1898–13 Apr 1899. Died in office.
193 Joseph Wheeler 16 Jun 1900   10 Sep 1900   0   (1836–1906) Confederate States Provisional Army brigadier general, 30 Oct 1862–20 Jan 1863, and major general, 20 Jan 1863–8 Jun 1865; major general of volunteers, 4 May 1898–12 Apr 1899; brigadier general of volunteers, 12 Apr 1899–16 Jun 1900.
194 John F. Weston 6 Dec 1900   8 Oct 1905   5   (1845–1917) Commissary General of Subsistence. Promoted to major general, 8 Oct 1905. Brigadier general of volunteers, 21 Sep 1898–24 Mar 1899. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1865.
195 Henry B. Freeman 16 Jan 1901   17 Jan 1901   0   (1837–1915) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1862.

Timeline[edit]

Line[edit]

By February 1, 1901, there were six brigadier generals of the line (brig.gen. 1–6). An officer held the permanent grade of brigadier general (Brig.gen.) until his death; retirement; resignation; discharge; dismissal; or promotion to a higher permanent grade such as major general (Maj.gen.), lieutenant general (Lt.gen.), or general (Gen.). An officer's Regular Army grade was not affected by brevet appointments (bvt.) or appointments in other organizations such as the United States Volunteers (vols.) or the Confederate States Army (CSA).

Henry Blanchard Freeman Joseph Wheeler William Ludlow Arthur MacArthur, Jr. Samuel Baldwin Marks Young Edgar Romeyn Kellogg Gilbert Saltonstall Carpenter Daniel Webster Burke Samuel Ovenshine Louis Henry Carpenter Royal Thaxter Frank Alexander Cummings McWhorter Pennington, Jr. Thomas M. Anderson Edwin Vose Sumner, Jr. Marcus Peter Miller William Sinclair (general) John Henry Patterson (soldier) William Macky Wherry William Scott Worth Guy Vernor Henry Jacob Ford Kent Hamilton S. Hawkins Henry Clay Merriam Caleb Henry Carlton Anson Mills James F. Wade John Kemp Mizner William Montrose Graham, Jr. William Rufus Shafter John Joseph Coppinger Zenas Bliss James W. Forsyth Elwell Stephen Otis William P. Carlin Eugene Asa Carr Frank Wheaton August Kautz Alexander McDowell McCook Benjamin H. Grierson John R. Brooke Wesley Merritt Orlando B. Willcox Joseph H. Potter Thomas H. Ruger John Gibbon David S. Stanley Ranald S. Mackenzie Nelson A. Miles George Crook Christopher C. Augur Lovell Rousseau Edward Canby Edward Ord Alfred Terry Oliver O. Howard John Schofield Philip Sheridan Winfield Scott Hancock George Henry Thomas James B. McPherson William Tecumseh Sherman George Meade Joseph Hooker John Pope (military officer) Philip St. George Cooke William Rosecrans Robert Anderson (Civil War) Irvin McDowell Joseph K. Mansfield Edwin Vose Sumner William S. Harney Persifor Frazer Smith Enos D. Hopping George Cadwalader Franklin Pierce Stephen W. Kearny David E. Twiggs John E. Wool Henry Atkinson (soldier) Andrew Jackson Eleazar W. Ripley Winfield Scott Edmund P. Gaines Daniel Bissell (general) Thomas A. Smith (War of 1812) Alexander Macomb (American general) Leonard Covington Jacob Brown David Rogerson Williams Benjamin Howard (Missouri) Lewis Cass Duncan McArthur William H. Winder George Izard Thomas Parker (general) John Parker Boyd William Henry Harrison John Chandler John Armstrong, Jr. Thomas Humphrey Cushing Thomas Flournoy (general) William Hull James Winchester Joseph Bloomfield Peter Gansevoort Wade Hampton I William Washington Thomas Posey Rufus Putnam John Brooks (governor) James Wilkinson

Staff[edit]

By February 1, 1901, there were ten brigadier generals of the staff: the Quartermaster General (Q.m.Gen.), the Inspector General (Insp.Gen.), the Chief of Ordnance (C.of Ord.), the Surgeon General (Surg.Gen.), the Commissary General of Subsistence (C.G.of S.), the Chief of Engineers (C.of Eng.), the Judge Advocate General (J.A.G.), the Paymaster General (P.m.Gen.), the Chief Signal Officer (C.S.O.), and the Chief of the Records and Pension Office (C.of R.P.O.). In addition, the office of Adjutant General (Adj.Gen.) was scheduled to revert to brigadier general rank after the term of its then-incumbent.

