List of Caliphs

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Khalīfah (Caliph)
خَليفة
Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg
Calligraphic of Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq, the first caliph
Style Amir al-Mu'minin
Residence al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah (Medina)
al-Kūfah (Kufa)
Dimashq (Damascus)
Baġdād (Baghdad)
Qāhirah (Cairo)
Qustantiniyye (Constantinople)
Precursor Muhammad as Islamic prophet
Formation 8 June 632
First holder Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq
Final holder Abdülmecid II
Abolished 3 March 1924

This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad. All years are according to the Common Era.

History of the title[edit]

Due to the First Fitna which led to the sectarian division of Sunni vs. Shia Islam, the succession of Muhammad is disputed within Islam.

The only two caliphs recognized in both Sunni and mainstream Shia Islam are Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali, considered the fourth and fifth or the first two, respectively. However the oldest sect of Shia Islam, the Zaidiyyah sect, does recognise the caliphate of the first two caliphs of Islam Abu bakr and Umar ibn al Khattab.

The Hadith of the Twelve Successors states that Muhammad that there will only be twelve caliphs, all of them from the Quraysh tribe, and that there would be impostor caliphs to guard against, and that after the last of the twelve caliphs, the earth will be swallowed.

Within Sunni Islam, there were universally recognized or "ecumenical" caliphs from the 7th century until the 13th-century Mongol sack of Baghdad, a period comprising the so-called Islamic Golden Age. After the death of Al-Musta'sim, last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad, in 1258, there were no universally recognized caliphs until 1517, when Ottoman sultan Selim I induced Al-Mutawakkil III to formally surrender the title of caliph after defeating the Mamluk Sultanate.

Afterwards, the Ottoman sultans also carried the title of caliph, until the declaration of Abdülmecid II as "ceremonial caliph" (1922–1924).

Since 1924, there have again been no caliphs with universal recognition within Sunni Islam.

Ecumenical caliphates[edit]

Rashidun Caliphs (8 June 632 – 29 January 661)[edit]

Main articles: Rashidun and Rashidun Caliphate
Period Caliph Calligraphic Relationship with Muhammad Parents House Notes
8 June 632 – 22 August 634 Abū Bakr
(أبو بكر)
'Abdullah
Șaḥābī
Aṣ-Ṣiddīq
Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg Father of Aisha, Muhammad's wife Banu Taim
  • Commonly known as Aṣ-Ṣiddīq (Arabic: الصديق, "The Truthful")
  • Reigned until his death
23 August 634 – 3 November 644 'Umar ibn al-Khattab
(عمر بن الخطاب)
Șaḥābī
Al-Farooq
Amir al-Mu'minin
Rashidun Caliphs Umar ibn Al-Khattāb - عُمر بن الخطّاب ثاني الخلفاء الراشدين.svg Father of Hafsa, Muhammad's wife Banu Adi
  • Also known with his epithet Al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes between right and wrong")
  • Assassinated by Persians in response to the Muslim conquest of Persia
11 November 644 – 20 June 656 'Uthman ibn 'Affan
(عثمان بن عفان)
Șaḥābī
Dhun Nurayn
Amir al-Mu'minin
Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan - عثمان بن عفان ثالث الخلفاء الراشدين.svg Husband of Muhammad's daughters, Ruqayya and later Umm Kulthum Banu Ummaya
  • Also known as Dhun-Nurayn (Possessor of Two Lights) because he married two Muhammad's daughters
  • Assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house
20 June 656 – 29 January 661 'Ali ibn Abi-Talib
(علي بن أبي طالب)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - علي بن أبي طالب.svg Banu Hashim
  • Also known as First Imam of Shia
  • Assassinated during Fajr prayer in Kufa

Hasan ibn Ali's Caliphate (661)[edit]

Period Caliph Calligraphic Relationship with Muhammad or Previous Caliph Parents House Notes
661 (six or seven months) Ḥasan ibn ʿAli
(الحسن بن علي)

