List of Capsicum cultivars
||This article needs attention from an expert in Plants, Food and Drink or Agriculture. The specific problem is: Almost all cultivars unreferenced. Some dubious. Many table entries need copyediting. (May 2015)|
There are four or five major species of cultivated Capsicum, and within those species are several "taxonomic varieties". The species and varieties include many economically important cultivars with different shapes, colours, and flavours that are grown for different purposes. Some confusion has resulted from the legal term "plant variety", which is used interchangeably with "cultivar" (not with "taxonomic variety").
Major species and their taxonomic varieties:
- Capsicum annuum, which includes bell peppers, cayenne, paprika and jalapeños
- Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum
- Capsicum baccatum, which includes ají amarillo, ají limon and criolla sella
- Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum
- Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum, which includes cumari
- Capsicum chinense, which includes habanero, sometimes included within C. annuum
- Capsicum pubescens, which includes rocoto
Due to the large and changing number of cultivars, and the variation of cultivar namings in different regions, this list should not be considered complete or final.
Capsicum annuum, native to South America, is cultivated worldwide. Its forms are varied, from large to small, sweet to sour, and very hot to bland. Despite being a single species, C. annuum has many forms, with a variety of names, even in the same language. Official names aside, in American English, any variety lacking heat is colloquially known as a sweet pepper, while one that produces capsaicin is colloquially known as a hot pepper or chili pepper. In British English, the sweet varieties are called "peppers" and the hot varieties "chillies", whereas in Australian English, the name "capsicum" is commonly used for bell peppers exclusively and "chilli" is often used to encompass the hotter varieties.
The plant is a perennial subshrub, with a densely branched stem. The plant reaches 0.5–1.5 m (20–60 in). Single white flowers develop into the fruit which is green when unripe, changing usually to red, although some varieties may ripen to yellow, brown, or purple. The species are grown in temperate climates as an annual, but they are especially productive in warm and dry climates.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2015)|
|Aci Sivri||Turkey||15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in)|
|Afghan Short||Afghanistan||SR5,000–30,000||5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in)||Grown in Afghanistan.|
|Aleppo||Syria and Turkey||SR15,000||Grown in Syria and Turkey and used, in coarsely ground, dried form, as a spice that is also called aleppo pepper|
|Alma Paprika||Hungary||SR10,000||A Hungarian pepper often pickled or dried and ground to make spicy paprika|
|Anaheim||United States||SR500–2,500||15 cm (5.9 in)||A mild variety of New Mexico chile. It was later brought to California from New Mexico by Emilio Ortega in the 1900s. Often it is used for chile relleno. When mature, it takes on a red color and is referred to as a colorado.|
|Ancient Sweet||SR0||250–300 mm (10–12 in) long by 38–51 mm (1 1⁄2–2 in) wide||Medium tall plant produce heavy loads of extra sweet red in color fruits, plant have white flowers & thin flesh. This variety sets the record for the sweetest pepper with 1.5 times the sweetness of a ripe red bell pepper.|
