List of calendars
This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O'Neil (1976) distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars (Ancient Egypt), Babylonian calendars (Ancient Mesopotamia), Indian calendars (Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent), Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars. These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification.
In Classical Antiquity, the Hellenic calendars inspired the Roman calendar, including the solar Julian calendar introduced in 45 BC. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar.
List of calendars
In the list below, specific calendars are given, listed by calendar type (solar, lunisolar or lunar), time of introduction (if known), context of use and cultural or historical grouping (if applicable).
Calendars fall into three types, lunisolar, solar and lunar, besides calendars with "years" of fixed length, with no intercalation. Most pre-modern calendars are lunisolar. The Islamic and some Buddhist calendars are lunar, while most modern calendars are solar, based on either the Julian or the Gregorian calendars.
Some "calendars" listed are identical to the Gregorian calendar except for substituting regional month names or using a different calendar era. For example, the Thai solar calendar (introduced 1888) is the Gregorian calendar using a different era (543 BC) and different names for the Gregorian months (Thai names based on the signs of the zodiac).
|Egyptian calendar||fixed (365 days)||Egyptian||Bronze Age||Middle Kingdom||The year is based on the heliacal rising of Sirius (Sothis) and divided into the three seasons of akhet (Inundation), peret (Growth) and shemu (Harvest). The heliacal rising of Sothis returned to the same point in the calendar every 1,460 years (a period called the Sothic cycle).|
|Umma calendar||lunisolar||Mesopotamian||Bronze Age||Sumer/Mesopotamia||Recorded in Neo-Sumerian records (21st century BC), presumably based on older (Ur III) sources.|
|Pentecontad calendar||solar||Mesopotamian||Bronze Age||Amorites||A Bronze Age calendar in which the year is divided into seven periods of fifty days, with an annual supplement of fifteen or sixteen days for synchronisation with the solar year.|
|Five Yin-yang Phases (陰陽五行曆)||solar||Chinese||Bronze Age(?)||China||The years is divided into five 73-days phases, and each phase is divided into a festival(行御) and two 36-days months.|
|Four Seasons and Eight Nodes (四时历)||solar||Chinese||Bronze Age(?)||China||The years is divided into four seasons, and each season is divided into a festival(四立) and three months. The start and middle of each seasons is the key node of the year.|
|Gezer Calendar||lunar||Mesopotamian||1000 BC||Israel/Canaan||The years are divided into monthly or bi-monthly periods and attributes to each a duty such as harvest, planting, or tending specific crops.|
|Roman Republican calendar||solar||Roman||713 BC||Roman Republic||Based on the reforms introduced by Numa Pompilius in c. 713 BC.|
|Six Ancient Calendars (古六曆)||lunisolar||Chinese||Iron Age||China||Six classical (Zhou era) calendars: Huangdi (黃帝曆), Zhuanxu (顓頊曆), Xia (夏曆), Yin (殷曆), Zhou's calendar (周曆) and Lu (魯曆).|
|Haab'||fixed (365 days)||Pre-Columbian (Maya)||1st millennium BC||Maya|
|Tzolk'in||fixed (260 days)||Pre-Columbian (Maya)||1st millennium BC||Maya|
|Xiuhpohualli||fixed (365 days)||Pre-Columbian (Aztec)||||Aztecs|
|Tonalpohualli||fixed (260 days)||Pre-Columbian (Aztec)||||Aztecs|
|Attic calendar||lunisolar||Hellenic||6th century BC||Classical Athens|
|Old Persian calendar||lunisolar(?)||Iranian||4th century BC(?)||Persian Empire||Based on earlier Babylonian/Mesopotamian models|
|Seleucid calendar||lunisolar||Hellenic/Babylonian||4th century BC||Seleucid Empire||Combination of the Babylonian calendar, ancient Macedonian (Hellenic) month names and the Seleucid era.|
|Qin calendar (秦曆)||lunisolar||Chinese||Qin dynasty||China||Based on the Zhuanxu and Xia calendars.|