Ahl al-Bayt
Amir al-Mu'minin
Hassan mojtaba - 140098.jpg Grandson of Muhammad. Son of 'Ali ibn Abi-Talib Banu Hashim
  • Abdicated after six or seven months for Mu'awiyah

Umayyad Caliphs (661 – 6 August 750)[edit]

Main article: Umayyad Caliphate
Period Caliph Relationship with Muhammad or Previous Caliph Parents Notes
661 – 29 April or 1 May 680 Mu'awiyah I
(معاوية)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
Half-brother of Ramla bint Abu Sufyan, Muhammad's wife
  • Worked as scribe during the time of Muhammad and became Governor of Syria during 'Umar's reign until his bay'ah as caliph
  • Muawiyah officially transformed caliphate from elective monarchy by shura into hereditary monarchy
680 – 11 November 683 Yazid I
(زيد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of Mu'awiyah I
November 683 – 684 Mu'awiyah II
(معاوية الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of Yazid I
  • Last Ummayad Caliph from Sufyanid line
  • Abdicated without childrens
684 – 7 May 685 Marwan I
(مروان بن الحکم)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
First cousin of 'Uthman ibn 'Affan
  • Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan (the "Sufyanids") to those of Hakam (the "Marwanids"), both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named)
685 – 8 October 705 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(عبد الملك بن مروان)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of Marwan I
  • Marwan I, Ummayad Caliph
  • 'Aisha bint Muawiya ibn Al-Mughira
October 705 – 23 February 715 Al-Walid I
(الوليد الأول)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
February 715 – 22 September 717 Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(سلیمان بن عبدالملک)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of Abd al-Malik and younger brother of Al-Walid I
September 717 – February 720 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz
(عمر بن عبد العزيز)
Amir al-Mu'minin
  • Grandson of Marwan I
  • First cousin of Al-Walid I and Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
  • Great-grandson of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab from female-line
10 February 720 – 26 January 724 Yazid II
(يزيد الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
26 January 724 – 6 February 743 Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(هشام بن عبد الملك)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
6 February 743 – 17 April 744 Al-Walid II
(الوليد الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
  • Son of Yazid II
  • Nephew of Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744 Yazid III
(يزيد الثالث)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of Al-Walid II
744 (few weeks) Ibrahim ibn al-Walid
(ابراهيم ابن الوليد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Son of Al-Walid II
744 – 6 August 750 Marwan II
(مروان بن محمد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
Grandson of Marwan I

Abbasid Caliphs (750–1258 and 1261–1517)[edit]

Main article: Abbasid Caliphate

Caliphs of Baghdad (25 January 750 – 20 February 1258)[edit]

(Not accepted by the Muslim dominions in the Umayyad-ruled Iberian Peninsula and the Fatimid and Almohad-ruled parts of North Africa).[1][2]

