List of canids

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10 of the 12 extant canid genera left-to-right, top-to-bottom: Canis, Cuon, Lycaon, Cerdocyon, Chrysocyon, Speothos, Vulpes, Nyctereutes, Otocyon, and Urocyon

Canidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, which includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid; all extant species are a part of a single subfamily, Caninae, and are called canines. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size, including tails, from the 2 meter (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 46 cm (18 in) fennec fox. Population sizes range from the Falkland Islands wolf, extinct since 1876, to the wolf, whose domestic dog subspecies has a worldwide population of over 1 billion.[1] The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails.[2] Most species are social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving cooperatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and vocalizations.[3] One canid, the domestic dog, entered into a partnership with humans at least 14,000 years ago and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.[4]

The 13 genera and 36 species of Caninae are primarily split into two tribes: Canini, which includes 9 genera and 20 species, comprising the wolf-like Canina subtribe and the South American Cerdocyonina subtribe; and Vulpini, the fox-like canids, comprising 3 genera and 14 species. Not included in either tribe is the Urocyon genus, which includes 2 species, mainly comprising the gray fox and believed to be basal to the family. In addition to the extant Caninae, Canidae comprises two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae. Extinct species have also been placed into Caninae, in both extant and extinct genera; at least 80 extinct Caninae species have been found, as well as over 70 species in Borophaginae and nearly 30 in Hesperocyoninae, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed. The earliest canids found belong to Hesperocyoninae, and are believed to have diverged from the existing Caniformia suborder around 37 million years ago.[5]

Conventions[edit]

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (1 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (0 species)
 EN Endangered (4 species)
 VU Vulnerable (0 species)
 NT Near threatened (5 species)
 LC Least concern (26 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (0 species)
 NE Not evaluated (0 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the canid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "Extinct".

Classification[edit]

The family Canidae consists of 35 extant species belonging to 12 genera and divided into 194 extant subspecies, as well the extinct genus Dusicyon, comprising the Falkland Islands wolf, and 13 extinct wolf subspecies, which are the only canid species to go extinct since prehistoric times. This does not include hybrid species (such as wolfdogs or coywolfs) or extinct prehistoric species (such as the dire wolf or Epicyon). Modern molecular studies indicate that the 13 genera can be grouped into 3 tribes or clades.

Subfamily Caninae

Canids[edit]

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis, such as the promotion of the African golden wolf to a separate species from the golden jackal. Range maps are based on IUCN range data. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as the promotion of the red wolf and eastern wolf as species from subspecies of the wolf, or the addition of the Italian wolf subspecies, which are not included here.

Subfamily Caninae[edit]

Tribe Canini[edit]

Genus Atelocynus (Cabrera, 1940) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Short-eared dog

Painting of small-eared canine

A. microtis
Cabrera, 1940

Western Amazon rainforest in South America
Distribución Atelocynus microtis.png
Size: 72–100 cm (28–39 in) long, plus 24–35 cm (9–14 in) tail[6]

Habitat: Wetlands, forest, and savanna[7]

Hunting: Preys primarily on fish, insects, and small mammals, as well as fruit, birds, and crabs[7][8]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[7]

Genus Canis (Linnaeus, 1758) – seven species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
African golden wolf

Gray and brown canine in grass

C. anthus[b]
F. Cuvier, 1820

North and northeastern Africa
Canis lupaster range.png
Size: 100 cm (39 in) long, plus 20 cm (8 in) tail[9]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and savanna[10]

Hunting: Primarily preys on wild boar and livestock, as well as other mammals and fruit[10][11]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[10]

Black-backed jackal

Brown and black canine in shrubland

C. mesomelas
Schreber, 1775

Southern Africa and eastern Africa
Canis mesomelas subspecies range.png
Size: 60–95 cm (24–37 in) long, plus 16–40 cm (6–16 in) tail[12]

Habitat: Marine intertidal, forest, desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[13]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small to medium-sized mammals and birds[13][14]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[13]

Coyote

Gray and brown canine in the snow

C. latrans
Say, 1823

North America
Cypron-Range Canis latrans.svg
Size: 100–135 cm (39–53 in) long, plus 40 cm (16 in) tail[15]

