List of cacao diseases

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Like other crops cocoa can be attacked by a number of pest species including fungal diseases, insects and rodents - some of which (e.g. frosty pod rot and cocoa pod borer) have increased dramatically in geographical range and are sometimes described as "invasive species".[1]

Bacterial diseases[edit]

Bacterial diseases
Crown gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens (artificial inoculations)
Stripe Erwinia caratovora

Fungal diseases[edit]

Fungal diseases
Anthracnose Glomerella cingulata
Armillaria root rot Armillaria mellea
Black pod

Phytophthora capsici
Phytophthora citrophthora
Phytophthora heveae
Phytophthora megakarya
Phytophthora palmivora

Black root

Rosellinia bunodes
Rosellinia pepo

Brown root Phellinus noxius
Canker

Phytophthora citrophthora
Phytophthora palmivora
Ceratocystis fimbriata

Ceratocystis wilt

Ceratocystis cacaofunesta
Ceratocystis moniliformis
Ceratocystis paradoxa

Collar crack

Armillariella mellea
Armillariella tabescens

Collar rot Ustulina deusta
Cushion gall (green-point gall)

Nectria rigidiuscula
= Fusarium decemcellulare

Dieback Physiological, stress induced, more than 80 fungal species associated with this syndrome
Frosty pod Moniliophthora roreri'
Horse hair blight Crinipellis sarmentosa
Lasiodiplodia pod rot

Lasiodiplodia theobromae
= Botryodiplodia theobromae

Leaf anthracnose Colletotrichum spp.
Macrophoma pod rot Macrophoma spp.
Moniliophthora pod rot Moniliophthora roreri
Phytophthora pod rot

Phytophthora capsici
Phytophthora citrophthora
Phytophthora hevae
Phytophthora megakarya
Phytophthora palmivora

Pink disease Erythricium salmonicolor
Sudden death

Verticillium dahliae
Mycoleptodiscus terrestris

Thread blight Ceratobasidium koleroga
Trachysphaera pot rot (mealy pod) Trachysphaera fructigena
Vascular streak dieback Oncobasidium theobromae
Violet root rot

Nectria mauritiicola
= Sphaerostilbe repens

Wet root rot Ganoderma philippii
White root rot

Rigidoporus microporus
= Rigidoporus lignosus

White thread Marasmiellus scandens
Witches’ broom Moniliophthora perniciosa

Miscellaneous diseases[edit]

Miscellaneous diseases
Algal disease Cephaleuros virescens
Cherelle wilt Physiological, no specific pathogen involved

Nematodes, parasitic[edit]

Nematodes, parasitic
Awl nematode Dolichodorus spp.
Cyst nematode Heterodera spp.
Dagger nematode Xiphinema spp.
Lesion nematode Pratylenchus spp.
Reniform nematode Rotylenchulus spp.
Ring nematode Hoplolaimus spp.
Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp.
Spiral nematode Helicotylencus spp.
Stubby root nematode Trichodorus spp.

Parasitic plants[edit]

Parasitic plants
Mistletoe Denrophthora spp.

Loranthus spp.
Oryctanthus spp.
Phoradendron spp.
Phthirusa spp.
Tapinanthus spp.

Viral and viroid diseases[edit]

Viral and viroid diseases
Cacao swollen shoot Cacao swollen-shoot virus (CSSV)
Cacao yellow mosaic Cacao yellow mosaic virus (CYMV)
Cacao necrosis Cacao necrosis virus (CNV)

References[edit]