List of Capsicum cultivars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of capsicum cultivars)
Jump to: navigation, search

There are thousands of Capsicum cultivars grown worldwide.[1]

There are four or five major species of cultivated Capsicum, and within those species are several "taxonomic varieties". The species and varieties include many economically important cultivars with different shapes, colours, and flavours that are grown for different purposes. Some confusion has resulted from the legal term "plant variety", which is used interchangeably with "cultivar" (not with "taxonomic variety").

Major species and their taxonomic varieties:[2]

  • Capsicum annuum, which includes bell peppers, cayenne, paprika and jalapeños
    • Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum
  • Capsicum baccatum, which includes ají amarillo, ají limon and criolla sella
    • Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum
    • Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum, which includes cumari
  • Capsicum chinense, which includes habanero, sometimes included within C. annuum[3]
  • Capsicum pubescens, which includes rocoto

Capsicum frutescens is sometimes distinguished as a species separate from C. annuum,[4] while other botanists consider it and C. annuum to be conspecific.[5]

Due to the large and changing number of cultivars, and the variation of cultivar namings in different regions, this list should not be considered complete or final.

Capsicum annuum[edit]

Main article: Capsicum annuum

Capsicum annuum, native to South America, is cultivated worldwide. Its forms are varied, from large to small, sweet to sour, and very hot to bland. Despite being a single species, C. annuum has many forms, with a variety of names, even in the same language. Official names aside, in American English, any variety lacking heat is colloquially known as a sweet pepper, while one that produces capsaicin is colloquially known as a hot pepper or chili pepper. In British English, the sweet varieties are called "peppers"[6] and the hot varieties "chillies",[7] whereas in Australian English, the name "capsicum" is commonly used for bell peppers exclusively and "chilli" is often used to encompass the hotter varieties.

The plant is a perennial subshrub, with a densely branched stem. The plant reaches 0.5–1.5 m (20–60 in). Single white flowers develop into the fruit which is green when unripe, changing usually to red, although some varieties may ripen to yellow, brown, or purple. The species are grown in temperate climates as an annual, but they are especially productive in warm and dry climates.