Habitat: Forest, desert, shrubland, and grassland[16]

Hunting: Preys on a wide variety of foods, including both small and large mammals, fruit, and insects[16]
 LC 


1 million+ Population increasing[16][17]

Ethiopian wolf

Red canine on grassy rocks

C. simensis
Rüppell, 1840

Ethiopian Highlands
Canis simensis subspecies range.png
Size: 84–100 cm (33–39 in) long, plus 27–40 cm (11–16 in) tail[18]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, grassland, shrubland, and rocky areas[19]

Hunting: Primarily preys on rodents as well as small mammals[19][20]
 EN 


200 Population declining[19]

Golden jackal

Gray and brown canine next to grass

C. aureus
Linnaeus, 1758

Eastern Europe, Middle East, and southern Asia
Canis aureus distribution map.png
Size: 60–132 cm (24–52 in) long, plus 20–30 cm (8–12 in) tail[21]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[22]

Hunting: Preys on a wide variety of foods, including small to large mammals, birds, fish, fruit, and insects[22][21]
 LC 


Unknown, but at least 150,000 Population increasing[22]

Wolf

Gray canine in grass

C. lupus
Linnaeus, 1758

Euroasia and northern North America
Present distribution of gray wolf (canis lupus) subspecies.png
Size: 105–160 cm (41–63 in) long, plus 29–50 cm (11–20 in) tail[23]

Habitat: Forest, desert, rocky areas, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[24]

Hunting: Primarily preys on large ungulates, as well as small animals, carrion, and berries[24][25]
 LC 


300,000 (excluding 1 billion domestic dogs) Population steady[24][26][1]

Side-striped jackal

Gray and brown canine next to grass

C. adustus
Sundevall, 1847

Central Africa
Side-striped Jackal area.png
Size: 69–81 cm (27–32 in) long, plus 30–41 cm (12–16 in) tail[27]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands[28]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small to medium-sized mammals and fruit, as well as birds, insects, grass, and carrion[28][29]
 LC 


3 million Population steady[28][30]

Genus Cerdocyon (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Crab-eating fox

Gray canine in jungle

C. thous
Linnaeus, 1766

Eastern and northern South America
Crab-eating Fox area.png
Size: 64 cm (25 in) long, plus 28 cm (11 in) tail[31]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[32]

Hunting: Primarily preys on crabs and insects, as well as rodents, birds, turtles, eggs, fruit, and carrion[31][32]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[32]

Genus Chrysocyon (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Maned wolf

Red, furry canine in grass

C. brachyurus
Illiger, 1815
Central South America
Maned Wolf area.png
Size: 100–130 cm (39–51 in) long, plus 45 cm (18 in) tail[33][34]

Habitat: Forest, wetlands, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[35]

Hunting: Primarily preys on fruits, arthropods, and small and medium vertebrates[35]
 NT 


17,000 Unknown[35]

Genus Cuon (Hodgson, 1838) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Dhole

Red canine in grass

C. alpinus
Pallas, 1811

Southeast Asia
Cuon-alpinus-map.png
Size: 90 cm (35 in) long, plus 40–45 cm (16–18 in) tail[36]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[37]

Hunting: Primarily preys on ungulates, as well as small rodents and hares[37]
 EN 


1,000–2,200 Population declining[37]

Genus DusicyonExtinct (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Falkland Islands wolfExtinct

Stuffed gray canine

D. australis
Kerr, 1792
Falkland Islands at tip of South America
LocationFalklandIslands.png
Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland[38]

Hunting: Unknown[38]
 EX 


0[c] Population steady[38]

Genus Lycalopex (Burmeister, 1854) – six species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Culpeo

Gray canine on barren ground

L. culpeo
Molina, 1782

Western South America
Culpeo area.png
Size: 95–132 cm (37–52 in) long, plus 32–44 cm (13–17 in) tail[39]

Habitat: Forest, rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[40]

Hunting: Primarily preys on rodents and lagomorphs, as well as livestock and guanacos[40][41]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[40]