John Francis Weston Alfred Elliott Bates Adelbert Rinaldo Buffington Fred C. Ainsworth Asa Bacon Carey Charles Patrick Eagan William Hoit Nash Henry Clarke Corbin Marshall Independence Ludington Samuel Tobey Cushing William Hemphill Bell Samuel Breck (general) George Henry Weeks John Moulder Wilson Thomas Crook Sullivan Charles Greene Sawtelle William Price Craighill Thaddeus Harlan Stanton Guido Norman Lieber Michael Ryan Morgan George D. Ruggles George Miller Sternberg John Parker Hawkins Robert Williams (general) Daniel Webster Flagler Charles Sutherland Jedediah Hyde Baxter Beekman Du Barry Richard Napoleon Batchelder William Smith (Paymaster General) John C. Kelton Joseph Cabell Breckinridge, Sr. Roger Jones (Inspector General) Thomas Lincoln Casey Adolphus Greely John Moore (physician) James Chatham Duane Absalom Baird Nelson Henry Davis John Newton (engineer) Robert Murray (physician) Samuel Beckley Holabird Charles H. Crane Rufus Ingalls William Beatty Rochester (general) Daniel Henry Rucker David Gaskill Swaim Delos Bennett Sackett William Babcock Hazen Albert J. Myer Richard C. Drum Nathan W. Brown Horatio Wright Randolph B. Marcy Benjamin Alvord (mathematician) William M. Dunn Robert Macfeely Stephen Vincent Benét (general) Alexander E. Shiras Edward D. Townsend Andrew A. Humphreys Benjamin Brice John Aaron Rawlins Alexander Brydie Dyer Joseph Barnes Amos Beebe Eaton Joseph Holt Richard Delafield James Barnet Fry George D. Ramsay Joseph G. Totten Joseph Pannell Taylor William Alexander Hammond James Wolfe Ripley Lorenzo Thomas Montgomery C. Meigs Joseph E. Johnston Thomas Jesup Daniel Parker (general) Robert Swartwout William H. Winder Zebulon Pike Alexander Smyth Thomas H. Cushing Morgan Lewis (governor) William North

History[edit]

Northwest Indian War[edit]

For the first two years of its existence, the United States Army was so small that its highest-ranking officer was a lieutenant colonel, Josiah Harmar, who, as the Army's senior officer, held the rank of brigadier general only by brevet. The substantive grades of major general and brigadier general were created in 1791 when the Army was expanded to fight the Northwest Indian War; a major general was immediately appointed to supersede Harmar, in whom confidence had been lost following his defeat the year before, but the brigadier general grade remained vacant until Harmar resigned in early 1792, whereupon the Army's only other lieutenant colonel, James Wilkinson, became its first substantive brigadier general.[40]

In response to its early setbacks the Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, merging its separate infantry, cavalry, and artillery regiments into four combined-arms sub-legions. To entice former Continental Army generals to command the sub-legions, Congress authorized four additional brigadier generalcies, but so many candidates declined these appointments that the sub-legions had to be commanded by lieutenant colonels instead. The additional brigadier generalcies expired along with the grade of major general when the Army reconstituted its regiments after the war, leaving Wilkinson as the Army's senior officer and sole brigadier general.[41]

Quasi-War[edit]

In July 1798 the Quasi-War with France induced Congress to augment the Regular Army by raising a Provisional Army for the duration of the conflict. In addition to the general officers commissioned in the Provisional Army, the Regular Army was authorized three more brigadier generals of the line and an Adjutant General with the ex officio rank of brigadier general. John Brooks, William Washington, and Jonathan Dayton were appointed brigadier generals of the line and William North was appointed Adjutant General, but only Washington and North accepted their commissions. Both were discharged when Congress disbanded the Provisional Army in June 1800, again leaving Wilkinson as the only brigadier general.[42]

War of 1812[edit]

Tensions arising from the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair led Congress to triple the authorized strength of the Army in 1808, for a total of three brigadier generals: Wilkinson, Wade Hampton, and Peter Gansevoort.[1] Four years later, with the War of 1812 looming, Congress authorized a massive expansion of the military establishment, led by two major generals; five more brigadier generals of the line; and an adjutant general, an inspector general, and a quartermaster general with ex officio ranks of brigadier general.[43] Dubbed "cabinet generals," the initial cohort of general officers were selected based on mostly political criteria, and their disastrous performance early in the war led them to be phased out in favor of proven "fighting generals" like Andrew Jackson, Jacob J. Brown, and Winfield Scott.[44]