Period Regnal Name Personal Name Parents Notes
750 – 10 June 754 As-Sāffaḥ 'Abdullah Abul-'Abbās
10 June 754 – 775 Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far 'Abdullah
775 – 4 August 785 Al-Mahdi Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad
August 785 – 14 September 786 Al-Hadi Abu Muhammad Musa
14 September 786 – 24 March 809 Harun ar-Rashid
March 809 – 24/25 September 813 Al-Amin Muhammad
September 813 – 9 August 833 Al-Ma'mun Abu Jaʿfar 'Abdullah
9 August 833 – 5 January 842 Al-Mu'tasim Abū Ishaq Muhammad
5 January 842 – 10 August 847 Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun
10 August 847 – 11 December 861 Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far
861 – 7 or 8 June 862 Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad
862 – 866 Al-Musta'in Ahmad
866 – 869 Al-Mu'tazz
869 – 21 June 870 Al-Muhtadi
21 June 870 – 15 October 892 Al-Mu'tamid
October 892 – 5 April 902 Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad
5 April 902 – 13 August 908 Al-Muktafi Abu Ahmad ʿAlî
13 August 908 – 929 Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far
929 Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad
  • First reign
929 – 31 October 932 Al-Muqtadir
  • Second reign
31 October 932 – 934 Al-Qahir
  • Second reign
934 – 23 December 940 Ar-Radi Abu al-'Abbas Muhammad
940 – 944 Al-Muttaqi
September 944 – January 946 Al-Mustakfi 'Abdullah
January 946 – 974 Al-Muti Abu al-Qasim al-Faḍl
974 – 991 At-Ta'i
1 November 991 – 29 November 1031 Al-Qadir
29 November 1031 – 2 April 1075 Al-Qa'im
2 April 1075 – February 1094 Al-Muqtadi
  • Muhammad, son of Al-Qa'im, Abbasid Caliph
  • Urjuman, Armenian concubine
February 1094 – 6 August 1118 Al-Mustazhir
6 August 1118 – 29 August 1135 Al-Mustarshid
29 August 1135 – 1136 Ar-Rashid
1136 – 12 March 1160 Al-Muqtafi
12 March 1160 – 20 December 1170 Al-Mustanjid
20 December 1170 – 30 March 1180 Al-Mustadi
2 March 1180 – 4 October 1225 An-Nasir
5 October 1225 – 11 July 1226 Az-Zahir
11 July 1226 – 2 December 1242 Al-Mustansir
2 December 1242 – 20 February 1258 Al-Musta'sim
  • Last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad
20 February 1258 – 13 June 1261 Interregnum

During the latter period of Abbasid rule, Muslim rulers began using other titles, such as Sultan.

Caliphs of Cairo (13 June 1261 – 22 January 1517)[edit]

The Cairo Abbasids were largely ceremonial Caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate that existed after the takeover of the Ayyubid dynasty.[3][4]

Period Regnal Name Personal Name Parents Notes
13 June 1261 – 28 November 1261 Al-Mustansir II Abu al-Qasim Ahmad
  • Installed as Caliph in Cairo, Egypt by the Mamluk Sultans in 1261
  • Title caliph also claimed by Al Hakim I who was installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo
16 November 1262 – 19 January 1302 Al-Hakim I Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad
  • Installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo in 1261
  • Proclaimed as caliph by Mamluk Sultan after Al-Mustansir II died
20 January 1302 – February 1340 Al-Mustakfi I Abu ar-Rabi' Sulaiman
February 1340 – 17 June 1341 Al-Wathiq I Abu Ishaq Ibrahim
1341 – 1352 Al-Hakim II Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad
1352 – 1362 Al-Mu'tadid I Abu Bakr
1362 – 1377 Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad
  • First reign
1377 Al-Mus'tasim Abu Yahya Zakariya
  • First reign
1377 – 1383 Al-Mutawakkil I
  • Second reign
September 1383 – 13 November 1386 Al-Wathiq II 'Umar
1386 – 1389 Al-Mus'tasim
  • Second reign
1389 – 9 January 1406 Al-Mutawakkil I
  • Third reign
22 January 1406 – 9 March 1414 Al-Musta'in Abu al-Fadl al-'Abbas
  • Became Sultan of Egypt from 7 May 1412 until 6 November 1412
1414 – 1441 Al-Mu'tadid II Abu al-Fath Dawud
1441 – 29 January 1451 Al-Mustakfi II Abu ar-Rabi' Sulayman
1451 – 1455 Al-Qa'im Abu Al-Baqa Hamzah
1455 – 7 April 1479 Al-Mustanjid Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf
5 April 1479 – 27 September 1497 Al-Mutawakkil II Abu al-'Izz 'Abdul 'Aziz
1497 – 1508 Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr
  • First reign
1508 – 1516 Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad
  • First reign
1516 – 1517 Al-Mustamsik
  • Second reign
1517 Al-Mutawakkil III

Ottoman Caliphs (1517 – 3 March 1924)[edit]