|Genesis Calendar (太初曆)||lunisolar||Chinese||Han dynasty||China||Introduced the "month without mid-climate is intercalary" rule; based on a solar year of 365 385⁄1539 days and a lunar month of 29 43⁄81 days (19 years=235 months=6939 61⁄81 days).|
|Ptolemaic calendar||lunisolar||Egyptian||238 BC||Ptolemaic Egypt||The Canopic reform of 238 BC introduced the leap year every fourth year later adopted in the Julian calendar. The reform eventually went into effect with the introduction of the "Alexandrian calendar" (or Julian calendar) by Augustus in 26/25 BC, which included a 6th epagomenal day for the first time in 22 BC.|
|Julian calendar||solar||Roman||45 BC||Western World||Revision of the Roman Republican calendar, in use in the Roman Empire and the Christian Middle Ages, and remains in use as liturgical calendar of Eastern Orthodox Churches.|
|Coptic calendar||solar||Egyptian||1st century||Coptic Orthodox Church||Based on both the Ptolemaic calendar and the Julian calendar|
|Ethiopian calendar||solar||Egyptian||1st century||Ethiopia, Ethiopian Christians||the calendar associated with Ethiopian Church, based on the Coptic calendar|
|Qumran calendrical texts||fixed (364 days)||—||c. 1st century||Second Temple Judaism||Description of a division of the year into 364 days, also mentioned in the pseudepigraphical Book of Enoch (the "Enoch calendar").|
|Gaulish calendar||lunisolar||—||Iron Age||Gauls/Celts||Early calendars used by Celtic peoples prior to the introduction of the Julian calendar, reconstruction mostly based on the Coligny calendar (2nd century), which may be partially influenced by the Julian calendar.|
|Zoroastrian calendar||fixed (365 days)||Iranian||3rd century||Sassanid Persia||Based on both the Old Persian and Seleucid (Hellenic) calendars. Introduced in AD 226, reformed in AD 272, and again several times in the 5th to 7th centuries.|
|Chinese Calendar, Dàmíng origin (大明曆)||lunisolar||Chinese||510||China||Created by Zu Chongzhi, most accurate calendar in the world at its invention|
|Japanese calendar||lunisolar||Chinese-derived||6th century||Japan||Umbrella term for calendars historically and currently used in Japan, in the 6th century derived from the Chinese calendar|
|Chinese Calendar, Wùyín origin(戊寅元曆)||lunisolar||Chinese||619||China||First Chinese calendar to use the true moon motion|
|Islamic calendar||lunar||632||Islam||Based on the observational lunisolar calendars used in Pre-Islamic Arabia. Remains in use for religious purposes in the Islamic world.|
|Pyu calendar||lunisolar||Hindu/Buddhist-derived||640[dubious ]||mainland Southeast Asia||Traditional calendar of Southeast Asia, in use until the 19th century. Traditionally said to originate in 640 (the calendar era) in Sri Ksetra Kingdom, one of the Burmese Pyu city-states.|
|Nepal Sambat||lunar||Buddhist/ Hindu||9th century||Nepal||A lunar Buddhist calendar traditional to Nepal, recognition in Nepal in 2008.|
|Byzantine calendar||solar||Julian||988||Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople||Julian calendar with Anno Mundi era in use c. 691 to 1728.|
|Armenian calendar||fixed (365 days)||Iranian||medieval||medieval Armenia||Calendar used in medieval Armenia and as liturgical calendar of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Derived from the Zoroastrian (or related medieval Iranian calendars such as the Sogdian/Choresmian ones). It uses the era AD 552. In modern Armenian nationalism, an alternative era of 2492 BC is sometimes used.|
|Bulgar calendar||solar(?)||Turkic/Chinese-derived||medieval||Volga Bulgaria||A reconstruction based on a short 15th century transcript in Church Slavonic originally proposed by Finnish Slavist Jooseppi Julius Mikkola in 1913. According to the reconstructed calendar, the Bulgars used a 12-year cyclic calendar similar to the one adopted by other Turkic peoples from the Chinese calendar.|
|Florentine calendar||solar||Julian||medieval||Republic of Florence||Variant of the Julian calendar in use in medieval Florence|
