List of car-free places

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A square in Venice, Italy, a large entirely car-free city

This is a list of car-free places, defined as an extended area where car access is prohibited or very limited.


  Most or all of the area is essentially car-free
  Large area that is nearly car-free
Country Location Type Area (km2) Approximate population Comments
Argentina La Cumbrecita, Córdoba Town hundreds A small secluded alpine-like village. Focused on eco-tourism, no paved roads, transport on foot.
Armenia Northern Avenue, Yerevan City center hundreds A pedestrian avenue in central Yerevan, Armenia.
Australia Rundle Mall, Adelaide City center Section of Rundle Street, 320m long, in the heart of Adelaide's central business district. Largest urban pedestrian area in the southern hemisphere. No private or transit vehicles allowed, only the emergency or construction vehicles.
Rottnest Island, Western Australia Island 19 300 No cars allowed on island, all transport is on foot, bicycle or the regular bus service.
Maria Island, Tasmania Island 115.5 15 No cars allowed on island, all transport is on foot or bicycles. Park rangers are only permanent residents.
Green Island, Queensland Island 0.15 25[1] Tourist island and national park. No cars allowed, helicopter access via helipad on southern side of the island, for transit and emergency access. Island contains a resort: majority of transport is on foot (few electric carts are used for emergencies and maintenance work).
Lord Howe Island, New South Wales Island 14.55 350 A small number of resident permits, however most transport is on foot or bicycles.
Melbourne central business district (some areas) City center 20,000 Bourke Street Mall and large number of city laneways including Block Arcade, Royal Arcade, Degraves Lane, QV, City Square and Federation Square. Home to growing residential population.[2][3] No private cars, some exemptions for Swanston Street. Bicycles not allowed on Bourke Street Mall.
Queen Street Mall, Brisbane Queensland City center Central shopping area, connects with King George Square. No private cars. Underground busway.
Perth Central Business District, Western Australia City center Hay Street Mall became the first pedestrianised street of any Australian major capital in 1972.[4] Murray Street Mall and Forrest Place are also pedestrian zones.
Sydney central business district (some areas) City center Central shopping area. Pitt Street Mall, Martin Place and tourist precinct Darling Harbour. Much of George Street.[5]
Cairns Central Business District, Queensland City center Private cars not allowed on Shields street between Grafton and Abbot streets. Known as "Shields Street Mall" or "Esplanade dining precinct."
Townsville Central Business District, Queensland City center Private cars not allowed on Stokes street between Flinders and Odgen streets. Replaced the previous Flinders Mall.
Brunswick Street Mall and Chinatown Mall, Queensland City center Nightlife, music and restaurant precinct in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane.
Cavill Avenue, Queensland City center Tourist oriented nightlife, music and redlight district often hosting large events such as Schoolies week.
Victoria Avenue, Queensland City center Shopping and restaurant precinct at Gold Coast, Queensland
Dangar Island, New South Wales Island 0.29 303 No private cars allowed, most transport is on foot, bicycle or wheelbarrow.
Falls Creek, Victoria (winter only) Town 252 Snowsports resort. Roads in the town area are closed to cars during the snow season, but open to snowmobiles and snowcats. Snowsport riders often use the roads to access pistes.
Scotland Island Island 0.52 642
Belgium Brussels City center 0.5 Largest car-free city area in Europe.
Louvain-la-Neuve Town 29,521 University town. Surface is car-free. Streets and parking are below pedestrian streets
Ghent City center 0.5 Second-largest car-free area in Belgium. Public transport, taxis and permit holders may enter but not exceed 20 km/h
Hasselt City center Most streets inside the "Groene Boulevard" are car-free or very low traffic.
Kortrijk City center First car-free shopping street in Belgium.

Belize Caye Caulker Island 8 1,300
Bolivia Isla del Sol Island 14.3 1,984
Bosnia and Herzegovina Baščaršija, Sarajevo City center The Old City is entirely free of motorized vehicles.

