List of Caliphs

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Khalīfah (Caliph)
خَليفة
Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg
Calligraphic of Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq, the first caliph
Style Amir al-Mu'minin
Residence al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah (Medina)
al-Kūfah (Kufa)
Dimashq (Damascus)
Baġdād (Baghdad)
Qāhirah (Cairo)
Qustantiniyye (Constantinople)
Precursor Muhammad as Islamic prophet
Formation 8 June 632
First holder Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq
Final holder Abdülmecid II
Abolished 3 March 1924

This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad. All years are according to the Common Era.

History of the title[edit]

Due to the First Fitna which led to the sectarian division of Sunni vs. Shia Islam, the succession of Muhammad is disputed within Islam.

The only two caliphs recognized in both Sunni and mainstream Shia Islam are Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali, considered the fourth and fifth or the first two, respectively. However the oldest sect of Shia Islam, the Zaidiyyah sect, does recognise the caliphate of the first two caliphs of Islam Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al Khattab.

The Hadith of the Twelve Successors states that after Muhammad there will only be twelve caliphs, all of them from the Quraysh tribe, and that there would be impostor caliphs to guard against, and that after the last of the twelve caliphs, the earth will be swallowed.

Within Sunni Islam, there were universally recognized or "ecumenical" caliphs from the 7th century until the 13th-century Mongol sack of Baghdad. After the death of Al-Musta'sim, last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad, in 1258, there were no universally recognized caliphs until 1517, when Ottoman sultan Selim I induced Al-Mutawakkil III to formally surrender the title of caliph after defeating the Mamluk Sultanate.

Afterwards, the Ottoman sultans also carried the title of caliph, until the declaration of Abdülmecid II as "ceremonial caliph" (1922–1924).

Since 1924, there have again been no caliphs with universal recognition within Sunni Islam.

Ecumenical caliphates[edit]

Rashidun Caliphate (8 June 632 – 29 January 661)[edit]

# Calligraphic Name (and titles) Reign Relationship with Muhammad Parents House Notes
1 Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg Abū Bakr
(أبو بكر)
'Abdullah
Șaḥābī
Aṣ-Ṣiddīq
8 June 632 – 22 August 634
  • Father of Aisha, Muhammad's wife
Banu Taim
  • Reigned until his death
2 Rashidun Caliphs Umar ibn Al-Khattāb - عُمر بن الخطّاب ثاني الخلفاء الراشدين.svg ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab
(عمر بن الخطاب)
Șaḥābī
Al-Farooq
Amir al-Mu'minin
23 August 634 – 3 November 644
  • Father of Hafsa, Muhammad's wife
Banu Adi
  • Assassinated by a Persian
3 Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan - عثمان بن عفان ثالث الخلفاء الراشدين.svg 'Uthman ibn 'Affan
(عثمان بن عفان)
Șaḥābī
Dhun Nurayn
Amir al-Mu'minin
11 November 644 – 20 June 656 Banu Ummaya
  • Assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house
4 Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - علي بن أبي طالب.svg 'Ali ibn Abi-Talib
(علي بن أبي طالب)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
20 June 656 – 29 January 661 Banu Hashim

Hasan ibn Ali's Caliphate (661)[edit]

# Calligraphic Name (and titles) Reign Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents House Notes
5 Hassan mojtaba - 140098.jpg Ḥasan ibn ʿAli
(الحسن بن علي)

Ahl al-Bayt
al-Mujtaba[1]
661 (six or seven months)
  • Grandson of Muhammad. Son of 'Ali ibn Abi-Talib
Banu Hashim
  • Abdicated after six or seven months for Mu'awiyah
  • Also known as the 5th Rashidun Caliph

Umayyad Caliphate (661 – 6 August 750)[edit]