After the war the Army reverted to a much smaller peacetime establishment. Of the fifteen brigadier generals in the Army at the beginning of 1815, only five were retained in grade: Alexander Macomb, Edmund P. Gaines, Winfield Scott, Eleazar W. Ripley, and Adjutant and Inspector General Daniel Parker. The remaining ten either resigned, were discharged as surplus in grade, or were retained in the Army at the grade of colonel.[45] In 1821 another round of Army cuts reduced Macomb, Parker, and Henry T. Atkinson to colonel, leaving Gaines, Scott, and Quartermaster General Thomas S. Jesup as the Army's only brigadier generals. Gaines, Scott, and Jesup would monopolize the rank for a generation, spending a combined total of 104 years as brigadier generals. Jesup, appointed Quartermaster General at the age of 30, would serve a record 42 years as brigadier general, finally dying in office on the eve of the Civil War. Scott was promoted to major general in 1841 and was succeeded by Inspector General John E. Wool, the first promotion to brigadier general in over twenty years.[1]

Mexican War[edit]

The Mexican War triggered a temporary increase in the number of general officers. In 1846 Congress authorized two additional brigadier generals on the condition that they be discharged immediately upon the ratification of a peace treaty; career Regular Army officers David E. Twiggs and Stephen W. Kearny were promoted to the new grades. The next year, three more wartime grades were authorized; Franklin Pierce, George Cadwalader, and Enos D. Hopping were appointed directly from civilian life. Hopping died a few months after his appointment, and the two remaining civilian generals were duly discharged at the end of the war, but Congress allowed Twiggs and Kearny to remain in grade while normal attrition reduced the number of brigadier generals to the desired peacetime total. Gaines and Kearny died within a year, leaving Wool and Twiggs as the two brigadier generals of the line authorized by statute.[46]

In 1855 Congress increased the Army by four regiments and added a third brigadier generalcy of the line, which it intended for Illinois Senator James Shields, a former brigadier general of volunteers during the Mexican War who had just been defeated for reelection to the Senate. However, Scott, the Army's only major general, was almost seventy years old and likely to be succeeded by a brigadier general of the line. Since Wool and Twiggs were around the same age as Scott, the person appointed to the third brigadier generalcy could reasonably expect to become the next commanding general of the Army. Rather than vault the civilian Shields to potential command of the professional Army in a single bound, the administration instead promoted Colonel Persifor F. Smith, a distinguished career officer.[47] Ironically, Wool and Twiggs both outlived Smith, who died unexpectedly in 1858 and was succeeded by Colonel William S. Harney.

In the end, none of the Army's prewar generals would retain high command in the United States Army during the Civil War. Of the five general officers in the Regular Army at the outbreak of hostilities, Scott retired almost immediately, Wool and Harney were sidelined and retired midway through the war, Twiggs was dismissed for treason after surrendering the garrison in Texas, and Quartermaster General Joseph E. Johnston resigned to join the Confederate States Army.

Civil War[edit]

During the Civil War Congress augmented the permanent Regular Army with a massive temporary force of volunteers and conscripts. The overwhelming majority of Civil War brigadier generals were appointed to that grade only in the volunteer service, so hundreds of wartime generals lost their ranks when the volunteers were disbanded after the war.

Early wartime vacancies in the Regular Army grade of brigadier general were filled on the basis of prewar experience or anticipated brilliance, and included Colonels Edwin V. Sumner and Philip S. G. Cooke, Inspector General Joseph K. F. Mansfield, and Major Robert Anderson, all senior stalwarts of the peacetime Army; plus two relative newcomers, Brevet Assistant Adjutant General Irvin McDowell and former First Lieutenant William S. Rosecrans. By mid-1862 permanent Regular Army brigadier generalcies were being dangled as rewards for particularly successful volunteer generals, many of whom had been civilians or very junior Regular officers before the war; these later appointments went to Colonels William T. Sherman and George H. Thomas; Major Winfield S. Hancock; Captains John Pope, George G. Meade, James B. McPherson, Philip H. Sheridan, and John M. Schofield; former Captain Joseph Hooker; and First Lieutenant Oliver O. Howard — all major generals of volunteers — and civilian Alfred H. Terry, a brigadier general of volunteers.[48]

Most of the Army's wartime bureau chiefs were eventually elevated to the ex officio rank of brigadier general, including the Adjutant General, the Chief of Ordnance, the Surgeon General, the Commissary General of Subsistence, the Chief of Engineers, and the Judge Advocate General. In 1864 James B. Fry was appointed Provost Marshal General with the rank of brigadier general to administer the non-Regular volunteers and draftees; unique among ex officio general officers of this era, Fry lost his rank when his office was abolished after the volunteers were disbanded in 1866. In 1865 Congress established the office of Chief of Staff to the Lieutenant General with ex officio rank of brigadier general as a mechanism to transfer Brigadier General of Volunteers John A. Rawlins to the Regular Army so that he could continue to serve as Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant's principal military assistant after the war; the office terminated when Rawlins became President Grant's first Secretary of War in 1869.[49]

