List of cancer types

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The following is a list of cancer types. Cancer is a group of diseases that involve abnormal increases in the number of cells, with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[1] Not all tumors or lumps are cancerous; benign tumors are not classified as being cancer because they do not spread to other parts of the body.[1] There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.[1]

Cancers are often described by the body part that they originated in. However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include:

Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or tissue of origin as the root. For example, the most common cancer of the liver parenchyma ("hepato-" = liver), arising from malignant epithelial cells ("carcinoma"), would be called a hepatocarcinoma, while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma. Similarly, a cancer arising from malignant fat cells would be termed a liposarcoma.

For some common cancers, the English organ name is used. For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast.

Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are usually named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign tumor in the uterus is fibroid). Confusingly, some types of cancer use the -noma suffix, examples including melanoma and seminoma.[3][4]

Some types of cancer are named for the size and shape of the cells under a microscope, such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.

Bone and muscle sarcoma[edit]

Brain and nervous system[edit]


Endocrine system[edit]



Genitourinary and gynecologic[edit]

Head and neck[edit]



Thoracic and respiratory[edit]

HIV/AIDS related[edit]

Unsorted (so far)[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Defining Cancer". National Cancer Institute. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  2. ^ Varricchio, Claudette G. (2004). A cancer source book for nurses. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 229. ISBN 0-7637-3276-1.
  3. ^ American Cancer Society. "Melanoma Skin Cancer". American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  4. ^ American Cancer Society. "What is Testicular Cancer". American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society. Retrieved 5 July 2017.

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