Main article: Ottoman Caliphate

The head of the Ottoman dynasty was just entitled Sultan originally, but soon it started accumulating titles assumed from subjected peoples.[5][6] Murad I (reigned 1362–1389) was the first Ottoman claimant to the title of Caliph; claimed the title after conquering Edirne.[7]

Period Caliph Portrait Tughra Parents Notes
1517 – 21 September 1520 Selim I Yavuz Sultan I. Selim Han.jpg Tughra of Selim I
  • Reigned until his death.[8]
30 September 1520 – 6 or 7 September 1566 Suleiman I Semailname 47b.jpg Tughra of Suleiman I
  • Reigned until his death.[9]
29 September 1566 – 21 December 1574 Selim II II Selim.jpg Tughra of Selim II
  • Reigned until his death.[10]
22 December 1574 – 16 January 1595 Murad III Sultan Murad III.jpeg Tughra of Murad III
  • Selim II
  • Nurbanu Sultan, Venetian or Spanish, haseki sultan and valide sultan
  • Reigned until his death.[11]
27 January 1595 – 20 or 21 December 1603 Mehmed III Sultan Mehmet III (reigned 1595-1603) Enthroned, Attended by Two Janissaries LACMA M.85.237.34.jpg Tughra of Mehmed III
  • Reigned until his death;[12]
21 December 1603 – 22 November 1617 Ahmed I Sultan I. Ahmet.jpg Tughra of Ahmed I
  • Reigned until his death.[13]
22 November 1617 – 26 February 1618 Mustafa I I Mustafa (cropped).jpg Tughra of Mustafa I
26 February 1618 – 19 May 1622 Osman II Genç Osman.JPG Tughra of Osman II
  • Deposed in a Janissary riot on 19 May 1622;
  • Murdered on 20 May 1622 by the Grand Vizier Kara Davud Paşa (Black Da'ud Pasha) from compression of his testicles.[15]
20 May 1622 – 10 September 1623 Mustafa I I Mustafa (cropped).jpg Tughra of Mustafa I
10 September 1623 – 8 or 9 February 1640 Murad IV Murad IV minature.jpg Tughra of Murad IV
  • Reigned until his death.[16]
9 February 1640 – 8 August 1648 Ibrahim Ibrahim I.jpg Tughra of Ibrahim
8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687 Mehmed IV IV Mehmet.jpg Tughra of Mehmed IV
8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691 Suleiman II II Suleyman.jpg Tughra of Suleiman II
  • Reigned until his death.[19]
22 June 1691 – 6 February 1695 Ahmed II Ahmet II.jpg Tughra of Ahmed II
  • Reigned until his death.[20]
6 February 1695 – 22 August 1703 Mustafa II II Mustafa.jpg Tughra of Mustafa II
  • Deposed on 22 August 1703 by reason of the Janissary uprising known as the Edirne Event;
  • Died in Istanbul on 8 January 1704.[21]
22 August 1703 – 1 or 2 October 1730 Ahmed III Levni 002.jpeg Tughra of Ahmed III
2 October 1730 – 13 December 1754 Mahmud I Mahmud I by John Young.jpg Tughra of Mahmud I
  • Reigned until his death.[23]
13 December 1754 – 29 or 30 October 1757 Osman III Osman III by John Young.jpg Tughra of Osman III
  • Reigned until his death.[24]
30 October 1757 – 21 January 1774 Mustafa III Sultan Mustafa III.jpg Tughra of Mustafa III
  • Reigned until his death.[25]
21 January 1774 – 6 or 7 April 1789 Abdülhamid I Abdulhamid I minature.jpg Tughra of Abdülhamid I
  • Reigned until his death.[26]
7 April 1789 – 29 May 1807 Selim III Joseph Warnia-Zarzecki - Sultan Selim III - Google Art Project.jpg Tughra of Selim III
  • Mustafa III

Mehr-î-Shâh (Mihr-î-Şâh) Vâlidā Sultân;

