List of brightest natural objects in the sky

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of the brightest natural objects in the sky. This list orders maximum apparent magnitudes from Earth, not anywhere else. This list is meant for naked eye viewing; all objects are listed by their visual magnitudes, and objects too close together to be distinguished are listed jointly. Objects are listed by their proper names or their most commonly used stellar designation. This list does not include transient objects such as comets, man-made objects, supernovae or clouds.

List[edit]

Apparent magnitude (V) Name/designation Object type Notes
Mean Maximum
−26.74[1] −26.78[Note 1] Sun Star Brightest star
−10.79[Note 2] −12.94[Note 3] Moon Natural satellite Brightest natural satellite
−4.14[6]: 32  −4.92[6]: 32  Venus Planet Brightest planet
−2.20[6]: 39  −2.94[6]: 39  Jupiter Planet
−1.46 Sirius Binary star system Brightest night star
−0.74 Canopus Star
−0.29[7] Alpha Centauri AB Binary star system Part of a triple star system with Proxima Centauri
−0.05 Arcturus Star
0.03 −0.02 Vega Star
0.08 0.03[8] Capella Quadruple star system Brightest quadruple star system
0.13 0.05[9] Rigel Quadruple star system
0.13[10] Large Magellanic Cloud Galaxy Brightest galaxy
0.23[6]: 29  −2.48[6]: 29  Mercury Planet
0.37 Procyon Binary star system
0.42 0.0 Betelgeuse Star
0.46[6]: 42  −0.55[6]: 42  Saturn Planet Includes rings
0.46 0.40 Achernar Binary star system
0.61 Beta Centauri Triple star system Slightly variable
0.71[6]: 36  −2.94[6]: 36  Mars Planet
0.77 Altair Star Slightly variable
0.79[7] Acrux Quintuple star system Brightest quintuple star system
0.86 0.75 Aldebaran Star
0.91 0.88 Antares Binary star system
0.97 0.96[11] Spica Binary star system
1.14 Pollux Star
1.16 Fomalhaut Star Part of a Triple star system with TW Piscis Austrini and Fomalhaut C
1.25 1.21 Deneb Star
1.25 1.23 Mimosa Binary star system
1.40 Regulus Quadruple star system
1.50 Epsilon Canis Majoris Binary star system
1.58 Castor Sextenary star system Brightest sextuple star system
1.63 1.62 Lambda Scorpii Triple star system
1.64 1.59 Bellatrix Star
1.64 Gacrux Star
1.65 Beta Tauri Star
1.69 1.64 Alnilam Star
1.69 Beta Carinae Star
1.71[Note 4] 1.69[Note 5] Gamma Velorum Double star
1.71 Alpha Gruis Star
1.77 1.75 Epsilon Ursae Majoris Star
1.77 Alnitak Triple star system
1.79 Alpha Persei Star
1.79 Alpha Ursae Majoris Binary star system
1.84 Delta Canis Majoris Star
1.85 Epsilon Sagittarii Binary star system
1.85 Theta Scorpii Binary star system
1.86 Eta Ursae Majoris Star
1.86 Epsilon Carinae Binary star system
1.87[15] Small Magellanic Cloud Galaxy
1.88 Alpha Trianguli Australis Star
1.90 1.89 Beta Aurigae Binary star system
1.918 Alpha Pavonis Binary star system
1.92 Gamma Geminorum Binary star system
1.95[16] Delta Velorum Triple star system Maximum brightness; 96% chance of being a quadruple star system
1.97 1.87 Beta Canis Majoris Star
1.97 Alphard Star
2.00[7] 1.84[17] Gamma Leonis Binary star system
2.01 Hamal Star
2.01 Beta Ceti Star
2.01[Note 6] Mizar Quadruple star system
2.02 1.86 Polaris Triple star system
2.05 2.01[20] Beta Andromedae Star
2.05 Theta Centauri Star
2.06 2.02 Alpha Andromedae Binary star system
2.06 2.04[21] Saiph Star
2.067 Sigma Sagittarii Star
2.07 Alpha Ophiuchi Binary star system
2.08 Beta Ursae Minoris Star
2.10[7] Gamma Andromedae Quadruple star system
2.11 2.0 Beta Gruis Star
2.12 Algol Triple star system Maximum brightness
2.14 2.115 Denebola Star
2.17 Gamma Centauri Binary star system
2.21 2.14 Lambda Velorum Star
2.23 Gamma Cygni Star Suspected variable star
2.23 Alpha Cassiopeiae Star
2.230 Gamma Draconis Star
2.24 2.21 Alpha Coronae Borealis Binary star system
2.25 2.24[22] Zeta Puppis Star
2.26 2.23[23] Iota Carinae Star
2.27 2.25[24] Beta Cassiopeiae Star
2.29 Epsilon Scorpii Star Suspected variable star