Darwin's fox

Small dark canine in grass

L. fulvipes
Martin, 1837
Limited areas in southern Chile
Darwin's Fox area.png
Size: 48–59 cm (19–23 in) long, plus 18–26 cm (7–10 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[43]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small mammals, insects, crabs, and fruit[42][43]
 EN 


600-2,500 Population declining[43]

Hoary fox

Gray canine lying in grass

L. vetulus
Lund, 1842
South-central Brazil
Hoary Fox area.png
Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 25–38 cm (10–15 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Savanna[44]

Hunting: Primarily preys on insects, as well as small rodents, birds, reptiles, and fruit[42][44]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[44]

Pampas fox

Gray canine in barren grass

L. gymnocercus
Waldheim, 1814

Southern South America
Pseudalopex gymnocercus range map.png
Size: 51–74 cm (20–29 in) long, plus 25–41 cm (10–16 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and savanna[45]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small rodents, hares, birds, insects, and fruit, as well as carrion[42][45]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[45]

Sechuran fox

Gray canine head

L. sechurae
Thomas, 1900
Sechura Desert in southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru
Sechuran Fox area.png
Size: 50–78 cm (20–31 in) long, plus 27–34 cm (11–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest, desert, grassland, and shrubland[46]

Hunting: Primarily preys on fruit and seeds, as well as small rodents, birds, reptiles, insects, scorpions, and carrion[42][46]
 NT 


15,000 Unknown[46][47]

South American gray fox

Gray canine in grass

L. griseus
Gray, 1837
Southern South America
Pseudalopex griseus range map.png
Size: 50–66 cm (20–26 in) long, plus 12–34 cm (5–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[48]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small rodents, hares, and carrion[42][48]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[48]

Genus Lycaon (Brookes, 1827) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
African wild dog

Black, brown, and white canine in yellow grass

L. pictus
Temminck, 1820

Scattered areas of Africa
African Wild Dog Distrbution.jpg
Size: 76–112 cm (30–44 in) long, plus 30–42 cm (12–17 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, savanna, and desert[49]

Hunting: Primarily preys on medium-sized antelope[49]
 EN 


1,400 Population declining[49]

Genus Speothos (Lund, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Bush dog

Small brown canine in grass

S. venaticus
Lund, 1842

Northern South America
Bush Dog area.png
Size: 57–75 cm (22–30 in) long, plus 12–15 cm (5–6 in) tail[50]

Habitat: Shrubland, forest, grassland, and savanna[51]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small and medium mammals, as well as birds, reptiles, and fruit[51]
 NT 


15,000 Population declining[51][52]

Tribe Vulpini[edit]

Genus Nyctereutes (Temminck, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Raccoon dog

Gray and brown fox by a bush

N. procyonoides
Gray, 1834

Eastern Asia and Central and Eastern Europe
Raccoon Dog area.png
Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[53]

Hunting: Primarily preys on insects, rodents, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles, as well as fruits, nuts, and berries[53]
 LC 


Unknown, but at least 1.5 million in fur farms Population steady[53][54]

Genus Otocyon (Müller, 1835) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Bat-eared fox

Brown fox with large ears

O. megalotis
Desmarest, 1822

Southern and Eastern Africa
Bat-eared Fox area.png
Size: 46–61 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 23–34 cm (9–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and savanna[55]

Hunting: Primarily preys on harvester termites as well as other arthropods[55]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[55]

Genus Vulpes (Frisch, 1775) – twelve species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Arctic fox

Arctic fox in the snow facing the viewer

V. lagopus
Linnaeus, 1758

Arctic North America and Eurasia
Cypron-Range Vulpes lagopus.svg
Size: 50–75 cm (20–30 in) long, plus 25–43 cm (10–17 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Grassland[56]

Hunting: Primarily preys on lemmings, as well as other rodents, birds, and reindeer[56]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[56]

Bengal fox

Brown fox in the grass

V. bengalensis
Shaw, 1800
India
Vulpes-bengalensis-map.png
Size: 39–58 cm (15–23 in) long, plus 25–32 cm (10–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland[57]

Hunting: Primarily preys on arthropods, rodents, reptiles, fruits, and birds[57]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[57]