The postwar demobilization of the volunteers reduced most Civil War officers to much lower permanent grades in the Regular Army or to civilian life, so in 1866 Congress tripled the size of the Regular Army to create enough new force structure to reward officers with the grades their wartime service merited. To recognize the many outstanding volunteer officers who had not been professional soldiers before the war, half of the new commissions were reserved for civilian volunteers and the other half for prewar professionals.[50] As a result, many civilian volunteers gained seniority over long-serving Regulars with similar or better records. For example, by 1886 Wesley Merritt stood only eleventh on the list of colonels of the line despite having outranked during the war all ten colonels now senior to him; Merritt was appointed only a lieutenant colonel in 1866, while civilians like Thomas H. Ruger and Orlando B. Willcox were appointed to colonelcies for which Merritt, a Regular officer, was ineligible, and twenty years later Ruger and Willcox were both promoted to brigadier general ahead of him.[51]

Postwar[edit]

Promotions in the Regular Army ground almost to a halt in the years following the Civil War, largely due to the glut of Civil War heroes who were rewarded with senior grades at a relatively young age and then camped in those grades for decades; dramatic reductions in the size of the peacetime military establishment squeezed the promotion bottleneck even tighter. Congress cut the number of brigadier generals of the line to eight in 1869 and to six a year later; death, retirement, and murder eventually cleared the path for Lieutenant Colonel George Crook to become a brigadier general of the line in 1873, the only such promotion between 1869 and 1880. Promotions did not resume their normal flow until Congress instituted a mandatory retirement age of sixty-four in 1882.[52]

Famous field grade officers campaigned openly for every vacancy in the grade of brigadier general. The Civil War "boy generals" — Colonels Nelson A. Miles and Ranald S. Mackenzie and Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer — became particularly notorious for their ruthless maneuvers to regain their wartime ranks.[53] Custer was killed in 1876 making his eponymous last stand at the Little Bighorn and Mackenzie was promoted to brigadier general in 1882 but pronounced hopelessly insane two years later and involuntarily retired, but Miles — promoted to brigadier general in 1880 when President Rutherford B. Hayes agreed to accelerate Army promotions by involuntarily retiring Brigadier General Edward O. C. Ord — ascended to command of the entire Army and retired as a lieutenant general.[54]

Political patronage weighed heavily in general officer appointments during this period. In January 1892 Secretary of War Stephen B. Elkins wanted to promote Colonel Eugene A. Carr to a vacant brigadier generalcy, but Elkins' influential predecessor, Vermont Senator Redfield Proctor, lobbied vigorously for Colonel Elwell S. Otis, while Commanding General of the Army John A. Schofield backed Colonel William P. Carlin, Senate Military Affairs Committee Chairman Joseph R. Hawley backed Colonel James W. Forsyth, and President pro tempore of the Senate Charles F. Manderson backed Colonel Frank Wheaton,[55] who ultimately received the appointment in April. When the next vacancy opened in June, Elkins, Proctor, and Schofield agreed that Carr would be promoted but request to retire early so that Carlin could also be promoted and retired in time for Otis to be promoted before the end of President Benjamin Harrison's administration; since Carr had only two years until statutory retirement but Otis had more than a decade, this sequence would prevent the grade from falling vacant during the next four-year presidential term, thereby denying Harrison's successor an opportunity to reward a supporter. However, once promoted, Carr angrily repudiated this arrangement, claiming no one had told him he would have to retire early, so Harrison retired him involuntarily and nominated Otis for immediate promotion, skipping Carlin entirely.[56] Carlin was promoted anyway when Otis agreed to defer his promotion at the behest of the next President, Grover Cleveland, who remembered Carlin fondly from a brief period of shared service early in the Civil War.[57]

Spanish–American War[edit]

Congress raised a new force of volunteers to fight the Spanish–American War in 1898, and mustered a second volunteer force a year later for the Philippine–American War. In contrast to previous wars, no additional general officers were authorized in the Regular Army, confining the expansion of the general officer corps entirely to the non-permanent volunteer service. Echoing Civil War practice, volunteer generals were drawn from both Regular officers and civilians, with particularly prominent volunteer generals being rewarded with permanent brigadier generalcies in the Regular Army, including former Confederate major general Joseph Wheeler.