29 May 1807 – 28 July 1808 Mustafa IV IV. Mustafa.jpg Tughra of Mustafa IV
28 July 1808 – 1 July 1839 Mahmud II MahmutII.jpg Tughra of Mahmud II Abdülhamid I
1 July 1839 – 25 June 1861 Abdülmecid I Sultan Abdülmecid - Google Art Project.jpg Tughra of Abdülmecid I
25 June 1861 – 30 May 1876 Abdülaziz I Abdul-aziz (cropped).JPG Tughra of Abdülaziz
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[31]
30 May 1876 – 31 August 1876 Murad V Portrait of Murad V.jpg Tughra of Murad V
  • Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire;
  • Ordered to reside in Çırağan Palace where he died on 29 August 1904.[32]
31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909 Abdülhamid II Abdul Hamid II in Balmoral Castle in 1867.jpg Tughra of Abdülhamid II
27 April 1909 – 3 July 1918 Mehmed V Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire cropped.jpg Tughra of Mehmed V
4 July 1918 – 1 November 1922 Mehmed VI Sultan Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire.jpg Tughra of Mehmed VI
18 November 1922 – 3 March 1924 Abdülmecid II Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II.jpg
[c]

The Office of the Caliphate was transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey which dissolved the office on March 3, 1924, in keeping with the policies of secularism that were adopted in the early years of the Republic of Turkey by its President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The current pretender to the Imperial House of Osman is Bayezid Osman, since September 23, 2009.

After the dissolution of the Office of the Caliphate, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey founded the Presidency of Religious Affairs as the new highest Islamic religious authority in the country.

Non-ecumenical caliphates[edit]

Ibn al-Zubayr's Caliphate (684–692)[edit]

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in 684 AD. He was proclaimed caliph in Mecca but was defeated and killed there in 692 AD after a six-month siege by general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[39]

Ummayad Caliphs of Córdoba (929–1031)[edit]

Main article: Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba (green), c. 1000.

(Not universally accepted; actual authority confined to Spain and parts of Maghreb)[40][41]

Fatimid Caliphs (909–1171)[edit]

The Fatimid Caliphate (green) at its peak, c. 969.

(The Fatimids belonged to the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam and hence are not recognized by the majority of Sunnis, whether subjects in their dominions, or from neighboring states).[42][43]

Almohad Caliphs (1145–1269)[edit]

Main article: Almohad Caliphate
The Almohad dynasty (green) at its greatest extent, c. 1200.

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of North Africa and Iberia)[44][45]

Various caliphates declared after 1900[edit]

Since the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, there has been no single recognized, "ecumenical" caliphate.

Sharifian Caliphate (1924)[edit]

Main article: Sharifian Caliphate
Map with the kingdom in green and the current region in red.

A last attempt at restoring the caliphal office and style with ecumenical recognition was made by Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz and Sharif of Mecca, who assumed both on 11 March 1924 and held them until 3 October 1924, when he passed the kingship to his son `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Hashimi, who did not adopt the caliphal office and style.[46] Hussein's claim for caliphate was not accepted however, and in 1925 he was driven from Hejaz by the forces of Ibn Saud due to his lack of support for Shari'ah. He continued to use the title of caliph during his remaining life in exile, until his death in 1931.

Ahmadiyya Muslim Caliphate (1908–present)[edit]

Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Flag.

Khalīfatul Masīh (Arabic: خليفة المسيح‎‎; Urdu: خلیفہ المسیح‎; English: Successor of the Messiah) or Khalifa of Islam (Caliph of Islam)[47] sometimes simply referred to as Khalifah (i.e. Caliph, successor) is the elected spiritual and organizational leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and is the successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian who had claimed to be the Mahdi and Messiah in Islam. The Caliph is believed to be divinely guided and is also referred to by members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as Amir al-Mu'minin (Leader of the Faithful). The fifth and current Khalifatul Masih is Mirza Masroor Ahmad.