Capsicum Annuum
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
Aci Sivri[8] Turkey 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in)
Afghan Short Afghanistan 5,000–30,000 SR 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) Grown in Afghanistan.
Albino Bullnose[8]
Aleppopepper.jpg Aleppo Syria and Turkey 15,000 SR Grown in Syria and Turkey and used, in coarsely ground, dried form, as a spice that is also called aleppo pepper
Alma Paprika[8] Hungary 10,000 SR A Hungarian pepper often pickled or dried and ground to make spicy paprika
Anaheim Chili Peppers.jpg Anaheim[8] United States 500–2,500 SR 15 cm (5.9 in) A mild variety of New Mexico chile. It was later brought to California from New Mexico by Emilio Ortega in the 1900s. Often it is used for chile relleno. When mature, it takes on a red color and is referred to as a colorado.
Ancient Sweet 0 SR 250–300 mm (10–12 in) long by 38–51 mm (1 12–2 in) wide Medium tall plant produce heavy loads of extra sweet red in color fruits, plant have white flowers & thin flesh. This variety sets the record for the sweetest pepper with 1.5 times the sweetness of a ripe red bell pepper.
Banana peppers.jpg Banana 0–500 SR 15 cm (5.9 in) Often it is pickled and used as an ingredient in sandwiches; its piquancy is not very hot. Its shape and color resemble a banana.
Barkers Hot
C annuum beaver dam fruit.jpg Beaver Dam[8] United States
Thai peppers.jpg Bird's Eye Southeast Asia 50,000–100,000[9] SR 4 cm (1.6 in) A Southeast Asian cultivar known by many local names, but generally it is called Thai chili in the United States. It has thin fruit with a pointed tip.
Black Cuban[10]
C annuum black hungarian fruits.jpg Black Hungarian Shape of a jalapeño. Deep, dark purple in color.
Black Pearl United States Ornamental plant. Winner of the All-America Selections (AAS) Flower Award in 2006.[11] Dark leaves with berry-shaped fruit.
Black Prince Ornamental.
Bulgarian Carrot Bulgaria 12,000 SR 76 mm (3 in)
Bulgarian Ratund 0 SR 64 mm (2.5 in)
Bullnose United States 0 SR
California Wonder[10] United States 0 SR
Canary Bell 0 SR
Cascabelchilipeppersdried.jpg Cascabel Mexico 3,000 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) The small, round fruit are usually dried, and have a distinct, nutty flavor. The name, Spanish for "rattle" or "jingle bell", derives from the rattling noise made by the seeds inside the dried pod.
Large Cayenne.jpg Cayenne (Red)[10] French Guiana 30,000–50,000 SR 12.5 cm (4.9 in) This long, thin fruit was transported by the Portuguese to China and India, where it is used widely. Often it is dried and ground into powder.
Charleston Belle United States The first nematode-resistant bell pepper. Created in Charleston, South Carolina by the USDA.[12]
Cherrypeppers.jpg Cherry 3,500 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) Named for the fruit it resembles, this cultivar's fruit is small, red, and round. It is typically used fresh, or pickled and jarred, and is often used to stuff green olives. It is also called pimento.
Chervena Chuska Bulgarian 0 SR 150 mm (6 in) Also spelled "Chushka". Very sweet.
Pasillachiles.jpg Chilaca 1,000–2,000 SR 15 cm (5.9 in) Popular in Mexican cuisine, it is almost always encountered dried; in this state, it is referred to as a pasilla. The pasilla has a dark brown color and a smoky flavor.
Chile Rama Nicaragua
Chiltepin.150x.jpg Chiltepin[10] 50,000–100,000 SR 0.5 cm (0.20 in) This small, hot fruit is often eaten by birds. The plant is thought to be the ancestor of the cultivated C. annuum peppers. Evidence indicates it has been consumed by humans as far back as 7,500 BC.[citation needed]
Chimayo United States 4,000–6,000 SR
Chinese Five-Color 5,000–30,000 SR 3.5 cm (1.4 in) The fruit starts out purple, then changes to white, yellow, orange, and red. Similar to Bolivian rainbow pepper and 'NuMex Twilight' pepper, it is also called Chinese multicolor pepper.
Chiltoma Grande de Ometepe Nicaragua
Chocolate Beauty 0 SR
Ciliegia Picante Italy
Coban Red Pimiento Guatemala
Corne De Chevre Spain
Corno di Toro Giallo Italy 0 SR
Corno di Toro Rosso Italy
Costeno Amarillo[10]
Cowhorn 0–500 SR 200 mm (8 in) Plant produces good yields of 200 mm (8 in) long sweet pepper. Pepper are very sweet and have excellent flavor! Peppers turn from green to red when mature. One of the largest non-bell stuffing peppers around