Blanford's fox

Brown fox on rocks

V. cana
Blanford, 1877
The Middle East and Central Asia
Vulpes cana (distribution).svg
Size: 34–47 cm (13–19 in) long, plus 26–36 cm (10–14 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Desert and rocky areas[58]

Hunting: Primarily preys on fruit and insects[58]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[58]

Cape fox

Brown and gray fox in the grass

V. chama
A Smith, 1833
Southern Africa
Cape Fox area.png
Size: 45–61 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 25–41 cm (10–16 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[59]

Hunting: Primarily preys on fruit and insects[59]
 LC 


20,000 Population steady[59]

Corsac fox

Gray fox standing on a rock

V. corsac
Linnaeus, 1768

Central Asia
Corsac area.png
Size: 45–60 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 19–34 cm (7–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Desert, grassland, and shrubland[60]

Hunting: Primarily preys on insects and small rodents[60]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[60]

Fennec fox

Large-eared fox on rock

V. zerda
Zimmermann, 1780
Northern Africa
Fennec area.png
Size: 33–40 cm (13–16 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Desert and marine coastal/supratidal[61]

Hunting: Primarily preys on rodents, insects, birds, eggs, and rabbits[61]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[61]

Kit fox

Gray fox standing in grass

V. macrotis
Merriam, 1888

Western North America
Kit Fox area.png
Size: 46–54 cm (18–21 in) long, plus 25–34 cm (10–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Shrubland, savanna, and grassland[62]

Hunting: Primarily preys on rodents, rabbits, invertebrates, birds, lizards, and snakes[62]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[62]

Pale fox

Painting of a light brown fox

V. pallida
Cretzschmar, 1827

Upper middle Africa
Pale Fox area.png
Size: 38–55 cm (15–22 in) long, plus 23–29 cm (9–11 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[63]

Hunting: Primarily preys on plants and berries as well as rodents, reptiles, and insects[63]
 LC 


10,000–100,000 Unknown[63]

Rüppell's fox

Red and gray fox on the snow

V. rueppellii
Schinz, 1825
Northern Africa and the Middle East
Ruppel's Fox area.png
Size: 35–56 cm (14–22 in) long, plus 25–39 cm (10–15 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Desert, shrubland, and marine coastal/supratidal[64]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small mammals, lizards, birds, and insects, as well as fruit and succulents[64]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[64]

Red fox

Red fox on grass

V. vulpes
Linnaeus, 1758

North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia
Wiki-Vulpes vulpes.png
Size: 62–72 cm (24–28 in) long, plus 40 cm (16 in) tail[65]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, forest, and desert[66]

Hunting: Primarily preys on small rodents, as well as birds, larger mammals, reptiles, insects, and fish[66]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[66]

Swift fox

Gray fox on dirt

V. velox
Say, 1823
Western grasslands of North America
Vulpes velox map.svg
Size: 48–54 cm (19–21 in) long, plus 25–34 cm (10–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Grassland[67]

Hunting: Primarily preys on rabbits, mice, ground squirrels, birds, insects and lizards, as well as grasses and fruits[67]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[67]

Tibetan sand fox

Painting of gay and brown fox

V. ferrilata
Hodgson, 1842
High plateaus in Nepal and western China
Tibetan Fox area.png
Size: 49–70 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 22–29 cm (9–11 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Desert, rocky areas, grassland, and shrubland[68]

Hunting: Primarily preys on pikas, as well as carrion and other small mammals[68]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[68]

Urocyon[edit]

Genus Urocyon (Baird, 1857) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population[a]
Gray fox

Gray fox on a rock

U. cinereoargenteus
Schreber, 1775

North America and Central America
Leefgebied grijze vos.JPG
Size: 53–66 cm (21–26 in) long, plus 28–44 cm (11–17 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[69]

Hunting: Primarily preys on rabbits, voles, shrews, and birds, as well as insects and fruit[69]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[69]

Island fox

Gray and red fox in shrubland

U. littoralis
Baird, 1857

Channel Islands of California
Subspecies of island fox.png
Size: 46–63 cm (18–25 in) long, plus 12–32 cm (5–13 in) tail[42]

Habitat: Marine intertidal, forest, grassland, and shrubland[70]

Hunting: Primarily preys on fruits, insects, birds, eggs, crabs, lizards, and small mammals[70]
 NT 


4,000 Population increasing[70]

Prehistoric canids[edit]

In addition to extant canids, a number of prehistoric species have been discovered and classified as a part of Canidae. Morphogenic and molecular phylogenic research has placed them within the extant subfamily Caninae as well as the extinct subfamilies Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae. Within Caninae, prehistoric species have been placed into both extant genera and separate extinct genera.

