List of campaigns of Mehmed the Conqueror

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Campaigns of Mehmed the Conqueror
سفر همايون / Sefer-i humāyūn
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe
and the Ottoman wars in the Near East
Sarayi Album 10a.jpg
Sultan Mehmed II smelling a rose, from the Sarayı Albums. Hazine 2153, folio 10a
Datefirst 1444 - 1446 second 1451 - 1481
Result Growth of the Ottoman Empire

This is a list of campaigns personally led by Mehmed II or Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481) (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i s̠ānī; Turkish: II. Mehmet; also known as el-Fātiḥ, الفاتح, "the Conqueror" in Ottoman Turkish; in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet; also called Mahomet II in early modern Europe) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire twice, first for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire, transforming the Ottoman state into an empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Asia, with the Anatolian reunification, and in Europe, as far as Bosnia and Croatia. Mehmed II is regarded as a national hero in Turkey, and Istanbul's Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is named after him.

List of campaigns[edit]

  Campaigns in Europe
  Campaigns in Anatolia

# Campaign Campaign dates Notes
1 Karaman 1451 The Karamanids attacked Ottoman territory after Mehmed became sultan. In response sultan Mehmed made his first campaign against Karaman. The Karamanids were defeated and İbrahim II of Karaman promised not to attack the Ottomans again and so peace was restored.
2 Constantinople 1453 While sultan Mehmed was on his campaign against Karaman, the Byzantine emperor Constantine XI demanded an increase of the annual allowance to an Ottoman pretender in Constantinople. Mehmed refused and prepared to besiege Constantinople. He ordered the construction of the Rumeli Hisar after which the siege of the city began. The city was conquered following a siege lasting 53 days. The Byzantine Empire ceased to exist and the city became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.
3 Serbia 1454-55 Mehmed led a campaign against Serbia because the Serbian ruler Đurađ Branković refused to send tribute and made an alliance with the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ottoman army conquered the important mining city of Novo Brdo.
4 Serbia 1456 Mehmed continued his campaign in Serbia, numerous castles were captured but the Siege of Belgrade (1456) was unsuccessful and the Ottoman army retreated.
5 Serbia 1458-59 After the death of the Serbian ruler Đurađ Branković a succession war broke out and the sultan who was related to the Serbian kings invaded the area, Smederevo was captured and the Serbian Despotate ended and was annexed to the Ottoman Empire. (See History of the Serbian–Turkish wars)
6 Morea 1458-59 The Despotate of Morea refused to pay its annual tribute and revolted. In response Mehmed led a campaign into Morea. The inhabitants were defeated and their territories were annexed into the Ottoman Empire.
7 Amasra 1460 Amasra, the most important fortress of the Genoese on the Black Sea coast, was besieged and captured.
8 Sinop 1461 Mehmed led a campaign against Trebizond and on the way annexed the entire Black Sea coast to the Ottoman Empire ending the reign of the Jandarids peacefully.
9 Trebizond 1461 After the emperor of the Empire of Trebizond refused to pay tribute and made an alliance with the Akkoyunlu Mehmed led a campaign against Trebizond by land and sea. After a siege of more than 32 days, Trebizond and the emperor surrendered and the Empire came to an end.
10 Wallachia 1462 Vlad the Impaler who with Ottoman help had become the Ottoman vassal ruler of Wallachia, refused to pay tribute after some years and invaded Ottoman territory in northern Bulgaria. At that point Mehmed, with the main Ottoman army, was on the Trebizond campaign in Asia. When Mehmed returned from his Trebizond campaign he led a campaign against Wallachia. Vlad fled after some resistance to Hungary. Mehmed first made Wallachia an Ottoman eyalet but then appointed Vlad's brother Radu as a vassal ruler.
11 Lesbos 1462 The island of Lesbos was captured following a siege of its capital, Mytilene, and annexed.
12 Bosnia 1463-64 Mehmed led a campaign against the Kingdom of Bosnia and annexed it to the Ottoman Empire
13 Morea 1463 Mehmed led a campaign in the Morea, which ended with the annexation of the Despotate of Morea.
14 Albania 1466-67 Mehmed led a campaign against Albania and besieged Krujë,but Albanian soldiers under Skanderbeg resisted successfully.
15 Karaman 1468 After the death of the ruler of Karamanids a civil war began among his sons in which Uzun Hasan, ruler of the Akkoyunlu, also became involved. After some time Mehmed marched into the area and annexed the Karamanids to the Ottoman Empire.
16 Negroponte 1470 During the long Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479). Mehmed led a campaign against the Venetian colony of Negroponte and after a siege annexed the region to the Ottoman Empire
17 Eastern Anatolia 1473 After many years of hostility Mehmed invaded the lands of the Akkoyunlu and defeated their ruler, Uzun Hasan, in the Battle of Otlukbeli, after which they did not pose a threat against the Ottomans anymore.
18 Moldavia 1476 Stephen III of Moldavia attacked Wallachia, an Ottoman vassal, and refused to pay the annual tribute. An Ottoman army was defeated and Mehmed led a personal campaign against Moldavia. He defeated the Moldavians in the Battle of Valea Alba, after that they accepted to pay the tribute and the peace was restored.
19 Albania 1478 During the long Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479) Mehmed invaded Albania and besieged the Venetian fortress of Shkodra. The war ended in Venetian defeat and Shkodra was surrendered to the Ottomans in accordance with the Treaty of Constantinople (1479).

Mehmed's opponents[edit]

See also[edit]


Further reading[edit]

  • History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Stanford Jay Shaw,Ezel Kural Shaw, 1977