Craig's Grande Jalapeño United States A big, fat jalapeño.
Criolla De Cocina Pepper Nicaragua
Cubanelle Peppers.jpg Cubanelle 1–1,000 SR 130 mm (5 in) Medium in thickness, the tapered fruit is green when unripe, but turns red when mature. Often it is fried in Italian cooking.
Chilesdearbol.jpg De árbol[10] Mexico 15,000–30,000 SR 8 cm (3.1 in) This slender-fruited cultivar is grown primarily in Mexico, its name is Spanish for "from a tree".
Doux D'Espagne 0 SR Also known as a Spanish Mammoth Pepper.
Early Jalapeño[10] This variety matures faster than normal jalapeños.
Elephant Trunk 5,000–10,000 SR 150 to 250 mm (6 to 10 in) long by 25 mm (1 in) wide Plant produces good yields of 6" to 10" long by 1" wide tapered and wrinkled hot peppers. Pepper resemble an elephant's trunk. They are mild and turn from green to red when mature. Plant has green stems, green leaves, and white flowers. Can be used green or red. A variety from India. Plant Height: 50" tall
Emerald Giant 0 SR
Espanola Improved[13] United States 2,000–4,000 SR
Estaceno United States 250 mm (10 in) New Mexican-style chili pepper.
Ethiopian Brown
Etuida Poland
Facing heaven chili.jpg Facing Heaven China
Filius Blue Ornamental, multi-colored pepper plant.
Fish Pepper 5,000–30,000 SR
Floral Gem[10]
Illustration Capsicum annuum0.jpg Fresno United States 2,500–10,000 SR 9 cm (3.5 in) Similar to the jalapeño, but with thinner walls, it is generally used ripe, and has a higher vitamin content. Frequently it is used in ceviche, and is one of the most frequently used chilis in salsa.
Friariello di Napoli Italy 0 SR
Fushimi Japan 0 SR 150 mm (6 in)
Gambo
Georgescu Chocolate Romania 0 SR 130 mm (5 in)
Goat Horn
Golden Cal Wonder 0 SR
Golden Cayenne 100–150 mm (4–6 in)
Golden Marconi Italy 0 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Golden Treasures Italian 0 SR
Andhra Chillies.jpg Guntur Sannam 35,000–40,000 SR It is well known as a commercial crop used as a condiment, culinary supplement, or vegetable.
Hinkelhatz United States 25–51 mm (1–2 in) Also known as Hinkel Hatz.
Hole Mole United States 700 SR 180–230 mm (7–9 in) 2007 All-America Selection.
Hontaka[10] Asian heirloom.
Horizon Bell 0 SR Medium green to orange-yellow at maturity.
Hungarianwaxpeppers.jpg Hungarian Wax 2,500–8,000 SR This wide, medium-hot variety is used in Hungarian cuisine, frequently pickled. Also it is commonly dried, ground, and presented as "paprika".
Italian sweet peppers.jpg Italian Sweet Italy Used in Spanish cuisine
Jalapenyo.jpg Jalapeño Mexico 2,500–8,000 SR 9 cm (3.5 in) Very popular, especially in the United States, it is often pickled or canned. A smoke-dried ripe jalapeño is referred to as a chipotle.
Japones 15,000–35,000 SR Usually found dried. Flatter and thicker than arbol chilis.
Jigsaw[10] Ornamental.
Jimmy Nardello Italian Italy 0 SR
Joe's Long Cayenne 200–250 mm (8–10 in)
Jupiter[10] 0 SR
Jwala India 20,000–30,000 SR 100 mm (4 in)
King of the North 0 SR 25–51 mm (1–2 in) Works well for short-season growers. Productive in northern climates.
Korean Dark Green 76–102 mm (3–4 in)
Krimzon Lee 200 mm (8 in)
Large Red Antigua Guatemala 0 SR Also known as the Large Sweet Antigua.
Leutschauer Paprika Hungary
Lilac Bell 0 SR
Lipstick 0 SR 100 mm (4 in)
Lumbre United States 9,000–10,000 SR 130 mm (5 in)
Macho Mexico
Mammi Huber's Stuffing United States 0 SR
Marta Polka Poland 0 SR
Maule's Red Hot United States 250–300 mm (10–12 in)
Piment fort.jpg Medusa It is a sweet, ornamental chili pepper which grows upright and has brightly coloured fruit.
Melrose Italy 0 SR 100 mm (4 in)
Midnight Dreams Bell 0 SR Black ebony-colored bell pepper.
Miniature Chocolate Bell United States 0 SR
Miniature Yellow Bell United States 0 SR
Guajillos.jpg Mirasol Mexico 2,000–5,000[14] SR Its dried form is called guajillo,[10][15] and is used to make a red sauce used for tamales.
Mora A small chili about 130 mm (5 in) long and 51 mm (2 in) wide, and purple, it is always used dry. It is extremely spicy, and is used as a substitute for chipotle when more powerful spice is needed.
Morita Morita: A variety of the chipotle style of chiles (dried smoked jalapeños).