# Name (and titles) Reign Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents Notes
6 Mu'awiyah I
(معاوية)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
661 – 29 April or 1 May 680
  • Worked as scribe during the time of Muhammad and became Governor of Syria during 'Umar's reign until his bay'ah as caliph
  • Muawiyah officially transformed caliphate from elective monarchy by shura into hereditary monarchy
7 Yazid I
(يزيد)
680 – 11 November 683
8 Mu'awiyah II
(معاوية الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
November 683 – 684
  • Last Ummayad Caliph from Sufyanid line
  • Abdicated without children
9 Marwan I
(مروان بن الحکم)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
684 – 7 May 685
  • Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan (the "Sufyanids") to those of Hakam (the "Marwanids"), both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named)
10 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(عبد الملك بن مروان)
Amir al-Mu'minin
685 – 8 October 705
  • Marwan I, Ummayad Caliph
  • 'Aisha bint Muawiya ibn Al-Mughira
11 Al-Walid I
(الوليد الأول)
Amir al-Mu'minin
October 705 – 23 February 715
12 Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(سلیمان بن عبدالملک)
Amir al-Mu'minin
February 715 – 22 September 717
13 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz
(عمر بن عبد العزيز)
Amir al-Mu'minin
September 717 – February 720
  • Grandson of Marwan I
  • First cousin of Al-Walid I and Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
  • Great-grandson of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab from female-line
  • Also known as Sixth Rashidun Caliph
  • People mistakenly say he was the 5th Rashidun Caliph -- Whereas the 5th is actually Hassan Ibn Ali
14 Yazid II
(يزيد الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
10 February 720 – 26 January 724
15 Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(هشام بن عبد الملك)
Amir al-Mu'minin
26 January 724 – 6 February 743
16 Al-Walid II
(الوليد الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
6 February 743 – 17 April 744
  • Son of Yazid II
  • Nephew of Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
17 Yazid III
(يزيد الثالث)
Amir al-Mu'minin
April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744
18 Ibrahim ibn al-Walid
(ابراهيم ابن الوليد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
744 (few weeks)
19 Marwan II
(مروان بن محمد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
744 – 6 August 750
  • Grandson of Marwan I

Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 and 1261–1517)[edit]

Caliphs of Baghdad (25 January 750 – 20 February 1258)[edit]

(Not accepted by the Muslim dominions in the Umayyad-ruled Iberian Peninsula and the Fatimid and Almohad-ruled parts of North Africa).[2][3]

# Regnal name Personal name Reign Parents Notes
20 As-Sāffaḥ 'Abdallah Abul-'Abbās 750 – 10 June 754
21 Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far 'Abdallah 10 June 754 – 775
22 Al-Mahdi Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad 775 – 4 August 785
23 Al-Hadi Abu Muhammad Musa August 785 – 14 September 786
24 Al-Rashid Harun 14 September 786 – 24 March 809
25 Al-Amin Muhammad March 809 – 24/25 September 813
26 Al-Ma'mun Abu Jaʿfar 'Abdallah September 813 – 9 August 833
27 Al-Mu'tasim Abū Ishaq Muhammad 9 August 833 – 5 January 842
28 Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun 5 January 842 – 10 August 847
29 Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far 10 August 847 – 11 December 861
30 Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad 861 – 7 or 8 June 862
31 Al-Musta'in Ahmad 862 – 866
32 Al-Mu'tazz 866 – 869
33 Al-Muhtadi Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad 869 – 21 June 870
34 Al-Mu'tamid Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad 21 June 870 – 15 October 892
35 Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad October 892 – 5 April 902
36 Al-Muktafi Abu Ahmad ʿAlî 5 April 902 – 13 August 908
37 Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far 13 August 908 – 929 (First reign)

929 – 31 October 932 (Second reign)

38 Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 929 (First reign)