After the death of Ghulam Ahmad, his successors directed the Ahmadiyya Community from Qadian which remained the headquarters of the community until 1947 with the creation of Pakistan. From this time on the headquarters remained in Rabwah, a town built on land bought in Pakistan by the community in 1948. In 1984, Ordinance XX was promulgated by the government of Pakistan which rendered the Khalifatul Masih unable to perform his duties and put the very institution in jeopardy. Due to these circumstances, Khalifatul Masih IV left Pakistan and migrated to London, England, provisionally moving the headquarters to the Fazl Mosque.[48]

ISIL/ISIS claim (2014–present)[edit]

Further information: Worldwide Caliphate

On 29 June 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) started to call itself "Islamic State" and call its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi "caliph Ibrahim".[49][50] The validity of this caliphate has not been recognized by any Islamic authority outside of the 10-million-people territory[51] under control of Islamic State.[52]

On 24 August 2014, the leader of Boko Haram in Nigeria, Abubakar Shekau, likewise declared a caliphate. Apparently, it remained unclear whether Shekau declared his group to be part of ISIL or if he was declaring a separate caliphate in Nigeria.[53] On 7 March 2015, Shekau pledged allegiance to ISIL via an audio message posted on the organisation's Twitter account.[54][55] Afterwards, Boko Haram assumed the name "Wilāyat al Sūdān al Gharbī" (Arabic: ولاية السودان الغربي‎‎, "West Africa Province") or "Islamic State in West Africa" (Iswap).[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, pp. 12–13
  2. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 6–7
  3. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 7
  4. ^ Houtsma & Wensinck 1993, p. 3
  5. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 195
  6. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 239–240
  7. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521223102. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "Yavuz Sultan Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  9. ^ "Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  10. ^ "Sultan II. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  11. ^ "Sultan III. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  12. ^ "Sultan III. Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  13. ^ "Sultan I. Ahmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  14. ^ a b "Sultan I. Mustafa". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  15. ^ "Sultan II. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  16. ^ "Sultan IV. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  17. ^ "Sultan İbrahim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  18. ^ "Sultan IV. Mehmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  19. ^ "Sultan II. Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  20. ^ "Sultan II. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  21. ^ "Sultan II. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  22. ^ "Sultan III. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  23. ^ "Sultan I. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  24. ^ "Sultan III. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  25. ^ "Sultan III. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  26. ^ "Sultan I. Abdülhamit Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  27. ^ "Sultan III. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  28. ^ "Sultan IV. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  29. ^ "Sultan II. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  30. ^ "Sultan Abdülmecid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  31. ^ "Sultan Abdülaziz Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  32. ^ "Sultan V. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  33. ^ "Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  34. ^ "Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  35. ^ "Sultan VI. Mehmed Vahdettin Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  36. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  37. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 17
  38. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 14
  39. ^ Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O edited by Tony Jacques
  40. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 21
  41. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 11
  42. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 71
  43. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 63
  44. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 47
  45. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 39
  46. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 118
  47. ^ http://www.caliphofislam.com
  48. ^ Khilafat, the Successorship of Prophethood – The Guided Khilafat – Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya
  49. ^ Adam Withnall (2014-06-30). "Iraq crisis: Isis declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East - Middle East - World". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-07-04. 
  50. ^ "ISIS Spokesman Declares Caliphate, Rebrands Group as "Islamic State"". SITE Institute. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  51. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/13/us-mideast-crisis-syria-icrc-idUSKBN0M921N20150313
  52. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group. Strange, Hannah (5 July 2014). "Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi addresses Muslims in Mosul". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  53. ^ Boko Haram leader declares Islamic caliphate in Nigeria , Washington Times, 24 August 2014.
  54. ^ "Nigeria's Boko Haram pledges allegiance to Islamic State". BBC news. BBC. 2015-03-07. Retrieved 2015-03-07. 
  55. ^ Adam Chandler (March 9, 2015). "The Islamic State of Boko Haram? :The terrorist group has pledged its allegiance to ISIS. But what does that really mean?". The Atlantic. 
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