2.30 2.29 Epsilon Centauri Star
2.30[7] 2.29 Alpha Lupi Star
2.31 2.30 Eta Centauri Star
2.32 1.86 Delta Scorpii Binary star system
2.37 Beta Ursae Majoris Star
2.38 Alpha Phoenicis Binary star system
2.39 1.6 Gamma Cassiopeiae Binary star system
2.39 2.29 Epsilon Pegasi Star Normal maximum brightness is 2.29; magnitude 0.7 once observed
2.39 Epsilon Boötis Binary star system
2.41 2.14 Mintaka Triple star system
2.41 Kappa Scorpii Binary star system Maximum brightness
2.42 2.31 Beta Pegasi Star
2.42 Eta Ophiuchi Binary star system
2.440 Gamma Ursae Majoris Binary star system
2.45 2.38 Eta Canis Majoris Star
2.46 Alpha Cephei Star Suspected variable star
2.473 Kappa Velorum Binary star system
2.48 Alpha Pegasi Star
2.480 Epsilon Cygni Binary star system
2.50 Beta Scorpii Sextenary star system
2.52 2.51 Delta Centauri Star
2.53 Alpha Ceti Star
2.53 Delta Leonis Star
2.55 Zeta Centauri Binary star system
2.56 Zeta Ophiuchi Star Maximum brightness
2.57 Alpha Leporis Star
2.58 Gamma Corvi Binary star system
2.59 Zeta Sagittarii Triple star system
2.62 2.60[25] Beta Librae Star
2.630 Alpha Serpentis Star
2.64 2.6[26] Beta Corvi Star
2.65[7] 2.62 Theta Aurigae Binary star system
2.65 Alpha Columbae Star
2.65 Beta Arietis Binary star system
2.65 Upsilon Scorpii Star
2.668 Delta Sagittarii Star
2.68 Beta Lupi Star
2.68 Eta Boötis Binary star system
2.68[27] Andromeda Galaxy Galaxy
2.68 Delta Cassiopeiae Binary star system
2.69[7] 2.68 Alpha Muscae Star
2.69 Iota Aurigae Star Suspected variable star
2.69 Mu Velorum Binary star system
2.72 Gamma Aquilae Star
2.73 Iota Centauri Star
2.75 Delta Ophiuchi Star Suspected variable star
2.74 Gamma Virginis Binary star system
2.74 Eta Draconis Binary star system
2.75 Alpha2 Librae Binary star system
2.75[28] Beta Ophiuchi Star Maximum brightness
2.76 Theta Carinae Binary star system
2.765 Gamma Lupi Triple star system
2.77 2.76 Beta Herculis Binary star system
2.77 2.76[29] Iota Orionis Quadruple star system
2.79 2.72[30] Beta Eridani Star
2.79[Note 7] 2.76[Note 8] Cor Caroli Binary star system
2.79[7] 2.78 Delta Crucis Star
2.79 Epsilon Virginis Star
2.79 Beta Hydri Star
2.800 Zeta Herculis Binary star system
2.80 Pi Puppis Star Maximum brightness
2.81 2.68 Rho Puppis Star
2.81 Beta Draconis Binary star system
2.81 Tau Scorpii Star
2.81 Lambda Sagittarii Star
2.82 Alpha Tucanae Binary star system
2.83 2.81 Delta Capricorni Quadruple star system
2.84 2.78 Gamma Pegasi Star
2.84 Beta Leporis Star
2.84 Alpha Hydri Star
2.85 Beta Arae Star
2.85 Zeta Persei Star
2.85 Beta Trianguli Australis Star
2.87 2.75 Mu Geminorum Star
2.87 Delta Cygni Triple star system Suspected variable star
2.87 Alcyone Triple star system
2.88 Pi Sagittarii Triple star system
2.88 Theta Eridani Binary star system
2.89 2.84 Beta Canis Minoris Star
2.89 2.86 Sigma Scorpii Quadruple star system
2.89 2.88 Epsilon Persei Binary star system
2.89 Gamma Trianguli Australis Star
2.89 Beta Aquarii Star
2.91 2.82 Pi Scorpii Triple star system
2.93 2.91[34] Gamma Persei Binary star system
2.93 Tau Puppis Binary star system
2.94 2.88 Gamma Eridani Star
2.94 Delta Corvi Star
2.94 Alpha Aquarii Star
2.95 2.79 Alpha Arae Star
2.95 Eta Pegasi Binary star system
2.98 2.94 Mu1 Scorpii Binary star system
2.98 2.95[35] Epsilon Leonis Star
2.98 Epsilon Corvi Star
2.98 Epsilon Geminorum Star
2.99 2.92 Epsilon Aurigae Triple star system
2.99 Zeta Aquilae Binary star system
2.99 Gamma2 Sagittarii Star
2.99 Upsilon Carinae Binary star system
2.99 Zeta Canis Majoris Binary star system Suspected variable star
2.992 Iota1 Scorpii Star
3.00 Gamma Hydrae Star
3.00 Beta Trianguli Binary star system
3.002 Gamma Ursae Minoris Star
3.01 Delta Persei Star
3.01 Psi Ursae Majoris Star
3.01 Gamma Gruis Star
3.01[Note 9] Beta Capricorni Quintuple star system
3.02 2.97 Omicron2 Canis Majoris Star