31 October 932 – 934 (Second reign)

39 Ar-Radi Abu al-'Abbas Muhammad 934 – 23 December 940
40 Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim 940 – 944
41 Al-Mustakfi 'Abdallah September 944 – January 946
42 Al-Muti Abu al-Qasim al-Faḍl January 946 – 974
43 At-Ta'i 974 – 991
44 Al-Qadir 1 November 991 – 29 November 1031
45 Al-Qa'im 29 November 1031 – 2 April 1075
46 Al-Muqtadi 2 April 1075 – February 1094
  • Muhammad, son of Al-Qa'im, Abbasid Caliph
  • Urjuman, Armenian concubine
47 Al-Mustazhir February 1094 – 6 August 1118
48 Al-Mustarshid 6 August 1118 – 29 August 1135
49 Ar-Rashid 29 August 1135 – 1136
50 Al-Muqtafi 1136 – 12 March 1160
51 Al-Mustanjid 12 March 1160 – 20 December 1170
52 Al-Mustadi Hassan 20 December 1170 – 30 March 1180
53 An-Nasir 2 March 1180 – 4 October 1225
54 Az-Zahir 5 October 1225 – 11 July 1226
55 Al-Mustansir Abû Ja`far 11 July 1226 – 2 December 1242
56 Al-Musta'sim 2 December 1242 – 20 February 1258
  • Last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad
Interregnum

During the latter period of Abbasid rule, Muslim rulers began using other titles, such as Sultan.

Caliphs of Cairo (13 June 1261 – 22 January 1517)[edit]

The Cairo Abbasids were largely ceremonial Caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate that existed after the takeover of the Ayyubid dynasty.[4][5]

# Regnal name Personal name Reign Parents Notes
57 Al-Mustansir II Abu al-Qasim Ahmad 13 June 1261 – 28 November 1261
  • Installed as Caliph in Cairo, Egypt by the Mamluk Sultans in 1261
  • Title caliph also claimed by Al Hakim I who was installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo
58 Al-Hakim I Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad 16 November 1262 – 19 January 1302
  • Installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo in 1261
  • Proclaimed as caliph by Mamluk Sultan after Al-Mustansir II died
59 Al-Mustakfi I Abu ar-Rabi' Sulaiman 20 January 1302 – February 1340
60 Al-Wathiq I Abu Ishaq Ibrahim February 1340 – 17 June 1341
61 Al-Hakim II Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad 1341 – 1352
62 Al-Mu'tadid I Abu Bakr 1352 – 1362
63 Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1362 – 1377 (First reign)

1377 – 1383 (Second reign)

1389 – 9 January 1406 (Third reign)

64 Al-Mus'tasim Abu Yahya Zakariya 1377 (First reign)

1386 – 1389 (Second reign)

65 Al-Wathiq II 'Umar September 1383 – 13 November 1386
66 Al-Musta'in Abu al-Fadl al-'Abbas 22 January 1406 – 9 March 1414
  • Became Sultan of Egypt from 7 May 1412 until 6 November 1412
67 Al-Mu'tadid II Abu al-Fath Dawud 1414 – 1441
68 Al-Mustakfi II Abu ar-Rabi' Sulayman 1441 – 29 January 1451
69 Al-Qa'im Abu Al-Baqa Hamzah 1451 – 1455
70 Al-Mustanjid Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf 1455 – 7 April 1479
71 Al-Mutawakkil II Abu al-'Izz 'Abdul 'Aziz 5 April 1479 – 27 September 1497
72 Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr 1497 – 1508 (First reign)

1516 – 1517 (Second reign)

73 Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad 1508 – 1516 (First reign)

1517 (Second reign)

Ottoman Caliphate (1517 – 3 March 1924)[edit]

The head of the Ottoman dynasty was just entitled Sultan originally, but soon it started accumulating titles assumed from subjected peoples.[6][7] Murad I (reigned 1362–1389) was the first Ottoman claimant to the title of Caliph; claimed the title after conquering Edirne.[8]