The morita is typically made from a certain type of Jalapeños fully ripened purplish color (hence the name "mora =berry") and only dried just when they are leathery but still shiny. Also called "Chipotle Colorado," "Mora Chile," but usually smaller about 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) after drying. Usually spicier than the typical chipotle. []

Mulato chile pods (dried).JPG Mulato[10] Mexico 2,500–3,000 SR 10 cm (3.9 in) Grown in Mexico, the mulato is a mild to medium chili pepper,

closely related to the poblano (ancho), and usually sold dried.

Moshi Tanzania 51 mm (2 in)
Newmexicochiles.jpg New Mexico chile United States 0–70,000 SR A long, flavorful chile grown in New Mexico since Puebloan times. It includes varieties such as Hatch, Anaheim, Rio Grande, NuMex, and Pueblo chiles. Often it is used for chile relleno. When mature, it takes on a red color and is referred to as chile colorado and hung to dry as ristras.
New Mexico No. 6[13] United States
New Mexico 6-4[13] United States
New Mexico No. 9[13] United States
Nippon Taka Japan
NuMex April Fool's Day[10] United States
NuMex Bailey Piquin[13] United States 97,000 SR
NuMex Barker's X-Hot United States 9,000–15,000 SR 130 mm (5 in)
C annuum big jim fruits.jpg NuMex Big Jim[13] United States 2,000–4,000 SR
NuMex Centennial[13] United States
NuMex Chinese New Year[10] United States Ornamental chili plant with bullet shaped fruits that grow in clusters.
NuMex Christmas[13] United States
NuMex Cinco de Mayo[10] United States
NuMex Conquistador[13] United States
NuMex Earth Day United States
NuMex Easter[10] United States
NuMex Eclipse[13] United States
NuMex Garnet[13] United States 0 SR
NuMex Halloween[13] United States
NuMex Heritage 6-4[13] United States 3,000–5,000 SR
NewMex Heritage Big Jim[13] United States
NuMex Jalmundo[10] United States 17,000 SR 130 mm (5 in)
NuMex Joe E. Parker[13] United States 2,000–4,000 SR
NuMex Las Cruces Cayenne United States
NuMex Memorial Day[13] United States
NuMex Mirasol[13] United States Used for cooking in a ground powder and as an ornamental on wreaths.
NuMex Nematador[13] United States
NuMex Piñata[13] United States
NuMex Primavera[13] United States
NuMex R. Naky[13] United States 260 SR A great mild paprika cultivar.
NuMex Sandia Hot United States 7,000–9,000 SR 180 mm (7 in)
NuMex Sandia Select United States
NuMex St. Patrick's Day[13] United States
NewMex Suave Orange[13] United States
NewMex Suave Red[13] United States
NuMex Sunburst[13] United States
NuMex Sunflare[13] United States
NuMex Sunglo[13] United States
NuMex Sunrise[13] United States
NuMex Sunset[13] United States
NuMex Sweet[13] United States 0 SR
NuMex Thanksgiving[13] United States
Capsicum annuum Twilight.jpg NuMex Twilight[13] United States 30,000–50,000 SR
NuMex Valentine's Day[13] United States
NuMex Vaquero[13] United States
NuMex Veteran's Day United States Ornamental chili plant.
Oda 0 SR
Onza[10] Mexico Usually dried for sauces and soups.
Orange Bell Pepper 0 SR
Ostra-Cyklon Poland 110 mm (4.5 in)
Ozark Giant 0 SR
Padrón Spain 0 SR 25–38 mm (1–1.5 in)
Paradicsom Alaku Sarga Szentes Hungary Pumpkin-shaped fruit.
Pasilla Bajio Mexico 1,000–2,000 SR
Peperone di Cuneo Italy 0 SR
Peruvian Purple Peru 25 mm (1 in)
Mature peter red chili next to a dried pod.PNG Peter Pepper United States and Mexico 5,000–30,000 SR 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) Rare, heirloom-type hot pepper.
Pepperoncini.jpg Pepperoncini (peperoncini) Italy 100–500 SR 8 cm (3.1 in) Sweet-tasting and mild, used extensively in Italian and Greek cuisine, very frequently pickled.