3.03 2.88 Zeta Tauri Binary star system
3.04[7] 3.02 Gamma Boötis Binary star system
3.04[7] Beta Muscae Binary star system
3.05 Mu Ursae Majoris Binary star system Suspected variable star
3.07 Delta Draconis Star
3.076 Zeta Arae Star
3.08 2.74 Alpha Herculis Triple star system
3.08 Albireo Double star
3.10 Zeta Hydrae Star
3.11 3.05 Eta Sagittarii Binary star system
3.11 Alpha Indi Star
3.11 Nu Hydrae Star
3.11 Kappa Centauri Binary star system
3.12 Beta Columbae Star
3.13 Delta Herculis Binary star system
3.139 3.12 HR 3803 Star
3.14 3.12[38] Alpha Lyncis Star
3.14 Lambda Centauri Star
3.14 Iota Ursae Majoris Quadruple star system
3.140 Phi Sagittarii Star
3.17 3.16[39] Nu Puppis Star Suspected variable star
3.17 Zeta Draconis Binary star system
3.18 Eta Aurigae Star
3.18 Epsilon Leporis Star
3.18 Theta Ursae Majoris Star Suspected variable star
3.18 Pi Herculis Star Slightly variable
3.19 3.18 Alpha Circini Star
3.190 Pi3 Orionis Star
3.20 Kappa Ophiuchi Star Suspected variable star
3.21[7] 3.18[40] Gamma Cephei Binary star system
3.21 3.2 Sigma Librae Star
3.21 G Scorpii Star
3.21 Zeta Cygni Binary star system
3.22[7] 3.2 Delta Lupi Star
3.22 Theta Aquilae Binary star system
3.23 3.16[41] Beta Cephei Binary star system
3.23 Epsilon Ophiuchi Star
3.25 3.23[42] Sigma Puppis Binary star system
3.25 Eta Serpentis Star
3.250 Gamma Lyrae Star
3.26 3.22[43] Gamma Hydri Star
3.26 3.25 Theta Ophiuchi Triple star system
3.27 3.24 PP Carinae Star
3.28 3.15 Eta Geminorum Triple star system
3.28 3.26 Alpha Doradus Binary star system
3.28 Delta Aquarii Star
3.28 Pi Hydrae Star
3.28 Delta Andromedae Binary star system
3.29 2.97 Mu Leporis Star
3.29 Iota Draconis Star Suspected variable star
3.30 Alpha Pictoris Star
3.30 Beta Phoenicis Binary star system
3.30 Xi Puppis Triple star system
3.31 Tau Sagittarii Star
3.320 Delta Ursae Majoris Star
3.33 Eta Scorpii Star
3.33 Omega Carinae Star
3.34 Gamma Arae Star
3.34 Nu Ophiuchi Star
3.35 3.17 V337 Carinae Star
3.35 3.31 Eta Orionis Quadruple star system
3.35 Theta Leonis Star
3.35[7] Omicron Ursae Majoris Star
3.35 Zeta Cephei Star Suspected variable star
3.36 Xi Geminorum Star
3.36 Delta Aquilae Binary star system Maximum brightness
3.36 Alpha Reticuli Star
3.366 3.36[44] Epsilon Lupi Binary star system
3.37 Epsilon Cassiopeiae Star Slightly variable
3.38 3.32[45] Delta Virginis Star
3.38 Epsilon Hydrae Quintuple star system
3.38 Zeta Virginis Binary star system Slightly variable
3.386 3.38 Nu Centauri Binary star system
3.39 3.30 Rho Persei Star
3.39[7] Meissa Double star
3.408 Beta Pavonis Star
3.410 3.35 Theta2 Tauri Binary star system
3.41 3.37 Lambda Tauri Triple star system
3.41 3.39 Gamma Phoenicis Binary star system
3.41 Zeta Pegasi Star
3.41 Zeta Lupi Star
3.41 Eta Cephei Star
3.41 Eta Lupi Triple star system
3.41 Zeta Leonis Double star
3.42 3.25 Beta Lyrae Triple star system
3.42 3.41[46] Alpha Trianguli Binary star system
3.42 Mu Herculis Quadruple star system
3.43 2.92 Mu Centauri Star
3.43[7] 3.41[47] V357 Carinae Binary star system
3.43 Lambda Aquilae Star
3.431 Chi Carinae Star
3.44 Eta Cassiopeiae Binary star system Suspected variable star
3.45 Lambda Ursae Majoris Star
3.45 Eta Ceti Star
3.466 Epsilon Gruis Star
3.47 3.41[48] Sigma Canis Majoris Star
3.47 Gamma Sagittae Star
3.47 Gamma Ceti Triple star system
3.48[7] Eta Leonis Multiple star system
3.48 Mu Pegasi Star
3.49[7] 3.47[49] Beta Boötis Star Maximum brightness
3.49[7] Alpha Telescopii Star Suspected variable star
3.49 Nu Ursae Majoris Star
3.49 Delta Boötis Double star
3.50 Tau Ceti Star
3.50 Eta Herculis Star
3.51 Xi2 Sagittarii Star
3.519 Xi Serpentis Triple star system
3.52 Beta Cancri Binary star system Suspected variable star
3.52[7] Phi Velorum Star
3.52 Omicron Leonis Binary star system
3.53 Epsilon Tauri Star
3.53 Mu Serpentis Binary star system