|Pisan calendar||solar||Julian||medieval||Republic of Pisa||Variant of the Julian calendar in use in medieval Pisa|
|Tamil calendar||solar||Hindu||medieval[clarification needed]||Tamil Nadu||The Hindu calendar used in Tamil Nadu|
|Nepali calendar||solar||Hindu/ Buddhist||medieval[clarification needed]||Nepal||One of the Hindu calendars|
|Bengali calendar||solar||Hindu||medieval[clarification needed]||Bengal, Bangladesh||One of the Hindu calendars, in Bangladesh revised in 1987.|
|Thai lunar calendar||lunisolar||Hindu/Buddhist[clarification needed]||medieval[clarification needed]||Thailand||A Buddhist calendar|
|Pawukon calendar||fixed (210 days)||Hindu||||Bali|
|Old Icelandic calendar||solar||10th century||medieval Iceland||partly inspired by the Julian calendar and partly by older Germanic calendar traditions. Leap week calendar based on a year of 364 days.|
|Jalali calendar||solar||Iranian||1079||Seljuk Sultanate||A calendar reform commissioned by Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I|
|Hebrew calendar||lunisolar||Babylonian/Seleucid-derived||11th/12th century||Judaism||recorded by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah, resulting from various reforms and traditions developing since Late Antiquity. The Anno Mundi era gradually replaced the Seleucid era in Rabbinical literature in the 11th century.|
|Tibetan calendar||lunisolar||Buddhist/Chinese-detived||13th century||Tibet||The Kalacakra, a Buddhist calendar introduced in 13th-century Tibet|
|Seasonal Instruction (授时曆)||solar||Chinese||1281||China||Based on a solar year of 365.2425 (equal to the Gregorian year)|
|Runic calendar||solar||Julian||13th century||Sweden||A written representation of the Metonic cycle used in medieval and early modern Sweden, allowing to calculate the dates of the full moons relative to the Julian date. The introduction of the Gregorian calendar in Sweden in 1753 rendered the runic calendars unusable.|
|Incan calendar||lunisolar||Pre-Columbian||15th century||Inca Empire|
|Muisca calendar||lunisolar||Pre-Columbian||15th century||Muisca||Complex lunisolar calendar with three different years, composed of months divided into thirty days. After the Spanish conquest of the Muisca Confederation in present-day central Colombia in 1537 first replaced by the European Julian and as of 1582 the Gregorian calendar.|
|Chula Sakarat||lunisolar||Burmese||16th century||Southeast Asia|
|Gregorian calendar||solar||Julian-derived||1582||worldwide||Introduced as a reform of the Julian calendar in the Roman Catholic church, since the 20th century in de facto use worldwide.|
|Javanese calendar||lunar||Islamic influenced||1633||Java||Based on the Hindu calendar using the Saka era (78 CE), but changed to the lunar year following the Islamic calendar.|
|Seasonal Constitution (时宪历)||solar||Chinese||1645||China||First Chinese Calendar to use the true motion of the sun.|
|Swedish calendar||solar||Julian-derived||1700||Sweden||Part of the controversy surrounding the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, in use 1700–1844.|
|Astronomical year numbering||solar||Julian-derived||1740||astronomy||A mixture of Julian and Gregorian calendar, giving dates before 1582 in the Julian calendar, and dates after 1582 in the Gregorian calendar, counting 1 BC as year zero, and negative year numbers for 2 BC and earlier.|
|French Republican Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1793||First French Republic||In use in revolutionary France 1793 to 1805.|
|Pancronometer||solar||Gregorian||1745||—||Universal Georgian Calendar proposed by Hugh Jones|
|Rumi calendar||solar||Julian||1839||Ottoman Empire||Julian calendar using the Hijri era introduced in the Ottoman Empire.|
|Positivist calendar||solar||Gregorian||1849||—||solar calendar with 13 months of 28 days.|
|Badí‘ calendar||solar and lunar||Bahá'í||1873||Bahá'í||Uses a year of 19 months of 19 days each and a 1844 era.|