Piquinbush.jpg Pequin United States and Mexico 100,000–140,000 SR Also spelled piquín
Saint Jean Pied de Port Piments.jpg Pimient de Espellette[10] Spain
Pementos de Padron.jpg Pimiento De Padrón Spain
Poblano Pepper.jpg Poblano[10] Mexico 1,000–2,000 SR 13 cm (5.1 in) The large, heart-shaped, dark green fruit is extremely popular in Mexico, often to make chile relleno. When dried, it is referred to as an ancho or mulato.
Polostra-Rokita Pepper 30,000–50,000 SR
Thai peppers.jpg Prik Kee Nu Thailand 50,000–100,000 SR 3 cm (1.2 in) One of many cultivars called Thai pepper, it has very short fruit, and is very hot.[4] Thai: พริกขี้หนู, rtgsphrik khi nu, IPA: [pʰrík kʰîː nǔː], literal: Mouse/rat dropping chili.
Purple Flash Ornamental
Purple Jalapeño Jalapeño-like pepper that turns purple before ripening and becoming red.
Puya Mexico 5,000 SR[16] Capsicum annuum L.,[17] hot, medium-size, green to red, and tapered[18] Also known as a 'Pulla'.
Purple Beauty United States 0 SR
Quadrato d'Asti Giallo 0 SR
Quadrato d'Asti Rosso Italy 0 SR
Ram Horn Fireboy Hungary 35,000 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Red Belgian Belgium 89 mm (3.5 in)
Red Cheese 0 SR
Red Marconi Italy 0 SR 180 mm (7 in)
Red Mini Bell 38 mm (1.5 in)
Rezha Macedonian Macedonia The name means "engraved".
Ring of Fire 50,000 SR
Rio Grande 21[13] United States
Rooster Spur 51 mm (2 in)
Santa Fe Grande[10] The Santa Fe Grande is a very prolific variety used in the Southwestern United States. The conical, blunt fruits ripen from greenish-yellow, to orange-yellow to red. The peppers grow upright on 24-in plants. Santa Fe Grande has a slightly sweet taste and is fairly mild in pungency.
Sandia[13] United States
Santaka[10] Heirloom Asian chili.
Serranochilis.jpg Serrano[10] Mexico 10,000–23,000 SR 5 cm (2.0 in) The thin, tapered fruit turns red when mature. Due to its thin skin, it does not need to be peeled before use.
Serrano Tampiqueño United States 15,000–25,000 SR 57 mm (2.25 in)
Sheepnose Pimento United States 0 SR
Shishito Japan
Sigaretta di Bergamo Italy 0 SR
Siling Mahaba Philippines A chili pepper grown in the Philippines, and a popular ingredient in Filipino Cuisine
Spanish Piquillo[10] Spain
Sport Pepper United States 300–500 SR 4 cm (1.6 in) Superficially resembling both Tabasco and serrano peppers, the sport pepper is its own distinct cultivar[19][20] that is much milder than either of those. It is commonly pickled and used in Southern cooking and on Chicago-style hot dogs.
Super Chili[21] 40,000–50,000 SR Long and thin. Grows from green to red.
Sweet Chocolate 0 SR
Sweet Red Stuffing Pepper United States 0 SR 25–51 mm (1–2 in)
Sweet Yellow Stuffing Pepper United States 0 SR 25–51 mm (1–2 in)
Syrian Goat Horn 180–200 mm (7–8 in)
Syrian Three Sided Syria 150–200 mm (6–8 in)
Takanotsume[10]
Tangerine Dream 76 mm (3 in)
Tam Jalapeño 1,000–1,500 SR Similar to a jalapeño, but with significantly less heat.
Tequila 0 SR Purple bell variety, not to be confused with the Tequila Sunrise, which is yellow.
Tequila Sunrise Pepper 1000–5000 SR 150–170 mm (6–6.5 in) Pastel orange in color.
Tiburon Pepper 2,000 SR Hybrid improvement of the poblano pepper. Resistant to bacterial spot and tobacco mosaic virus.
Topepo Rosso 0 SR
Thai Yellow Chili Golden yellow version of the Bird's Eye (Thai) chili.
Tunisian Baklouti Tunisia
Tien Tsin China 50,000–75,000 SR Grown and used in China
Violet Sparkle 0 SR
White Cloud 0 SR Ivory colored bell pepper.
White Lakes Pepper Russia 0 SR
Yellow Monster 200 mm (8 in)