|Banana||SR0–500||15 cm (5.9 in)||Often it is pickled and used as an ingredient in sandwiches; its piquancy is not very hot. Its shape and color resemble a banana.|
|Beaver Dam||United States|
|Bird's Eye||Southeast Asia|| SR50,000–100,000||4 cm (1.6 in)||A Southeast Asian cultivar known by many local names, but generally it is called Thai chili in the United States. It has thin fruit with a pointed tip.|
|Black Hungarian||Shape of a jalapeño. Deep, dark purple in color.|
|Black Pearl||United States||Ornamental plant. Winner of the All-America Selections (AAS) Flower Award in 2006. Dark leaves with berry-shaped fruit.|
|Bulgarian Carrot||Bulgaria||SR12,000||76 mm (3 in)|
|Bulgarian Ratund||SR0||64 mm (2.5 in)|
|California Wonder||United States||SR0|
|Cascabel||Mexico||SR3,000||2.5 cm (0.98 in)||The small, round fruit are usually dried, and have a distinct, nutty flavor. The name, Spanish for "rattle" or "jingle bell", derives from the rattling noise made by the seeds inside the dried pod.|
|Cayenne (Red)||French Guiana||SR30,000–50,000||12.5 cm (4.9 in)||This long, thin fruit was transported by the Portuguese to China and India, where it is used widely. Often it is dried and ground into powder.|
|Charleston Belle||United States||The first nematode-resistant bell pepper. Created in Charleston, South Carolina by the USDA.|
|Cherry||SR3,500||2.5 cm (0.98 in)||Named for the fruit it resembles, this cultivar's fruit is small, red, and round. It is typically used fresh, or pickled and jarred, and is often used to stuff green olives. It is also called pimento.|
|Chervena Chuska||Bulgarian||SR0||150 mm (6 in)||Also spelled "Chushka". Very sweet.|
|Chilaca||SR1,000–2,000||15 cm (5.9 in)||Popular in Mexican cuisine, it is almost always encountered dried; in this state, it is referred to as a pasilla. The pasilla has a dark brown color and a smoky flavor.|
|Chiltepin||SR50,000–100,000||0.5 cm (0.20 in)||This small, hot fruit is often eaten by birds. The plant is thought to be the ancestor of the cultivated C. annuum peppers. Evidence indicates it has been consumed by humans as far back as 7,500 BC.|
|Chinese Five-Color||SR5,000–30,000||3.5 cm (1.4 in)||The fruit starts out purple, then changes to white, yellow, orange, and red. Similar to Bolivian rainbow pepper and 'NuMex Twilight' pepper, it is also called Chinese multicolor pepper.|
|Chiltoma Grande de Ometepe||Nicaragua|
|Coban Red Pimiento||Guatemala|
|Corne De Chevre||Spain|
|Corno di Toro Giallo||Italy||SR0|
|Corno di Toro Rosso||Italy|
|Cowhorn||SR0–500||200 mm (8 in)||Plant produces good yields of 200 mm (8 in) long sweet pepper. Pepper are very sweet and have excellent flavor! Peppers turn from green to red when mature. One of the largest non-bell stuffing peppers around|
|Craig's Grande Jalapeño||United States||A big, fat jalapeño.|
|Criolla De Cocina Pepper||Nicaragua|
|Cubanelle||SR1–1,000||130 mm (5 in)||Medium in thickness, the tapered fruit is green when unripe, but turns red when mature. Often it is fried in Italian cooking.|
|De árbol||Mexico||SR15,000–30,000||8 cm (3.1 in)||This slender-fruited cultivar is grown primarily in Mexico, its name is Spanish for "from a tree".|
|Doux D'Espagne||SR0||Also known as a Spanish Mammoth Pepper.|
|Early Jalapeño||This variety matures faster than normal jalapeños.|
|Elephant Trunk||SR5,000–10,000||150 to 250 mm (6 to 10 in) long by 25 mm (1 in) wide||Plant produces good yields of 6" to 10" long by 1" wide tapered and wrinkled hot peppers. Pepper resemble an elephant's trunk. They are mild and turn from green to red when mature. Plant has green stems, green leaves, and white flowers. Can be used green or red. A variety from India. Plant Height: 50" tall|