The generally accepted classification of extinct canid species is primarily based for Hesperocyoninae on work by Xiaoming Wang, curator of terrestrial mammals at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County,[5] and on work by Wang and zoologists Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor for Borophaginae and Caninae.[71][72][73] The species and classifications listed below are all from these works; exceptions due to more recently-described species are also listed with citations. Not all of these classifications are universally accepted, and alternate classifications for species are noted below. Where available, the approximate time period the species was extant is given in millions of years before the present (Mya), based on data from the Paleobiology Database. All listed species are extinct; where a genus, subtribe, or tribe within Caninae is comprised only of extinct species, it is indicated with a dagger symbol Extinct.

Subfamily Caninae[edit]

  • Tribe Vulpini
    • Genus MetalopexExtinct (10–4.9 Mya)
      • M. bakeri (10–4.9 Mya)
      • M. macconnelli (10–5.3 Mya)
      • M. merriami (10–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus Prototocyon
      • P. curvipalatus
      • P. recki
    • Genus Vulpes
      • V. alopecoides (2.5–0.13 Mya)
      • V. angustidens
      • V. beihaiensis
      • V. chikushanensis
      • V. galaticus
      • V. praecorsac (3.2–0.78 Mya)
      • V. praeglacialis
      • V. riffautae
      • V. skinneri
      • V. stenognathus (14–0.3 Mya)
      • V. qiuzhudingi[77]
  • Urocyon
    • Genus Urocyon
      • U. minicephalus (1.8–0.3 Mya)
      • U. progressus (4.9–1.8 Mya)
  • Basal Caninae
    • Genus LeptocyonExtinct (31–10 Mya)
      • L. delicatus (31–20 Mya)
      • L. douglassi (31–26 Mya)
      • L. gregorii (25–20 Mya)
      • L. leidyi (20–14 Mya)
      • L. matthewi (14–10 Mya)
      • L. mollis (31–20 Mya)
      • L. tejonensis (14–10 Mya)
      • L. vafer (14–10 Mya)
      • L. vulpinus (20–16 Mya)
  • Unclassified
Restoration of C. dirus (Dire wolf)
Restoration of C. arnensis (Arno River dog)
Restoration of C. etruscus (Etruscan wolf)
Restoration of C. othmani

Subfamily Borophaginae[edit]