# Portrait Tughra Name Reign Parents Notes
74 Yavuz Sultan I. Selim Han.jpg Tughra of Selim I Selim I 1517 – 21 September 1520
  • Reigned until his death.[9]
75 Semailname 47b.jpg Tughra of Suleiman I Suleiman I 30 September 1520 – 6 or 7 September 1566
  • Reigned until his death.[10]
76 II Selim.jpg Tughra of Selim II Selim II 29 September 1566 – 21 December 1574
  • Reigned until his death.[11]
77 Sultan Murad III.jpeg Tughra of Murad III Murad III 22 December 1574 – 16 January 1595
  • Selim II
  • Nurbanu Sultan, Venetian or Spanish, haseki sultan and valide sultan
  • Reigned until his death.[12]
78 Sultan Mehmet III (reigned 1595-1603) Enthroned, Attended by Two Janissaries LACMA M.85.237.34.jpg Tughra of Mehmed III Mehmed III 27 January 1595 – 20 or 21 December 1603
  • Reigned until his death;[13]
79 Sultan I. Ahmet.jpg Tughra of Ahmed I Ahmed I 21 December 1603 – 22 November 1617
  • Reigned until his death.[14]
80 I Mustafa (cropped).jpg Tughra of Mustafa I Mustafa I 22 November 1617 – 26 February 1618 (First reign)

20 May 1622 – 10 September 1623 (Second reign)

81 Genç Osman.JPG Tughra of Osman II Osman II 26 February 1618 – 19 May 1622
  • Deposed in a Janissary riot on 19 May 1622;
  • Murdered on 20 May 1622 by the Grand Vizier Kara Davud Paşa (Black Da'ud Pasha) from compression of his testicles.[16]
82 Murad IV minature.jpg Tughra of Murad IV Murad IV 10 September 1623 – 8 or 9 February 1640
  • Reigned until his death.[17]
83 Ibrahim I.jpg Tughra of Ibrahim Ibrahim 9 February 1640 – 8 August 1648
84 IV Mehmet.jpg Tughra of Mehmed IV Mehmed IV 8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
85 II Suleyman.jpg Tughra of Suleiman II Suleiman II 8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
  • Reigned until his death.[20]
86 Ahmet II.jpg Tughra of Ahmed II Ahmed II 22 June 1691 – 6 February 1695
  • Reigned until his death.[21]
87 II Mustafa.jpg Tughra of Mustafa II Mustafa II 6 February 1695 – 22 August 1703
  • Deposed on 22 August 1703 by reason of the Janissary uprising known as the Edirne Event;
  • Died in Istanbul on 8 January 1704.[22]
88 Levni 002.jpeg Tughra of Ahmed III Ahmed III 22 August 1703 – 1 or 2 October 1730
89 Mahmud I by John Young.jpg Tughra of Mahmud I Mahmud I 2 October 1730 – 13 December 1754
  • Reigned until his death.[24]
90 Osman III by John Young.jpg Tughra of Osman III Osman III 13 December 1754 – 29 or 30 October 1757
  • Reigned until his death.[25]
91 Sultan Mustafa III.jpg Tughra of Mustafa III Mustafa III 30 October 1757 – 21 January 1774
  • Reigned until his death.[26]
92 Abdulhamid I minature.jpg Tughra of Abdülhamid I Abdülhamid I 21 January 1774 – 6 or 7 April 1789
  • Reigned until his death.[27]
93 Joseph Warnia-Zarzecki - Sultan Selim III - Google Art Project.jpg Tughra of Selim III Selim III 7 April 1789 – 29 May 1807
  • Mustafa III

Mehr-î-Shâh (Mihr-î-Şâh) Vâlidā Sultân;

94 IV. Mustafa.jpg Tughra of Mustafa IV Mustafa IV 29 May 1807 – 28 July 1808
95 MahmutII.jpg Tughra of Mahmud II Mahmud II 28 July 1808 – 1 July 1839 Abdülhamid I
96 Sultan Abdülmecid - Google Art Project.jpg Tughra of Abdülmecid I Abdülmecid I 1 July 1839 – 25 June 1861
97 Abdul-aziz (cropped).JPG Tughra of Abdülaziz Abdülaziz I 25 June 1861 – 30 May 1876
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[32]
98 Portrait of Murad V.jpg Tughra of Murad V Murad V 30 May 1876 – 31 August 1876
  • Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire;
  • Ordered to reside in Çırağan Palace where he died on 29 August 1904.[33]
99 Abdul Hamid II in Balmoral Castle in 1867.jpg Tughra of Abdülhamid II Abdülhamid II 31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909
100 Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire cropped.jpg Tughra of Mehmed V Mehmed V 27 April 1909 – 3 July 1918
101 Sultan Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire.jpg Tughra of Mehmed VI Mehmed VI 4 July 1918 – 1 November 1922
102 Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II.jpg
[c]
Abdülmecid II 18 November 1922 – 3 March 1924