Many of the Army's wartime supply problems were blamed on the unusually rapid turnover of bureau chiefs before and during the war — four Quartermasters General and six Commissaries General of Subsistence in the 30 months before the war — due to a peacetime personnel policy that promoted general officers based on past service rather than future merit.[1] In February 1882 President Chester A. Arthur involuntarily retired sixty-five-year-old Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs in order to give seventy-year-old Assistant Quartermaster General Daniel H. Rucker the chance to be Quartermaster General himself before he died. Rucker served as Quartermaster General for only ten days before being retired at his own request, inaugurating a decades-long tradition of briefly elevating elderly staff officers to the top of their bureau as a reward for long service.[58]

The use of brigadier generalcies as retirement gifts spread to the line in 1886 when Colonel Joseph H. Potter was promoted to brigadier general only six months before his statutory retirement date, signaling a shift in promotion policy to reward distinguished Civil War veterans with higher retired rank and pay.[59] Potter was succeeded by Colonel Orlando B. Willcox, another six-month general who was succeeded on a more permanent basis by Colonel Wesley Merritt. As such lame duck generals became more common, their tenure in grade dropped from months to weeks to days, finally hitting bottom in October 1899 when a single vacant brigadier generalcy cycled through five occupants in five days, each officer in turn being promoted one day and retired the next.[60]

The reorganization of the peacetime Army after the Spanish–American War more than doubled the number of brigadier generals of the line, allowing the administration to strike a balance between rewarding aging war heroes who would retire in months or even hours, and elevating more vigorous leaders who could lead the Army for years. By March 1906 the Army's retired list included 115 brigadier generals who had been promoted to that grade on the active list and immediately retired, plus another 101 who had been promoted on the retired list, so Congress called an end to the parade of one-day generals by requiring general officers to serve at least one year in grade before requesting retirement.[61]

Legislative history[edit]

The following list of Congressional legislation includes all acts of Congress directly pertaining to appointments to the grade of brigadier general in the Regular Army.[62] It does not include legislation pertaining solely to appointments to that grade in the non-permanent establishment, or by brevet.

Each entry lists an act of Congress, its citation in the United States Statutes at Large, the total number of active-duty brigadier generals authorized subsequent to the act, the subsequent number of active-duty brigadier generals of the line, the subsequent number of active-duty brigadier generals of the staff, and a summary of the act's relevance.