|Espanola Improved||United States||SR2,000–4,000|
|Estaceno||United States||250 mm (10 in)||New Mexican-style chili pepper.|
|Filius Blue||Ornamental, multi-colored pepper plant.|
|Fresno||United States||SR2,500–10,000||9 cm (3.5 in)||Similar to the jalapeño, but with thinner walls, it is generally used ripe, and has a higher vitamin content. Frequently it is used in ceviche, and is one of the most frequently used chilis in salsa.|
|Friariello di Napoli||Italy||SR0|
|Fushimi||Japan||SR0||150 mm (6 in)|
|Georgescu Chocolate||Romania||SR0||130 mm (5 in)|
|Golden Cal Wonder||SR0|
|Golden Cayenne||100–150 mm (4–6 in)|
|Golden Marconi||Italy||SR0||180 mm (7 in)|
|Guntur Sannam||SR35,000–40,000||It is well known as a commercial crop used as a condiment, culinary supplement, or vegetable.|
|Hinkelhatz||United States||25–51 mm (1–2 in)||Also known as Hinkel Hatz.|
|Hole Mole||United States||SR700||180–230 mm (7–9 in)||2007 All-America Selection.|
|Horizon Bell||SR0||Medium green to orange-yellow at maturity.|
|Hungarian Wax||SR2,500–8,000||This wide, medium-hot variety is used in Hungarian cuisine, frequently pickled. Also it is commonly dried, ground, and presented as "paprika".|
|Italian Sweet||Italy||Used in Spanish cuisine|
|Jalapeño||Mexico||SR2,500–8,000||9 cm (3.5 in)||Very popular, especially in the United States, it is often pickled or canned. A smoke-dried ripe jalapeño is referred to as a chipotle.|
|Japones||SR15,000–35,000||Usually found dried. Flatter and thicker than arbol chilis.|
|Jimmy Nardello Italian||Italy||SR0|
|Joe's Long Cayenne||200–250 mm (8–10 in)|
|Jwala||India||SR20,000–30,000||100 mm (4 in)|
|King of the North||SR0||25–51 mm (1–2 in)||Works well for short-season growers. Productive in northern climates.|
|Korean Dark Green||76–102 mm (3–4 in)|
|Krimzon Lee||200 mm (8 in)|
|Large Red Antigua||Guatemala||SR0||Also known as the Large Sweet Antigua.|
|Lipstick||SR0||100 mm (4 in)|
|Lumbre||United States||SR9,000–10,000||130 mm (5 in)|
|Mammi Huber's Stuffing||United States||SR0|
|Maule's Red Hot||United States||250–300 mm (10–12 in)|
|Medusa||It is a sweet, ornamental chili pepper which grows upright and has brightly coloured fruit.|
|Melrose||Italy||SR0||100 mm (4 in)|
|Midnight Dreams Bell||SR0||Black ebony-colored bell pepper.|
|Miniature Chocolate Bell||United States||SR0|
|Miniature Yellow Bell||United States||SR0|
|Mirasol||Mexico|| SR2,000–5,000||Its dried form is called guajillo, and is used to make a red sauce used for tamales.|
|Mora||A small chili about 130 mm (5 in) long and 51 mm (2 in) wide, and purple, it is always used dry. It is extremely spicy, and is used as a substitute for chipotle when more powerful spice is needed.|
|Morita||Morita: A variety of the chipotle style of chiles (dried smoked jalapeños).
The morita is typically made from a certain type of Jalapeños fully ripened purplish color (hence the name "mora =berry") and only dried just when they are leathery but still shiny. Also called "Chipotle Colorado," "Mora Chile," but usually smaller about 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) after drying. Usually spicier than the typical chipotle. 
|Mulato||Mexico||SR2,500–3,000||10 cm (3.9 in)||Grown in Mexico, the mulato is a mild to medium chili pepper,
closely related to the poblano (ancho), and usually sold dried.
|Moshi||Tanzania||51 mm (2 in)|