  • Tribe Borophagini (26–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus Cormocyon (26–20 Mya)
      • C. copei (26–20 Mya)
      • C. haydeni (25–20 Mya)
    • Genus Desmocyon (20–16 Mya)
      • D. matthewi (20–16 Mya)
      • D. thomsoni (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Euoplocyon (20–14 Mya)
      • E. brachygnathus (16–14 Mya)
      • E. spissidens (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Metatomarctus (20–16 Mya)
      • M. canavus (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Microtomarctus (16–14 Mya)
      • M. conferta (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Protomarctus (16–14 Mya)
      • P. optatus (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Psalidocyon (16–14 Mya)
      • P. marianae (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Tephrocyon (16–14 Mya)
      • T. rurestris (16–14 Mya)
    • Subtribe Aelurodontina (16–5.3 Mya)
      • Genus Aelurodon (16–5.3 Mya)
        • A. asthenostylus (16–14 Mya)
        • A. ferox (14–10 Mya)
        • A. mcgrewi (16–14 Mya)
        • A. montanensis (16–14 Mya)[78]
        • A. stirtoni (14–10 Mya)
        • A. taxoides (10–5.3 Mya)
      • Genus Tomarctus (16–14 Mya)
        • T. brevirostris (16–14 Mya)
        • T. hippophaga (16–14 Mya)
    • Subtribe Borophagina (16–1.8 Mya)
    • Subtribe Cynarctina (16–10 Mya)
      • Genus Cynarctus (16–10 Mya)
        • C. crucidens (12–10 Mya)
        • C. galushai (16–14 Mya)
        • C. marylandica (16–14 Mya)
        • C. saxatilis (16–14 Mya)
        • C. voorhiesi (14–10 Mya)
        • C. wangi (16–14 Mya)[79]
      • Genus Paracynarctus (16–14 Mya)
        • P. kelloggi (16–14 Mya)
        • P. sinclairi (16–14 Mya)
  • Tribe Phlaocyonini (30.8–13.6 Mya)
    • Genus Cynarctoides (31–14 Mya)
      • C. acridens (20–14 Mya)
      • C. emryi (20–16 Mya)
      • C. gawnae (20–16 Mya)
      • C. harlowi (25–20 Mya)
      • C. lemur (31–20 Mya)
      • C. luskensis (25–20 Mya)
      • C. roii (31–26 Mya)
    • Genus Phlaocyon (31–16 Mya)
  • Basal Borophaginae
    • Genus Archaeocyon (31–20 Mya)
      • A. falkenbachi (31–20 Mya)
      • A. leptodus (31–26 Mya)
      • A. pavidus (31–26 Mya)
    • Genus Otarocyon (34–26 Mya)
      • O. cooki (31–26 Mya)
      • O. macdonaldi (34–33 Mya)
    • Genus Oxetocyon (33–31 Mya)
      • O. cuspidatus (33–31 Mya)
    • Genus Rhizocyon (31–20 Mya)
      • R. oregonensis (31–20 Mya)
Restoration of Mesocyon
Restoration of Tephrocyon

Subfamily Hesperocyoninae[edit]

Restoration of H. gregarius
Restoration of Hesperocyon head
  • Genus Cynodesmus (31–20 Mya)
    • C. martini (31–20 Mya)
    • C. thooides (31–26 Mya)
  • Genus Caedocyon (31–20 Mya)
    • C. tedfordi (31–20 Mya)
  • Genus Ectopocynus (31–16 Mya)
    • E. antiquus (31–20 Mya)
    • E. intermedius (31–20 Mya)
    • E. siplicidens (20–16 Mya)
  • Genus Enhydrocyon (31–20 Mya)
    • E. basilatus (25–20 Mya)
    • E. crassidens (26–20 Mya)
    • E. pahinsintewkpa (26–20 Mya)
    • E. stenocephalus (31–20 Mya)
    • E. sectorius
  • Genus Hesperocyon (37–31 Mya)
    • H. coloradensis (34–33 Mya)
    • H. gregarius (37–31 Mya)
  • Genus Mesocyon (33–20 Mya)
    • M. brachyops (31–20 Mya)
    • M. coryphaeus (31–20 Mya)
    • M. temnodon (33–20 Mya)
  • Genus Osbornodon (33–14 Mya)
    • O. brachypus (20–16 Mya)
    • O. fricki (16–14 Mya)
    • O. iamonensis (20–16 Mya)
    • O. renjiei (33–31 Mya)
    • O. scitulus (21–16 Mya)[81]
    • O. sesnoni (31–20 Mya)
    • O. wangi (31–20 Mya)[80]
  • Genus Paraenhydrocyon (25–20 Mya)
    • P. josephi (25–20 Mya)
    • P. robustus (25–20 Mya)
    • P. wallovianus (25–20 Mya)
  • Genus Philotrox (31–26 Mya)
    • P. condoni (31–26 Mya)
  • Genus Prohesperocyon (37–34 Mya)
    • P. wilsoni (37–34 Mya)
  • Genus Sunkahetanka (31–26 Mya)
    • S. geringensis (31–26 Mya)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Population figures rounded to the nearest hundred. Population trends as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  2. ^ It has been proposed that the binomial for the African golden wolf be changed to Canis lupaster, which the IUCN has adopted but is not yet universal
  3. ^ The Falklands Island wolf is believed to have been driven extinct in 1876[38]
  4. ^ Also potentially placed in the Eucyon genus
  5. ^ Xenocyon is sometimes considered a subgenus of Canis

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