Legislation Citation Total Line Staff Summary
Act of March 3, 1791   1 Stat. 222 1 1 0
  • Authorized one brigadier general.
Act of March 28, 1792   1 Stat. 246 5 5 0
  • Authorized up to four additional brigadier generals.
Act of May 30, 1796   1 Stat. 463 1 1 0
  • Established total of one brigadier general.
Act of July 16, 1798   1 Stat. 604 5 4 1
  • Authorized three additional brigadier generals.
  • Established Adjutant General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of March 16, 1802   2 Stat. 132 1 1 0
  • Established total of one brigadier general.
  • Abolished Adjutant General.
Act of April 12, 1808   2 Stat. 481 3 3 0
  • Authorized two additional brigadier generals.
Act of January 11, 1812   2 Stat. 671 10 8 2
  • Authorized five additional brigadier generals.
  • Established Adjutant General with rank of brigadier general.
  • Established Inspector General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of March 28, 1812   2 Stat. 696 11 8 3
  • Established Quartermaster General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of July 6, 1812   2 Stat. 784 13 10 3
  • Authorized two additional brigadier generals.
Act of February 24, 1813   2 Stat. 801 19 16 3
  • Authorized six additional brigadier generals.
Act of March 3, 1813   2 Stat. 819 18 16 2
  • Merged Adjutant General and Inspector General into Adjutant and Inspector General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of March 3, 1815   3 Stat. 224 4 4 0
  • Established total of four brigadier generals.
  • Abolished Adjutant and Inspector General.
  • Abolished Quartermaster General.
Act of April 24, 1816   3 Stat. 297 5 4 1
  • Established Adjutant and Inspector General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of April 14, 1818   3 Stat. 426 6 4 2
  • Established Quartermaster General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of March 2, 1821   3 Stat. 615 3 2 1
  • Established total of two brigadier generals.
  • Split Adjutant and Inspector General into Adjutant General and Inspector General with ranks of colonel.
Act of June 18, 1846   9 Stat. 17 5 4 1
  • Authorized two additional brigadier generals, to be discharged at the end of the Mexican War.
Act of March 3, 1847   9 Stat. 184 8 7 1
  • Authorized three additional brigadier generals, to be discharged at the end of the Mexican War.
Act of July 19, 1848   9 Stat. 247 3 2 1
  • Repealed requirement to immediately discharge the additional brigadier generals authorized by Act of June 18, 1846.
  • Suspended all promotions to general officer until total reduced to one major general and two brigadier generals.
Act of March 3, 1855 10 Stat. 639 4 3 1
  • Authorized one additional brigadier general.
Act of July 19, 1861 12 Stat. 279 10 9 1
  • Authorized six additional brigadier generals.
Act of August 3, 1861 12 Stat. 287 12 9 3
  • Increased rank of Adjutant General to brigadier general.
  • Established Chief of Ordnance with rank of brigadier general.
  • Mandated retirement for disability at full pay for at most seven percent of the authorized officer strength.
Act of April 16, 1862 12 Stat. 378 13 9 4
  • Increased rank of Surgeon General to brigadier general.
Act of February 9, 1863 12 Stat. 648 14 9 5
  • Established Commissary General of Subsistence with rank of brigadier general.
Act of March 3, 1863 12 Stat. 743 15 9 6
  • Established Chief of Engineers with rank of brigadier general.
Act of April 21, 1864 13 Stat. 54 16 9 7
  • Established Provost Marshal General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of June 20, 1864 13 Stat. 144 17 9 8
  • Established Judge Advocate General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of March 3, 1865 13 Stat. 500 18 9 9
  • Established Chief of Staff to the Lieutenant General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of July 25, 1866 14 Stat. 223 18 9 9
  • Retitled Chief of Staff to the Lieutenant General as Chief of Staff to the General.
Act of July 28, 1866 14 Stat. 332 19 10 9
Act of March 3, 1869 15 Stat. 318 17 8 9
  • Established total of eight brigadier generals.
  • Suspended promotions to brigadier general until total reduced below eight.
Act of April 3, 1869 16 Stat. 6 16 8 8
  • Abolished Chief of Staff to the General.
Joint Resolution No. 35 of April 12, 1870 16 Stat. 663 16 8 8
  • Increased retired pay of Gabriel R. Paul to the full pay of a brigadier general.
Act of July 15, 1870 16 Stat. 318 14 6 8
  • Established total of six brigadier generals.
  • Suspended promotions to brigadier general until total reduced below six.
Act of June 4, 1872 17 Stat. 219 13 6 7
  • Reduced rank of Paymaster General to colonel.
Act of March 3, 1875 18 Stat. 512 13 6 7
Act of June 26, 1876 19 Stat. 60 13 6 7
Act of July 10, 1876 19 Stat. 447 13 6 7
  • Increased retired pay of Clement A. Finley to that of a Surgeon General with rank of brigadier general.
Act of July 22, 1876 19 Stat. 95 14 6 8
  • Increased rank of Paymaster General to brigadier general.
Act of March 15, 1878 20 Stat. 511 14 6 8
Act of December 12, 1878 20 Stat. 257 15 6 9
  • Increased rank of Inspector General to brigadier general.
Act of June 16, 1880 21 Stat. 267 16 6 10
  • Increased rank of Chief Signal Officer to brigadier general.
Act of January 28, 1881 21 Stat. 321 16 6 10
  • Authorized promotion of Edward O. C. Ord to major general on the retired list.
Act of June 30, 1882 22 Stat. 118 16 6 10
  • Mandated retirement at sixty-four years of age.
  • Authorized retirement after forty years of service as an officer or soldier in the regular or volunteer service.
Act of February 27, 1889 25 Stat. 748 17 7 10
  • Temporarily authorized one additional brigadier general for the purpose of appointing William S. Rosecrans to be retired in that grade.
Act of March 2, 1899 30 Stat. 979 17 6 11
  • Temporarily increased rank of Chief of Records and Pension Office to brigadier general for term of present incumbent (Frederick C. Ainsworth, appointed Military Secretary with rank of major general, April 23, 1904).
Act of June 6, 1900 31 Stat. 645 16 6 10
  • Temporarily increased rank of Adjutant General to major general for term of present incumbent (Henry C. Corbin, promoted to lieutenant general, April 15, 1906).
Act of February 2, 1901 31 Stat. 748 25 15 10
  • Established total of fifteen brigadier generals of the line.
  • Authorized two brigadier generals of volunteers to be appointed brigadier generals on the retired list (Fitzhugh Lee and James H. Wilson).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Wade, "Roads To The Top."
  2. ^ Act of February 2, 1901. Heitman, pp 21–23; Wade, "Roads to the Top."
  3. ^ The Army Register separately lists each officer's appointments in the permanent and non-permanent establishments of the United States Army. Appointments in the volunteer service are listed under the non-permanent establishment, while Regular Army appointments are listed under the permanent establishment.
  4. ^ a b For statutory definitions of "general officer of the line" and "general officer of the staff," see Sec. 4, Act of June 3, 1916.
  5. ^ For lists of brigadier generals in the United States Volunteers, see Heitman or Eicher and Eicher.
  6. ^ a b Syrett, pp 384–388.