|Thai solar calendar||solar||Gregorian||1888||Thailand||The Gregorian calendar but using the Buddhist Era (543 BC)|
|Invariable Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1900||—||Gregorian calendar with four 91-day quarters of 13 weeks|
|International Fixed Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1902||—||A "perpetual calendar" with a year of 13 months of 28 days each.|
|Minguo calendar||solar||Gregorian||1912||Republic of China||Variant of the Gregorian calendar introduced in Taiwan in 1912.|
|Revised Julian calendar||solar||Julian-derived||1923||some Orthodox churches||currently synchronized with the Gregorian calendar, but different leap rule and cycle (900 years), also called Meletian calendar|
|Solar Hijri calendar||solar||Iranian/Islamic||1925||Iran, Afghanistan||New Year is the day of the astronomical vernal equinox. The calendar as introduced in 1925 revived Iranian month names but counted the years of the Hijri era. The era was changed in 1976 to 559 BC (reign of Cyrus the Great), but was reverted to the Hijri era after the Iranian Revolution.|
|Soviet calendar||solar||Gregorian||1929||Soviet Union||Gregorian calendar with 5- and 6-day weeks, used during 1929 to 1940.|
|World Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1930||—||Perpetual calendar with 1–2 off-week days, preferred and almost adopted by the United Nations in 1950s|
|Pax Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1930||—||Leap week calendar|
|Pataphysical calendar||solar||Gregorian||1949||—||Absurdist variant of the Gregorian calendar by Alfred Jarry.|
|Indian national calendar||solar||Gregorian-derived||1957||Republic of India||Gregorian calendar with months based in traditional Hindu calendars and numbering years based on the Saka era (AD 78).|
|Assyrian calendar||lunar||Babylonian||1950s||Assyrianism||Lunar calendar with an "Assyrian era" of 4750 BC, introduced in Assyrian nationalism in the 1950s|
|Discordian calendar||solar||Gregorian||1963||Discordianism||Calendar invented in the context of the absurdist or parody religion of Discordianism, Gregorian calendar variant with a year consisting of five 73-day seasons.|
|World Season Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1973||—||Divides the year into four seasons.|
|Dreamspell||lunar/solar galactic||Mayan||1990||esotericism||13 months of 28 days each, synchronized with the Maya 260-day Tzolkin, calibrated to the Chilam Balam timing systems|
|Tranquility Calendar||solar||Gregorian||1989||—||Modification of the International Fixed Calendar|
|Holocene calendar||solar||Gregorian||1993||—||The Gregorian calendar with the era shifted by 10,000 years.|
|Juche era calendar||solar||Gregorian||1997||North Korea||Gregorian calendar with the era 1912 (birth of Kim Il-sung)|
|Nanakshahi calendar||solar||Gregorian-derived||1998||Sikhism||Gregorian calendar with months based in traditional Hindu calendars and numbering years based on the era 1469.|
|Symmetry454||solar||Gregorian||2004||—||Leap week calendar with 4:5:4 weeks per month|
|Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar||solar||Gregorian||2004||—||Leap week calendar with 30:30:31 days per month, revised in 2011 and 2016|
|Igbo calendar||lunar||Indigenous||2009||Igbo people||proposal based in Igbo tradition dating back to 13th century, 13 lunar months of 28 days divided into seven 4-day periods, plus leap days.|
Variant month names
Regional or historical names for lunations or Julian/Gregorian months
|Germanic calendar||Germanic||Medieval records of Germanic names of lunar months later equated with the Julian months.|
|Berber calendar||Berber||reconstructed medieval Berber-language names of the Julian months used in pre-Islamic (Roman era) North Africa|
|Lithuanian calendar||Lithuania||Lithuanian names for the Gregorian months and days of the week, officially recognized in 1918.|
|Rapa Nui calendar||Easter Islands||Thirteen names of lunar months recorded in the 19th century.|