|New Mexico chile||United States||SR0–70,000||A long, flavorful chile grown in New Mexico since Puebloan times. It includes varieties such as Hatch, Anaheim, Rio Grande, NuMex, and Pueblo chiles. Often it is used for chile relleno. When mature, it takes on a red color and is referred to as chile colorado and hung to dry as ristras.|
|New Mexico No. 6||United States|
|New Mexico 6-4||United States|
|New Mexico No. 9||United States|
|NuMex April Fool's Day||United States|
|NuMex Bailey Piquin||United States||SR97,000|
|NuMex Barker's X-Hot||United States||SR9,000–15,000||130 mm (5 in)|
|NuMex Big Jim||United States||SR2,000–4,000|
|NuMex Centennial||United States|
|NuMex Chinese New Year||United States||Ornamental chili plant with bullet shaped fruits that grow in clusters.|
|NuMex Christmas||United States|
|NuMex Cinco de Mayo||United States|
|NuMex Conquistador||United States|
|NuMex Earth Day||United States|
|NuMex Easter||United States|
|NuMex Eclipse||United States|
|NuMex Garnet||United States||SR0|
|NuMex Halloween||United States|
|NuMex Heritage 6-4||United States||SR3,000–5,000|
|NewMex Heritage Big Jim||United States|
|NuMex Jalmundo||United States||SR17,000||130 mm (5 in)|
|NuMex Joe E. Parker||United States||SR2,000–4,000|
|NuMex Las Cruces Cayenne||United States|
|NuMex Memorial Day||United States|
|NuMex Mirasol||United States||Used for cooking in a ground powder and as an ornamental on wreaths.|
|NuMex Nematador||United States|
|NuMex Piñata||United States|
|NuMex Primavera||United States|
|NuMex R. Naky||United States||SR260||A great mild paprika cultivar.|
|NuMex Sandia Hot||United States||SR7,000–9,000||180 mm (7 in)|
|NuMex Sandia Select||United States|
|NuMex St. Patrick's Day||United States|
|NewMex Suave Orange||United States|
|NewMex Suave Red||United States|
|NuMex Sunburst||United States|
|NuMex Sunflare||United States|
|NuMex Sunglo||United States|
|NuMex Sunrise||United States|
|NuMex Sunset||United States|
|NuMex Sweet||United States||SR0|
|NuMex Thanksgiving||United States|
|NuMex Twilight||United States||SR30,000–50,000|
|NuMex Valentine's Day||United States|
|NuMex Vaquero||United States|
|NuMex Veteran's Day||United States||Ornamental chili plant.|
|Onza||Mexico||Usually dried for sauces and soups.|
|Orange Bell Pepper||SR0|
|Ostra-Cyklon||Poland||110 mm (4.5 in)|
|Padrón||Spain||SR0||25–38 mm (1–1.5 in)|
|Paradicsom Alaku Sarga Szentes||Hungary||Pumpkin-shaped fruit.|
|Peperone di Cuneo||Italy||SR0|
|Peruvian Purple||Peru||25 mm (1 in)|
|Peter Pepper||United States and Mexico||SR5,000–30,000||8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in)||Rare, heirloom-type hot pepper.|
|Pepperoncini (peperoncini)||Italy||SR100–500||8 cm (3.1 in)||Sweet-tasting and mild, used extensively in Italian and Greek cuisine, very frequently pickled.|
|Pequin||United States and Mexico||SR100,000–140,000||Also spelled piquín|
|Pimient de Espellette||Spain|
|Pimiento De Padrón||Spain|
|Poblano||Mexico||SR1,000–2,000||13 cm (5.1 in)||The large, heart-shaped, dark green fruit is extremely popular in Mexico, often to make chile relleno. When dried, it is referred to as an ancho or mulato.|
|Prik Kee Nu||Thailand||SR50,000–100,000||3 cm (1.2 in)||One of many cultivars called Thai pepper, it has very short fruit, and is very hot. Thai: พริกขี้หนู, rtgs: phrik khi nu, IPA: [pʰrík kʰîː nǔː], literal: Mouse/rat dropping chili.|
|Purple Jalapeño||Jalapeño-like pepper that turns purple before ripening and becoming red.|
|Puya||Mexico||SR5,000||Capsicum annuum L., hot, medium-size, green to red, and tapered Also known as a 'Pulla'.|
|Purple Beauty||United States||SR0|
|Quadrato d'Asti Giallo||SR0|
|Quadrato d'Asti Rosso||Italy||SR0|