Capsicum baccatum[edit]

Main article: Capsicum baccatum

These have a distinctive, fruity flavor, and are commonly ground into colorful powders for use in cooking, each identified by its color.

Capsicum Baccatum
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
Ají Amarillo
Ají Brazilian Red Pumpkin
Ají Criolla Sella Bolivia 51–76 mm (2–3 in)
Ají Crystal Chile 2.5–9 cm (0.98–3.54 in)
Ají Omnicolor[10] 50,000 SR This multi-colored plant produces orange, red, purple and ivory chilis.
Atomic Starfish
Pimiento campanilla.jpg Bishop's Crown 10,000–30,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) C. baccatum strain from Barbados. Medium hot pods have a unique shape which resembles the hat of a Bishop. Sturdy plants, can be grown as perennials. Also known as bishops hat, orchid, ají flor, monks hat.
Christmas Bell[10]
C baccatum lemon drop fruit.jpg
Lemon Drop 30,000–50,000 SR 4 cm (1.6 in) Very productive C. baccatum variety. Pods are thin walled and have a fruity taste with medium heat.
Peppadew.jpg Piquanté 1,000–2,000 SR 2 cm (0.79 in) Mild, sweet and tangy flavour, usable in many dishes

Capsicum chinense[edit]

Main article: Capsicum chinense

Capsicum chinense or "Chinese capsicum" is a misnomer since all Capsicum species originated in the New World. Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin (1727–1817), a Dutch botanist, named the species in that way in 1776 because he believed they originated in China. Most of the peppers of this species have a distinctive flavor and are similar in flavor to each other.[citation needed]

Capsicum Chinense
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
7 Pod Douglah Trinidad 923,000–1,853,396 SR
7 Pot Trinidad 1,000,000 SR
7 Pot Jonah Trinidad Turns from green to red as it ripens.
7 Pot Jonah Yellow Trinidad Yellow color and a more fruity flavor than the normal 7 Pot Jonah.
7 Pot Long Longer and larger than normal seven pot peppers.
7 Pot Primo Grows red.
7 Pot Primo Yellow Australia Grows yellow.
Adjoema chili.jpg Adjuma 100,000–500,000 SR Very hot, originally cultivated in Suriname
Aji Dulce.jpg Ají Dulce 0–50 SR
Aribibi Gusano Bolivia 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in)
Bahamian Goat Pepper Bahamas
Naga.jolokia.75x.jpg Bhut Jolokia[10] Up to 1,500,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) This cultivar originated in Northeast India, and was once confirmed by Guinness World Records to be the hottest pepper. It is an interspecific hybrid, largely C. chinense with some C. frutescens genes. It is also known as naga jolokia and Ghost Pepper.
Cachucha
Cajamarca
Caribbean Red Pepper.jpg Caribbean Red[10] Mexico 445,000 SR
Carolina Reaper pepper pods.jpg Carolina Reaper United States 1,569,300–2,200,000[22] SR Extremely hot pepper, currently the Guinness book of world records holder as of August 7, 2013.[23]
Chocolate Habanero 300,000–425,000 SR
Datil.jpg Datil[10] 100,000–300,000 SR A very hot chili; primarily grown in Florida
Devil's Tongue Red 250,000–500,000 SR
Devil's Tongue Yellow United States 125,000–325,000 SR
Dorset Naga England 1,000,000–1,500,000 SR
Fatalii.jpg Fatalii 125,000–325,000 SR 6 cm (2.4 in) Native to central and southern Africa, it is very similar in appearance to and often confused with the devil's tongue habanero.
Habanero.jpg Habanero[10] 100,000–350,000 SR 5 cm (2.0 in) Once considered to be the hottest chili pepper, the habanero has been surpassed by other hot varieties, but it is nonetheless hotter than most commonly available cultivars. The habanero has a subtle, fruity flavour and a floral aroma. It is closely related to many of the other very hot peppers, including the bhut jolokia from India, and the Scotch bonnet, Trinidad Scorpion Butch T, and Trinidad Moruga Scorpion peppers from the Caribbean. Disseminated to China over 500 years ago by Spanish and Portuguese explorers, it became so much a part of Chinese cuisine, botanists who found it in China thought it was native to the area and thus named this species Capsicum chinense, based on the habaneros from China.
Capsicum chinense - Hainan Yellow Lantern Chili - 02.jpg Hainan Yellow Lantern 300,000 SR 5 cm × 3.12 cm (1.97 in × 1.23 in) Also known as the yellow emperor chili, it grows only in Hainan, China.
Infinity 1,176,182 SR
Lemon Yellow Habanero
Madame Jeanette chili.jpg Madame Jeanette 100,000–350,000 SR Originally cultivated in Suriname
Mustard Habanero United States
Naga Morich Bangladesh and India 1,000,000 SR
Naga Viper England 1,382,118 SR
NuMex Suave Orange[10] United States 800 SR Very little heat, yet with a habanero taste.
NuMex Suave Red[10] United States 800 SR Similar to a habanero in taste, yet with very little heat.
Peach Habanero
Red Savina United States 200,000–580,000 SR
Scotch-bonnet.jpg Scotch Bonnet 150,000–325,000 SR 5 cm (2.0 in) Named because of its resemblance to a Tam o' Shanter, this fruit is closely related to the habanero and is similarly hot. Due to its heat and distinct flavour, it is often used in Caribbean cuisine.
Trinidad Moruga Scorpion.jpg Trinidad Moruga Scorpion[10] Up to 2,000,000 SR former World-record holder for hottest chili as of 2012
Trinidad Scorpion[10]
Pots of Trinidad Scorpion.jpg Trinidad Scorpion 'Butch T' Up to 1,400,000 SR Former world-record hottest chili.
White Habanero 25–51 mm (1–2 in) Also known as the Peruvian White Habanero Pepper.
Yucatan White Habanero Mexico 200,000–500,000 SR

Capsicum pubescens[edit]

Main article: Capsicum pubescens

Capsicum pubescens is among the oldest of domesticated peppers, and was grown as long as 5000 years ago.[citation needed] It is probably related to undomesticated plants that still grow in South America (C. cardenasii, C. eximium, and others).