3.53 Delta Geminorum Triple star system
3.54 Iota Cephei Star
3.54 Xi Hydrae Star
3.54 Delta Eridani Star Suspected variable star
3.55 Theta Pegasi Binary star system
3.89 3.42 Kappa Canis Majoris Star
4.24 3.3 Chi Cygni Star
4.97 3.5 R Hydrae Star
6.53 2.0 Mira Binary star system

Non-visual magnitudes[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Maximum brightness derived from the standard magnitude of −26.74,[1] taking into account the Earth's orbital eccentricity of approximately 0.0167[2] as per the formula:
  2. ^ Mean brightness derived from the magnitude of the average full moon (−12.74[3]), assuming a quarter Moon is one-sixth as bright as the average full moon,[4] as per the formula:
  3. ^ Maximum brightness derived from the magnitude of the average full moon (−12.74[3]), taking into account the Earth orbital eccentricity of approximately 0.0167[2] and the Moon's orbital eccentricity of approximately 0.0549,[5] as per the formula:
  4. ^ Combined magnitude derived from adding the magnitudes of Gamma2 Velorum (1.83[12]) and Gamma1 Velorum (4.173 ± 0.009[13]) as per the formula:
  5. ^ Combined magnitude from adding the magnitudes of Gamma2 Velorum (1.81 maximum[14]) and Gamma1 Velorum (4.173 ± 0.009[13]) as per the formula:
  6. ^ Combined magnitude derived from adding the magnitudes of Mizar A (2.220 ± 0.003[18]) and Mizar B (3.88[19]) as per the formula:
  7. ^ Combined magnitude derived from adding the magnitudes of Alpha1 Canum Venaticorum (5.60[31]) and Alpha1 Canum Venaticorum (2.88[32]) as per the formula:
  8. ^ Combined magnitude derived from adding the magnitudes of Alpha1 Canum Venaticorum (5.60[31]) and Alpha1 Canum Venaticorum (2.84 maximum[33]) as per the formula:
  9. ^ Combined magnitude derived from adding the magnitudes of Beta1 Capricorni (3.08[36]) and Beta2 Capricorni (6.10[37]) as per the formula:

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Sun Fact Sheet". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  2. ^ a b Simon, J.L.; et al. (1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 675. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  3. ^ a b "Moon Fact Sheet". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  4. ^ "How Bright is the Moon . . . Exactly?". Sky & Telescope. 2017-10-26. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  5. ^ Wieczorek, Mark A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Khan, Amir; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Williams, James G.; Hood, Lon L.; Righter, Kevin; Neal, Clive R.; Shearer, Charles K.; McCallum, I. Stewart; Tompkins, Stephanie; Hawke, B. Ray; Peterson, Chris; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Bussey, Ben (2006). "The constitution and structure of the lunar interior" (PDF). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 60 (1): 305. Bibcode:2006RvMG...60..221W. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.60.3. S2CID 130734866. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mallama, Anthony; Hilton, James L. (2018-06-21). "Computing apparent planetary magnitudes for The Astronomical Almanac" (PDF). Astronomy and Computing. 25: 10–24. arXiv:1808.01973. Bibcode:2018A&C....25...10M. doi:10.1016/j.ascom.2018.08.002. S2CID 69912809. Retrieved 2022-08-25.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "The Brightest Stars". www.atlasoftheuniverse.com. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
  8. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 1897". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  9. ^ Guinan, Edward F.; Eaton, J. A.; Wasatonic, R.; Stewart, H.; Engle, S. G.; McCook, G. P. (November 2010). "Times-Series Photometry & Spectroscopy of the Bright Blue Supergiant Rigel: Probing the Atmosphere and Interior of a SN II Progenitor". HiA. 15: 359. Bibcode:2010HiA....15..359G. doi:10.1017/S1743921310009798.