Brazil Ilha do Mel, Paraná Island 3.93 Small island offshore of Paranaguá, entirely car-free. All goods and materials are carted around by big wheel barrows. The economy is traditionally fishing but ecotourism is now a big part of economy. 95% of island is now an ecological reserve. Villages are connected by 2 meter wide sandy walking paths
Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro Island 193 5,000 Large car-free island off the coast of the state, part of Angra dos Reis municipality. Only allowed vehicles are bicycles, tractors and rentable jeeps.
Paquetá Island, Rio de Janeiro Island 7,000 Car-free island in Guanabara Bay, an hour by ferry from downtown Rio. Residents ride bikes, which they park along the curbs of the island's tamped sand streets. In the south portion of the island, Danke de Mattos Park is cycle-free.
Boipeba[6] Island 88 3,256
Algodoal Island 24 1,600

Cambodia Koh Rong Island 78 1,100
Koh Rong Samloem Island 24.5 558
Koh Ta Kiev Island 6.7 1,100

Canada Toronto Islands Islands 2.3 700
Harrington Harbour Island 1.97 261
Victoria Beach, Manitoba Municipality 20.28 398
Chile Caleta Tortel, Aysén Region Town 523 Small town located near the river mouth of the Cochrane River, instead of streets, there are wooden walkways. Before 2003, the village had only air and boat access, since a road was built to connect Caleta Tortel with the Carretera Austral
China Discovery Bay, Hong Kong City district 14,300 Modern residential development set on the northeastern coast of Lantau Island. Private cars are prohibited, however buses, delivery vehicles, and vehicles owned by the developer are allowed. Residents travel internally by bus or a controlled number of private golf carts, and commute externally via the ferry or by bus.
Ma Wan, Hong Kong Island 0.97 15,700 Private cars are prohibited on the island, which has road connections to the Lantau Link; however buses and delivery vehicles as well as vehicles owned by the developer are allowed. Residents commute externally via the ferry or by bus.
Cheung Chau, Hong Kong Island 2.46 30,000 No full size automobiles allowed. A few miniature emergency vehicles exist as do small utilitarian vehicles. Residents walk, via an extensive and well-maintained network of trails. The island is connected by ferries to the rest of Hong Kong.
Lamma Island, Hong Kong Island 13.55 6,000 Third largest island in Hong Kong. No full size automobiles allowed, except for the area within the Hong Kong Electricity power station. A few miniature emergency vehicles exist as do small utilitarian vehicles. Residents walk, via an extensive and well-maintained network of trails. The island is connected by ferries to the rest of Hong Kong.
Dayan Old Town, Lijiang City, Yunnan, China City center Cars are prohibited in this section of Lijiang. Given the cobblestone paths, bridges and network of waterways, driving would be impossible anyway. Though tourism is the dominant economic activity, the residents rely on foot, basket, and trike to keep the area functioning.
Gulangyu, Xiamen, Fujian, China Island 3.16 16,000 Small Island near Xiamen. All vehicles, including bicycles, are banned on the island, with some electric vehicles circulating for tourist transit and emergency services.
Peng Chau Island 0.99 6,357 (2006)

Colombia Santa Cruz del Islote Island 0.01 1,247
Puerto Nariño Town 1,876 6,000

Cook Islands Pukapuka Island 3 507

Costa Rica Parismina, Limón Town 600 Small coastal village has no paved roads and one tractor for trash collection.
Tortuguero, Limón Town 500 A small village located near the Tortuguero National Park, it is located on a small "island" that is bordered on one side by the ocean and on the other by a river canal. The island is only accessible by boat or airplane.
Croatia Prvić[7][8] Island 2.4 453
Silba[8] Island 15 292
Zlarin[8] Island 8.2 284
Lopud[8] Island 4.5 220
Koločep[8] Island 2.44 165
Susak Island 3.8 151
Olib Island 26.14 140
Sveti Klement[8] Island 20[8]
Kornat[8] Island 32.30 7
Dubrovnik City center Old walled city nearly car-free
Rovinj City center The old town is reported to be largely or entirely car-free
Split City center Diocletian's Palace and adjoining areas to the west are free of cars.