Capsicum Pubescens
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
Canário Peru 30,000–50,000 SR 6.5 cm (2.6 in) Canário is a medium hot C. pubescens variety. Thick walled pods are dark yellow, when fully ripe and have the size of a small apple. This South American strain trives well under cool growing conditions and can be grown as a perennial.
Rocoto 30,000–100,000[24] SR Also known as a Manzano pepper.[25]

Capsicum frutescens[edit]

Main article: Capsicum frutescens

Sometimes considered to be the same species as C. annuum

Capsicum Frutescens
Image Name Origin Heat Pod Size Description
African red devil peppers.jpg African Birdseye 50,000–175,000 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) Also known as piri piri, it is common in Portuguese, Mozambican, and Angolan cuisines.
Kambuzi Chili Pepper.jpg Kambuzi Malawi Kambuzi is a small, round chili pepper cultivar that is indigenous to the central region in Malawi, a landlocked country in southeast Africa.
Capsicum frutescens (Siling labuyo).jpg Siling Labuyo 80,000–100,000 SR 2.5 cm (0.98 in) A chili pepper native to the Philippines.
Tabasco peppers.JPG Tabasco 30,000–50,000 SR 4 cm (1.6 in) The most famous pepper in C. frutescens from Costa Rica the primary ingredient in Tabasco sauce, the famous hot sauce that has been produced in southern Louisiana since 1848 when the peppers were first imported from the State of Tabasco in Mexico, for many this pepper is very hot, for others it is just right to make the most liked homemade Tabasco sauce PI 586675

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "introducing the capsicum to the world". World Of Chillies. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "The Plant List". 
  3. ^ "Capsicum chinense Jacq.". Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 Jul 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Dave DeWitt and Paul W. Bosland (2009). The Complete Chile Pepper Book: A Gardener's Guide to Choosing, Growing, Preserving, and Cooking. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881929201. 
  5. ^ "Capsicum frutescens L.". Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 Jul 2015. 
  6. ^ "Pepper - Glossary - Cooking libraries - Cooking and recipes - Food & drink". Waitrose.com. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  7. ^ "Chilli - Glossary - Cooking libraries - Cooking and recipes - Food & drink". Waitrose.com. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Vegetable Varieties for Gardeners". Vegetable Varieties for Gardeners. Cornell University. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "Bird's Eye Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "The Chile Pepper Institute Merchandise Catalog" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institue. New Mexico State University. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "New Ornamental Pepper Wins Prestigious Award". The United States National Arboretum. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  12. ^ "Charleston Belle Pepper". Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "The Chile Cultivars of New Mexico State University" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute. New Mexico State University. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "Mirasol Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  15. ^ Jean Andrews (2005). The Peppers Cookbook: 200 Recipes from the Pepper Lady's Kitchen. University of North Texas Press. p. 14. ISBN 9781574411935. 
  16. ^ "The Scoville Heat Measurement Chart". Wiw.org. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  17. ^ "Selective Enzyme-Mediated Extraction of Capsaicinoids and Carotenoids from Chili Guajillo Puya (Capsicum annuum L.) Using Ethanol as Solvent". Oocities.org. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  18. ^ "Salsa Garden cubit: Salsa Garden Pepper Database: Puya, Capsicum annuum (Hot Pepper)". Cubits.org. 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  19. ^ "What Are Sport Peppers?". Fireyfoods.com. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
  20. ^ "SPORT". Tomato Growers Supply Company. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
  21. ^ "Super Chili Chili Peppers". Chili Pepper Madness. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  22. ^ Hallock, Betty. "World's hottest pepper hits 2.2 million Scoville heat units". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  23. ^ "Hottest chili". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  24. ^ "Which Chile Peppers are Which?". About Travel. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  25. ^ "Rocoto Chili Peppers". Chile Pepper Madness. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 

Further reading[edit]