The Office of the Caliphate was transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey which dissolved the office on March 3, 1924, in keeping with the policies of secularism that were adopted in the early years of the Republic of Turkey by its President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

After the dissolution of the Office of the Caliphate, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey founded the Presidency of Religious Affairs as the new highest Islamic religious authority in the country.

Non-ecumenical caliphates[edit]

Caliphates not accepted as legitimate by the majority of muslims.

Ibn al-Zubayr's Caliphate (684–692)[edit]

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in 684 AD. He was proclaimed caliph in Mecca but was defeated and killed there in 692 AD after a six-month siege by general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[40]

Ummayad Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)[edit]

(Not universally accepted; actual authority confined to Spain and parts of Maghreb)[41][42]

Name Reign Notes
Abd-ar-Rahman III 929–961
Al-Hakam II 961–976
Hisham II al-Hakam 976–1009 (First reign)

1010–1013 (Second reign)

Muhammad II 1009
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam 1009–1010 (First reign)

1013–1016 (Second reign)

Abd ar-Rahman IV 1021–1022
Abd ar-Rahman V 1022–1023
Muhammad III 1023–1024
Hisham III 1027–1031

Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)[edit]

The Fatimid Caliphate

(The Fatimids belonged to the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam and hence are not recognized by the majority of Sunnis, whether subjects in their dominions, or from neighboring states).[43][44]

Name Reign Notes
Al-Mahdi Billah 909–934 Founder of the Fatimid dynasty
Al-Qa'im Bi-Amrillah 934–946
Al-Mansur Billah 946–953
Al-Muizz Lideenillah 953–975 Egypt is conquered during his reign
Al-Aziz Billah 975–996
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah 996–1021
Ali az-Zahir 1021–1036
Al-Mustansir Billah 1036–1094
Al-Musta'li 1094–1101 Quarrels over his succession led to the Nizari split
Al-Amir 1101–1130 The Fatimid rulers of Egypt after him are not recognized as Imams by Mustaali Taiyabi Isma'ilis
Al-Hafiz 1130–1149
Al-Zafir 1149–1154
Al-Faiz 1154–1160
Al-Azid 1160–1171

Almohad Caliphate (1145–1269)[edit]

The Almohad dynasty at its greatest extent (c. 1200)

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of North Africa and Iberia)[45][46]

Name Reign Notes
Abd al-Mu'min 1145–1163
Abu Yaqub Yusuf I 1163–1184
Yaqub al-Mansur 1184–1199
Muhammad an-Nasir 1199–1213
Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II 1213–1224
Abd al-Wahid I 1224
Abdallah al-Adil 1224–1227
Yahya 1227–1235
Idris I 1227–1232
Abdul-Wahid II 1232–1242
Ali 1242–1248
Umar 1248–1266
Idris II 1266–1269

Sokoto Caliphate (1804–1903)[edit]

The Sokoto Caliphate (pink) at its greatest extent (c. 1800)

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of West Africa)

Established by Tariqa Islamic scholar and religious leader Usman dan Fodio through the Fulani War (alternatively known as the Fulani Jihad), which sought to reduce the influence of pre-Islamic religious practices and spread a more vigorous form of Islam through the auspices of a Caliphate.