  7. ^ During the War of 1812, brevet brigadier generals were functionally equivalent to substantive brigadier generals, but over the ensuing decades brevet ranks lost their authority and became strictly honorary distinctions. For background, see Fry.
  8. ^ The list of brigadier generals is taken from Heitman, pp. 21–23.
  9. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken from Heitman.
  10. ^ a b Dates vacated are taken from Heitman. An officer could vacate the active-duty rank of brigadier general via death, retirement, resignation, discharge, promotion to a higher permanent grade, or reversion to a lower permanent grade upon relinquishing an office bearing the statutory rank of brigadier general.
  11. ^ a b The number of years on active duty as brigadier general is taken to be the difference between the officer's date of rank and the date on which his active duty commission as brigadier general was vacated, rounded to the nearest whole year. It includes periods during which the officer served at a higher brevet or temporary rank without vacating a permanent grade of brigadier general, but not periods during which the officer reverted to a lower permanent grade after serving as a brigadier general of the staff.
  12. ^ a b Biographical notes include years of birth and death; dates of promotion to higher permanent grade; dates of service as brigadier general or higher in the staff or non-permanent establishment; and other unusual career events such as death in office or awards of the Medal of Honor, Thanks of Congress, Congressional Gold Medal, or Congressional Sword. Dates are taken from Heitman, the Army Register, Eicher and Eicher, or Marquis Who's Who.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Honorably discharged.
  14. ^ Declined reappointment as brigadier general, 19 Jul 1798.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Resigned.
  16. ^ Declined reappointment as Adjutant General, 15 Mar 1812.
  17. ^ Adjutant General with rank of brigadier general, 6 Jul 1812–12 Mar 1813; subsequently appointed brigadier general with date of rank 2 Jul 1812.
  18. ^ As Smyth held no commission in the line, when his office of Inspector General was discontinued and replaced by the office of Adjutant and Inspector General on March 3, 1813, Smyth was considered to no longer be an officer in the Army.
  19. ^ Retained as Chief of Engineers with rank of colonel, 1 Jun 1821.
  20. ^ Retained as colonel of infantry, 17 May 1815.
  21. ^ Retained as paymaster general, 1 Jun 1821.
  22. ^ Retained as colonel adjutant general, 1 Jun 1821, but declined; assigned as colonel of infantry to rank from 15 Apr 1814.
  23. ^ a b c Retired by direction of the President, being over 62 years of age.
  24. ^ Resigned, 28 Mar 1867; reappointed brigadier general, 27 Feb 1889, and retired 1 Mar 1889 by Act of February 27, 1889.
  25. ^ Granted retired pay of brigadier general by Act of July 10, 1876.
  26. ^ Dismissed, August 18, 1864; restored, August 27, 1879, as brigadier general on the retired list without pay or allowances by Act of March 15, 1878.
  27. ^ Retired as colonel, 1 Jul 1881.
  28. ^ Awarded in 1892 for 1861 Battle of Wilson's Creek
  29. ^ Promoted to brigadier general on the retired list by Act of July 28, 1866; with full pay by Act of April 12, 1870.
  30. ^ Promoted to major general on the retired list, 28 Jan 1881, by Act of January 28, 1881.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Retired for disability as brigadier general by Act of July 28, 1866, as the full rank of the command held when disabled.
  32. ^ a b c Retired for disability as major general by Act of July 28, 1866, as the full rank of the command held when disabled; retired rank reduced to brigadier general by Act of March 3, 1875, as the actual rank held when disabled. For background, see Wood v. United States, 107 U.S. 414 (1883) and General Orders No. 33, War Department, March 23, 1875.
  33. ^ a b c Retired rank reduced to colonel by Act of March 3, 1875, as actual rank held when disabled.
  34. ^ a b Reduction in retired rank revoked on evidence that he was exempt due to the nature of his disabling wound. For background, see Case of Col. J. B. Kiddoo, in Official Opinions of the Attorneys-General of the United States, vol. XV, pp. 83–88.
  35. ^ Promoted to brigadier general on the retired list by Act of March 3, 1875.
  36. ^ Retired as brigadier general by Act of June 26, 1876.
  37. ^ a b In 1884 a court martial sentenced Judge Advocate General David G. Swaim to half pay and suspension from rank and duty for twelve years. Colonel Guido N. Lieber served as Acting Judge Advocate General for over a decade before Swaim retired and Lieber became Judge Advocate General in his own right. For background, see History of the Judge Advocate General's Corps, 1775–1975, pp. 79–86.
  38. ^ Promoted to major general on the retired list by Act of February 5, 1903.
  39. ^ Declined appointment as major general of volunteers, 13 Aug 1898.
  40. ^ Fry, pp. 67–71.
  41. ^ Acts of March 3, 1791; March 28, 1792; and May 30, 1796. Heitman, p. 21, 139; Kohn, p. 124. Officers who declined appointments as brigadier general included Daniel Morgan, Marinus Willett, Otho H. Williams, and William Hull.
  42. ^ Acts of July 16, 1798, and March 16, 1802. Syrett, pp. 31-33 and 387-388.
  43. ^ Acts of January 11, 1812, and March 28, 1812.
  44. ^ Graves, "The Hard School of War."
  45. ^ Skelton, "High Army Leadership in the Era of the War of 1812"; Beltman, "Territorial Commands of the Army."
  46. ^ Acts of June 18, 1846; March 3, 1847; and July 19, 1848. Heitman, p. 21.
  47. ^ Crist and Dix, p. 97; "Appointments for the New Regiments", The New York Times, p. 1, March 6, 1855 ; "Jefferson Davis", The New York Times, March 13, 1855 ; "General Wool and So Forth", The New York Times, p. 4, March 16, 1855 ; "A Trip on Long Island Sound", The New York Times, p. 4, March 27, 1855 
  48. ^ Eicher and Eicher; Wade, "Roads to the Top."
  49. ^ Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Five.
  50. ^ Coffey, pp. 137–138.
  51. ^ "The Army Vacancies", The New York Times, p. 2, February 16, 1886 .
  52. ^ Act of June 30, 1882. "The Army", The New York Herald, p. 8, June 21, 1869 ; Robinson, pp. 137–138; Wade, "Roads to the Top."
  53. ^ Hutton, pp. 134–135; Crutchfield, pp. 242–244; "Editor's Drawer", Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 63 (374 (July 1881)), pp. 318–319 
  54. ^ Wooster, pp. 129–131.
  55. ^ "Gen. Kautz's Place", The New York Times, p. 3, March 17, 1892 ; "Gen. Kautz's Successor", The New York Times, p. 1, March 21, 1892 .
  56. ^ "Bargains In Promotions", The New York Times, p. 4, February 16, 1893 ; "Col. Otis Is Promoted", The New York Times, p. 2, February 21, 1893 ; "The Case of Gen. Carr", The New York Times, p. 1, March 10, 1893 
  57. ^ Connelly, pp. 311–312, 418.
  58. ^ Hutton, pp. 141–142.
  59. ^ "The Army Promotions", The New York Times, p. 4, April 3, 1886 
  60. ^ Heitman, pp. 21–23; Wade, "Roads to the Top"; "Army Officers Promoted", Boston Evening Transcript, p. 10, October 18, 1899 .
  61. ^ Acts of April 23, 1904, and June 12, 1906. Hearings before the Military Affairs Committee of the United States Senate on the Army Appropriation Bill for the Fiscal Year 1906–1907, p. 82.
  62. ^ Legislative history compiled from: Callan; Thian; Eicher and Eicher; and the Army Register.