Denmark Ertholmene[8] Archipelago 96 Passenger car-free ferry arrive to there, from Bornholm. The largest island is Christiansø.
Tunø[8] Island 3.52 109
Bjørnø[8] Island 1.5 38
Nekselø Island 2.2 20

Fiji Kadavu[9] Island 411 10,167 (2007)
Finland Suomenlinna Island 0.8 850 car-free fortress in Helsinki, service traffic allowed.

France Mont Saint-Michel Island 4 60 Car-free fortress/abbey
Île-d'Aix Island 1.19 219 [10]
Île de Porquerolles, near Toulon Island 12.54 5,000 ( including tourists during the summer) 350 (year-round residents)[11] Resort. Island is car-lite and many areas car-free. Non-residents are not allowed to have cars.
Île de Sein, Bretagne Island 0.58 214 (summer: 1,500) [12]
Île-de-Bréhat, Bretagne[8][7] Island 3.09 444 [13]
Hoedic, Bretagne[8] Island 2.08 111 [14]
Houat, Bretagne Island 2.91 311 [15]
Île de Batz, Bretagne Island 3.05 594
Île-Molène, Bretagne Island 0.75 211 [16]
Archipel du Frioul, near Marseille[7] Archipelago 4 86 [17]
Île d'Yeu, Vendée City center 5,000 (summer: 40,000) Large car-free center
Port Grimaud City center Resort
Levant Island 9 100
Port-Cros[8] Island 7 30
Île Saint-Honorat[8] Island 0.37 21[8]
Île Sainte-Marguerite[8] Island 2.1 20
Grande-Île, Chausey[18][8] Island 0.65 11
Quéménès[8] Island 0.30 4
Germany Neuwerk[8] Island 3 39
Freiburg im Breisgau City center 10,000 Large car-free center (610 x 720 m). Medieval university town. Minimal car traffic is permitted on some streets. Trams provide access. Progressively pedestrianised since 1971.[19] Widely seen as a pioneer of "car-free"/people oriented development.
Former US-Army area/Hartmannstrasse, Erlangen City district 2,000 Car parking concentrated in some multi-storey car parks
Bonhoefferweg-Siedlung, Erlangen City district 200 Car parking outside the residential area
Frauenchiemsee Island 0.15 300 Island in lake Chiemsee, historic abbey
Heligoland Island 1.7 1,650 North Sea Island. In addition to cars, bicycles are banned.
Baltrum[7] Island 6.5 510 East Frisian Islands
Spiekeroog Island 18.25 730
Langeoog Island 19.67 1,970
Wangerooge[8] Island 7.94 1,180
Juist Island 16.43 1,790
Hiddensee[8] Island 19.02 1,200 Baltic Sea Island
Gröde[8] Island 2.52 10 North Frisian Islands
Nordstrandischmoor Island 1.9 22

Greece Hydra Island 50 3,000 No motorized vehicles on the entire island
Lindos/Rhodes Town Motorized traffic impossible due to narrow streets
Mount Athos Peninsula 1,400 Motorized traffic of non residents is prohibited. Local traffic is extremely limited with only some vehicles used by the monastic community for essential communication, and transportation needs
Telendos Island 4.7 54

Guernsey Sark[8] Island 5.5 550
Herm Island 2 60

Hungary Margaret Island, Budapest Island 0.97 3 Entry by cars forbidden except for a single bus line and taxis; service traffic of local stores and restaurants are allowed to enter

India Elephanta Island, Maharashtra Island 16 1,200 Automobiles are not allowed on island to keep the area pollution free. Residents and tourist reach island on boat and then have to walk by foot. There is small miniature train which takes tourists from pier to steps of historic caves.[20]
North Sentinel Island Island 72 250
Matheran Town 7.35 4,393 Hill station near Mumbai. No private cars allowed.