|Ram Horn Fireboy||Hungary||SR35,000||180 mm (7 in)|
|Red Belgian||Belgium||89 mm (3.5 in)|
|Red Marconi||Italy||SR0||180 mm (7 in)|
|Red Mini Bell||38 mm (1.5 in)|
|Rezha Macedonian||Macedonia||The name means "engraved".|
|Ring of Fire||SR50,000|
|Rio Grande 21||United States|
|Rooster Spur||51 mm (2 in)|
|Santa Fe Grande||The Santa Fe Grande is a very prolific variety used in the Southwestern United States. The conical, blunt fruits ripen from greenish-yellow, to orange-yellow to red. The peppers grow upright on 24-in plants. Santa Fe Grande has a slightly sweet taste and is fairly mild in pungency.|
|Santaka||Heirloom Asian chili.|
|Serrano||Mexico||SR10,000–23,000||5 cm (2.0 in)||The thin, tapered fruit turns red when mature. Due to its thin skin, it does not need to be peeled before use.|
|Serrano Tampiqueño||United States||SR15,000–25,000||57 mm (2.25 in)|
|Sheepnose Pimento||United States||SR0|
|Sigaretta di Bergamo||Italy||SR0|
|Siling Mahaba||Philippines||A chili pepper grown in the Philippines, and a popular ingredient in Filipino Cuisine|
|Sport Pepper||United States||SR300–500||4 cm (1.6 in)||Superficially resembling both Tabasco and serrano peppers, the sport pepper is its own distinct cultivar that is much milder than either of those. It is commonly pickled and used in Southern cooking and on Chicago-style hot dogs.|
|Super Chili||SR40,000–50,000||Long and thin. Grows from green to red.|
|Sweet Red Stuffing Pepper||United States||SR0||25–51 mm (1–2 in)|
|Sweet Yellow Stuffing Pepper||United States||SR0||25–51 mm (1–2 in)|
|Syrian Goat Horn||180–200 mm (7–8 in)|
|Syrian Three Sided||Syria||150–200 mm (6–8 in)|
|Tangerine Dream||76 mm (3 in)|
|Tam Jalapeño||SR1,000–1,500||Similar to a jalapeño, but with significantly less heat.|
|Tequila||SR0||Purple bell variety, not to be confused with the Tequila Sunrise, which is yellow.|
|Tequila Sunrise Pepper||SR1000–5000||150–170 mm (6–6.5 in)||Pastel orange in color.|
|Tiburon Pepper||SR2,000||Hybrid improvement of the poblano pepper. Resistant to bacterial spot and tobacco mosaic virus.|
|Thai Yellow Chili||Golden yellow version of the Bird's Eye (Thai) chili.|
|Tien Tsin||China||SR50,000–75,000||Grown and used in China|
|White Cloud||SR0||Ivory colored bell pepper.|
|White Lakes Pepper||Russia||SR0|
|Yellow Monster||200 mm (8 in)|
These have a distinctive, fruity flavor, and are commonly ground into colorful powders for use in cooking, each identified by its color.
|Ají Brazilian Red Pumpkin|
|Ají Criolla Sella||Bolivia||51–76 mm (2–3 in)|
|Ají Crystal||Chile||2.5–9 cm (0.98–3.54 in)|
|Ají Omnicolor||SR50,000||This multi-colored plant produces orange, red, purple and ivory chilis.|
|Bishop's Crown||10,000–30,000 SR||6 cm (2.4 in)||C. baccatum strain from Barbados. Medium hot pods have a unique shape which resembles the hat of a Bishop. Sturdy plants, can be grown as perennials. Also known as bishops hat, orchid, ají flor, monks hat.|
|Lemon Drop||30,000–50,000 SR||4 cm (1.6 in)||Very productive C. baccatum variety. Pods are thin walled and have a fruity taste with medium heat.|
|Piquanté||1,000–2,000 SR||2 cm (0.79 in)||Mild, sweet and tangy flavour, usable in many dishes|
Capsicum chinense or "Chinese capsicum" is a misnomer since all Capsicum species originated in the New World. Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin (1727–1817), a Dutch botanist, named the species in that way in 1776 because he believed they originated in China. Most of the peppers of this species have a distinctive flavor and are similar in flavor to each other.