Bibliography[edit]

Biographical registers[edit]

  • War Department (1907, 1912, 1922), Official Army Register, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Eicher, John H.; Eicher, David J. (1999), Civil War High Commands, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press 
  • Fredriksen, John C. (2009), The United States Army in the War of 1812: Concise Biographies of Commanders and Operational Histories of Regiments, with Bibliographies of Published and Primary Sources, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. 
  • Who Was Who in American History — The Military, Chicago, Illinois: Marquis Who's Who, Inc., 1975 
  • Young, Gordon R. (1959), The Army Almanac, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company 

Other publications[edit]

  • Beltman, Brian W. (Summer 1991), "Territorial Commands of the Army: The System Refined but Not Perfected, 1815–1821", Journal of the Early Republic, 11 (2): 185–218, doi:10.2307/3123240 
  • Kohn, Richard H. (1975), Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America, New York City, New York: The Free Press 
  • McLaughlin, Andrew C. (1892), Lewis Cass, American Statesmen, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton, Mifflin and Company 
  • Skelton, William B. (April 1994), "High Army Leadership in the Era of the War of 1812: The Making and Remaking of the Officer Corps", The William and Mary Quarterly, 3, 51 (2): 253–274, JSTOR 2946862 
  • Wade, Arthur P. (December 1976), "Roads To The Top — An Analysis of General-Officer Selection in the United States Army, 1789–1898", Military Affairs, 40 (4): 157–163, JSTOR 1986697 
  • Wiener, Frederick B. (November 1945), "Three Stars and Up: Part Five", Infantry Journal, LVII: 51–55