  10. ^ "By Name | NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  11. ^ "VSX : Detail for alf Vir". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  12. ^ "gam02 Vel". simbad.u-strasbg.fr. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  13. ^ a b "gam01 Vel". simbad.u-strasbg.fr. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  14. ^ "GCVS Query forms". www.sai.msu.su. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  15. ^ "By Name | NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  16. ^ "VSX : Detail for del Vel". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  17. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 4823". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-30.
  18. ^ "zet01 UMa". simbad.u-strasbg.fr. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  19. ^ "zet02 UMa". simbad.u-strasbg.fr. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  20. ^ "VSX : Detail for bet And". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  21. ^ "VSX : Detail for kap Ori". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  22. ^ "VSX : Detail for zet Pup". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  23. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 4444". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  24. ^ "VSX : Detail for bet Cas". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-30.
  25. ^ "VSX : Detail for bet Lib". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  26. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 5729". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  27. ^ "By Name | NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  28. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 23613". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  29. ^ "VSX : Detail for iot Ori". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  30. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 1841". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  31. ^ a b "alf01 CVn". simbad.cds.unistra.fr. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  32. ^ "alf02 CVn". simbad.cds.unistra.fr. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  33. ^ "GCVS Query forms". www.sai.msu.su. Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  34. ^ "VSX : Detail for gam Per". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  35. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 4613". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  36. ^ "bet01 Cap". simbad.cds.unistra.fr. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  37. ^ "bet02 Cap". simbad.cds.unistra.fr. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  38. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 4456". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-01.
  39. ^ "VSX : Detail for nu. Pup". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-03.
  40. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 14656". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-03.
  41. ^ "VSX : Detail for bet Cep". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-02.
  42. ^ "VSX : Detail for sig Pup". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  43. ^ "VSX : Detail for NSV 15811". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-06.
  44. ^ "VSX : Detail for eps Lup". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  45. ^ "VSX : Detail for del Vir". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-06.
  46. ^ "VSX : Detail for alf Tri". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  47. ^ "VSX : Detail for V0357 Car". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  48. ^ "VSX : Detail for sig CMa". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  49. ^ "VSX : Detail for bet Boo". www.aavso.org. Retrieved 2022-09-07.

Sources[edit]