Bornu and Songhai Empires[edit]

The Bornu Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1750)
Songhai Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1500)

Several rulers of West Africa adopted the title of Caliph. Mai Ali Ghaji ibn Dunama was the first ruler of Bornu Empire to assume the title. Askia Mohammad I of Songhai Empire also assumed the title around the same time.[47]

Non-ecumenical caliphates declared after 1900[edit]

Since the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, there has been no single recognized, "ecumenical" caliphate.

Sharifian Caliphate (1924–1931)[edit]

Map with the kingdom in green and the current region in red.

A last attempt at restoring the caliphal office and style with ecumenical recognition was made by Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz and Sharif of Mecca, who assumed both on 11 March 1924 and held them until 3 October 1924, when he passed the kingship to his son `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Hashimi, who did not adopt the caliphal office and style.[48] Hussein's claim for caliphate was not accepted however, and in 1925 he was driven from Hejaz by the forces of Ibn Saud due to his lack of support for Shari'ah. He continued to use the title of caliph during his remaining life in exile, until his death in 1931.

Ahmadiyya Caliphate (1908–present)[edit]

Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Flag.

Khalīfatul Masīh (Arabic: خليفة المسيح‎; Urdu: خلیفہ المسیح‎; English: Successor of the Messiah) or Khalifa of Ahmadiya Community [49] sometimes simply referred to as Khalifah (i.e. Caliph, successor) is the elected spiritual and organizational leader of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Community and is the successor of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian who had claimed to be the Mahdi and Messiah in their community. The Caliph is believed to be divinely guided and is also referred to by members of the Ahmadiyya Community as Amir al-Mu'minin (Leader of the Faithful). The fifth and current Khalifatul Masih is Mirza Masroor Ahmad. The rest of the major sections of Islam that are Sunni and Shiya, do not believe in this caliphate system.

After the death of Ghulam Ahmad, his successors directed the Ahmadiyya Community from Qadian which remained the headquarters of the community until 1947 with the creation of Pakistan. From this time on the headquarters remained in Rabwah, a town built on land bought in Pakistan by the community in 1948. In 1984, Ordinance XX was promulgated by the government of Pakistan which rendered the Khalifatul Masih unable to perform his duties and put the very institution in jeopardy. Due to these circumstances, Khalifatul Masih IV left Pakistan and migrated to London, England, provisionally moving the headquarters to the Fazl Mosque.[50]

ISIL/ISIS claim (2014–present)[edit]

On 29 June 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) started to call itself "Islamic State" and call its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi "caliph Ibrahim".[51][52] The validity of this caliphate has not been recognized by any Islamic authority outside of the 10-million-people territory[53] under control of Islamic State.[54]

On 24 August 2014, the leader of Boko Haram in Nigeria, Abubakar Shekau, likewise declared a caliphate. Apparently, it remained unclear whether Shekau declared his group to be part of ISIL or if he was declaring a separate caliphate in Nigeria.[55] On 7 March 2015, Shekau pledged allegiance to ISIL via an audio message posted on the organisation's Twitter account.[56][57] Afterwards, Boko Haram assumed the name "Wilāyat al Sūdān al Gharbī" (Arabic: ولاية السودان الغربي‎, "West Africa Province") or "Islamic State in West Africa" (Iswap).[58] However, on the 10th of April, 2018, during a rally headlined by U.S. President Donald Trump in support of Mike Braun’s bid for the US Senate in Elkhart, Indiana, Vice President Mike Pence referred to ISIS as a Caliphate, claiming “ISIS is on the run, their Caliphate has crumbled, and we will soon drive them out of existence once and for all,” implying the US views the claims of Baghdadi as (at least rhetorically) legitimate. [59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Imam Hassan as". Duas.org. 
  2. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, pp. 12–13
  3. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 6–7
  4. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 7
  5. ^ Houtsma & Wensinck 1993, p. 3
  6. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 195
  7. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 239–240
  8. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521223102. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
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  14. ^ "Sultan I. Ahmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  15. ^ a b "Sultan I. Mustafa". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
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  18. ^ "Sultan İbrahim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
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