|7 Pod Douglah||Trinidad||SR923,000–1,853,396|
|7 Pot Jonah||Trinidad||Turns from green to red as it ripens.|
|7 Pot Jonah Yellow||Trinidad||Yellow color and a more fruity flavor than the normal 7 Pot Jonah.|
|7 Pot Long||Longer and larger than normal seven pot peppers.|
|7 Pot Primo||Grows red.|
|7 Pot Primo Yellow||Australia||Grows yellow.|
|Adjuma||100,000–500,000 SR||Very hot, originally cultivated in Suriname|
|Ají Dulce||0–50 SR|
|Aribibi Gusano||Bolivia||4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in)|
|Bahamian Goat Pepper||Bahamas|
|Bhut Jolokia||Up to 1,500,000 SR||6 cm (2.4 in)||This cultivar originated in Northeast India, and was once confirmed by Guinness World Records to be the hottest pepper. It is an interspecific hybrid, largely C. chinense with some C. frutescens genes. It is also known as naga jolokia and Ghost Pepper.|
|Carolina Reaper||United States||1,569,300–2,200,000 SR||Extremely hot pepper, currently the Guinness book of world records holder as of August 7, 2013.|
|Datil||100,000–300,000 SR||A very hot chili; primarily grown in Florida|
|Devil's Tongue Red||SR250,000–500,000|
|Devil's Tongue Yellow||United States||SR125,000–325,000|
|Fatalii||125,000–325,000 SR||6 cm (2.4 in)||Native to central and southern Africa, it is very similar in appearance to and often confused with the devil's tongue habanero.|
|Habanero||100,000–350,000 SR||5 cm (2.0 in)||Once considered to be the hottest chili pepper, the habanero has been surpassed by other hot varieties, but it is nonetheless hotter than most commonly available cultivars. The habanero has a subtle, fruity flavour and a floral aroma. It is closely related to many of the other very hot peppers, including the bhut jolokia from India, and the Scotch bonnet, Trinidad Scorpion Butch T, and Trinidad Moruga Scorpion peppers from the Caribbean. Disseminated to China over 500 years ago by Spanish and Portuguese explorers, it became so much a part of Chinese cuisine, botanists who found it in China thought it was native to the area and thus named this species Capsicum chinense, based on the habaneros from China.|
|Hainan Yellow Lantern||300,000 SR||5 cm × 3.12 cm (1.97 in × 1.23 in)||Also known as the yellow emperor chili, it grows only in Hainan, China.|
|Lemon Yellow Habanero|
|Madame Jeanette||100,000–350,000 SR||Originally cultivated in Suriname|
|Mustard Habanero||United States|
|Naga Morich||Bangladesh and India||SR1,000,000|
|NuMex Suave Orange||United States||SR800||Very little heat, yet with a habanero taste.|
|NuMex Suave Red||United States||SR800||Similar to a habanero in taste, yet with very little heat.|
|Red Savina||United States||SR200,000–580,000|
|Scotch Bonnet||150,000–325,000 SR||5 cm (2.0 in)||Named because of its resemblance to a Tam o' Shanter, this fruit is closely related to the habanero and is similarly hot. Due to its heat and distinct flavour, it is often used in Caribbean cuisine.|
|Trinidad Moruga Scorpion||Up to 2,000,000 SR||former World-record holder for hottest chili as of 2012|
|Trinidad Scorpion 'Butch T'||Up to 1,400,000 SR||Former world-record hottest chili.|
|White Habanero||25–51 mm (1–2 in)||Also known as the Peruvian White Habanero Pepper.|
|Yucatan White Habanero||Mexico||SR200,000–500,000|
Capsicum pubescens is among the oldest of domesticated peppers, and was grown as long as 5000 years ago. It is probably related to undomesticated plants that still grow in South America (C. cardenasii, C. eximium, and others).
|Canário||Peru||30,000–50,000 SR||6.5 cm (2.6 in)||Canário is a medium hot C. pubescens variety. Thick walled pods are dark yellow, when fully ripe and have the size of a small apple. This South American strain trives well under cool growing conditions and can be grown as a perennial.|
|Rocoto|| SR30,000–100,000||Also known as a Manzano pepper.|
Sometimes considered to be the same species as C. annuum
|African Birdseye||50,000–175,000 SR||2.5 cm (0.98 in)||Also known as piri piri, it is common in Portuguese, Mozambican, and Angolan cuisines.|
|Kambuzi||Malawi||Kambuzi is a small, round chili pepper cultivar that is indigenous to the central region in Malawi, a landlocked country in southeast Africa.|
|Siling Labuyo||80,000–100,000 SR||2.5 cm (0.98 in)||A chili pepper native to the Philippines.|
|Tabasco||30,000–50,000 SR||4 cm (1.6 in)||The most famous pepper in C. frutescens from Costa Rica the primary ingredient in Tabasco sauce, the famous hot sauce that has been produced in southern Louisiana since 1848 when the peppers were first imported from the State of Tabasco in Mexico, for many this pepper is very hot, for others it is just right to make the most liked homemade Tabasco sauce PI 586675|
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- G6CSY chile database: Used as source for information on various cultivars in this article.
- chillisgalore database: More can be found here.
- NMSU Chile Pepper Institute list of chile cultivars