|Xhosa calendar||Xhosa people||[clarification needed]|
|Turkmen||Turkmenistan||Turkmen names officially adopted in 2002 following Ruhnama by president-for-life Saparmurat Niyazov.|
|Hellenic calendars||Hellenistic Greece||A great variety of regional month names in Ancient Greece, mostly attested in the 2nd century BC.|
|Slavic calendar||Slavic||Local month names in various Slavic countries, based on weather patterns and conditions, and agricultural activities that take place in each respective month.|
|Romanian calendar||Romania||Traditional names for the twelve months of the Gregorian calendar, which are usually used by the Romanian Orthodox Church.|
|Korea||5 days|||
|Java||5 days|||
|Akan||6 days||A traditional "six-day week" which combined with the Gregorian seven-day week gave rise to a 42-day cycle.|
|Ancient Rome||8 days||The Roman nundinal cycle.|
|Baltic||9 days||Linguistic reconstruction; the Gediminas Sceptre indicated that a week lasted for nine days during King Gediminas' reign.|
|French Republican Calendar||10 days|
|Aztecs||13 days||Trecena, division of the Tonalpohualli 260-day period|
Calendaring and timekeeping standards
- Coordinated Universal Time, adopted 1960 and since 1972 including a system of observation-based leap seconds.
- ISO 8601, standard based on the Gregorian calendar, Coordinated Universal Time and ISO week date, a leap week calendar system used with the Gregorian calendar
- Fiscal year varies with different countries. Used in accounting only.
- 360-day calendar used for accounting
- 365-day calendar used for accounting
- Unix time, number of seconds elapsed since 1 January 1970, 00:00:00 (UTC).
- Julian day, number of days elapsed since 1 January 4713 BC, 12:00:00 (UTC).
- Heliocentric Julian Date, Julian day corrected for differences in the Earth's position with respect to the Sun.
- Barycentric Julian Date, Julian day corrected for differences in the Earth's position with respect to the barycentre of the Solar System.
- Lilian date, number of days elapsed since the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar on 15 October 1582.
- Rata Die, number of days elapsed since 1 January 1 AD 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Non-Earth or fictional
- Darian calendar (for Mars)
- Discworld calendar (fictional)
- Galactic Standard Calendar (from Star Wars, fictional)
- Lunar Standard Time (for the Moon)
- Middle-earth calendars (fictional)
- Stardates (from Star Trek, fictional)
- History of calendars
- Perpetual calendar
- Liturgical year
- Calendar of saints
- Advent calendar
- Wall calendar
- Geologic Calendar
- Cosmic Calendar
- Parker, Richard A., "The Calendars of Ancient Egypt", Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 26. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950.
- Stern (2012) p. 179
- Despite being a solar calendar, two Holy Days are determined by lunar months.
- Until 2014, Bahá'ís observed holy days according to the Gregorian solar calendar for communities in the West, and the Islamic lunar calendar for communities in the Middle East. Since 21 March 2015, the Badí‘ calendar was universally adopted by all Bahá'ís around the world.
- Angelicus M. B. Onasanya, The Urgency of Now!: Building a True Nigerian Nation
- Rhys (1840-1915), Sir John (1892). Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by Celtic Heathendom. pp. 360–382.
- The Welsh people: chapters on their origin, history, laws, language ... - Sir John Rhys, Sir David Brynmor Jones - Google Books. p. 220. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Brian Williams, Calendars, Cherrytree Books, 2002.
- Frank Parise, The Book of Calendars, Gorgias Press LLC, 2002.
- Sacha Stern, Calendars in Antiquity: Empires, States, and Societies, OUP Oxford, 2012.
- William Matthew O'Neil, Time and the Calendars, Manchester University Press, 1976.
- Anthony F. Aveni, Empires of Time: Calendars, Clocks and Cultures, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2000.