Indonesia Gili Islands Archipelago 15 thousands popular tourist destination
Siberut[21] Island 3.810 35,091 (2010)
Seribu Archipelago 8.7 21,864 (2010)
North Pagai Island 622.3 14,743 (2010)
Palu'e Island 41 9,553 (2010)
Nusa Lembongan Island 8 5,000

Israel Old City, East Jerusalem City district 35,000 Most of the old walled city is a maze of alleys and narrow streets accessible only to foot traffic. Small motorised "mini-tractors" are permitted for goods delivery. Previously the area was truly car-free when donkeys were used for goods delivery, but they are now banned because of the associated hygiene problems.
Ireland Galway City district 54.2 83,456 A large section of the city centre has been pedestrianised, with little to no cars or other vehicles.[citation needed]

Italy Venice Island 5.17 50,000 City built on many islands connected by bridges. Entire city is completely car-free, except at the bus station square. Transport on foot or by water
Giudecca Island 0.59 5,000 Group of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian lagoon
Murano Island 1.17 5,000 Group of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian lagoon
Burano Island 0.21 2,777 Group of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian lagoon
Capri Island Eastern part of the island, about 20% of overall area is carfree. Island resort, car-free area includes the main city centre with shopping roads and major high-class hotels
Chamois Town 96
Monte Isola Island 1,768
Sacca Fisola Island 0.18 1,458
Sant'Erasmo Island 3.26 723
Marettimo[8] Island 12.3 684
Mazzorbo Island 0.22 298
Gorgona Island 2.2 127
Alicudi Island 5.1 105
Isola dei Pescatori[8] Island 0.03 50

Japan Aoshima Island 0.49 6
Saganoshima Island 3.18 161 No personal cars, only public minibus service

Kenya Lamu Island thousands Lamu town is an old, Swahili settlement where only foot, cycle and donkey traffic is allowed.
Wasini Island 7.1 1,500
Migingo Island Island 11 400

Laos Si Phan Don (4000 Islands) Archipelago One island can accommodate cars, but the rest do not have roads. Bicycles, boats and motorbikes are the main forms of transport.

Lebanon Tripoli City center The old city of Tripoli consists of narrow alleys and stairs that do not accommodate cars.

Libya Tripoli City center The old city is the most popular tourist destination in Libya, it consists of large number of traditional shops, and a national museum.

Madagascar Nosy Komba[citation needed] Island 25 4,000
Île aux Nattes[citation needed] Island 3 1,500
Malawi Chizumulu[22] Island 3 4,000
Likoma Island 18 9,000 (2001)

Malta Comino Island 2.0 4

Malaysia Perhentian Islands Archipelago 15.35 thousands popular tourist destination
Pulau Ketam Island 22.92 2,000
Tioman Island[23] Island 110 432



Island 55.948 1,486 Only sand roads with golf carts and very few cars
Mexcaltitán de Uribe Island 1 818 The island is completely car-free. Access is by small boats.
Xochimilco Archipelago Dozens of islands, some densely urbanized, in Laguna del Toro, San Lorenzo, La Santísima, and Xaltocan. There is no access to most islands of Xochimilco by car, though pedestrian bridges or informal ferry services exist to most of the urbanized islands.[citation needed]


Fes el Bali, Fes

City district 2.2 156,000 (2002)[citation needed][needs update] Larger of the two medinas of Fes, it is a nearly intact medieval city. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. Its medieval streets are entirely inaccessible by automobile. A few access streets for emergency vehicles are being built.[24] It is the most populated car-free district in the world.[citation needed]

Fes Jdid, Fes

City district 100,000[citation needed] Fes-el-Jdid was originally an extension of Fes-el-Bali, the larger of the two medinas of Fes, and therefore is structured very similarly. Alongside Fes-el-Bali, it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981, under the name 'Medina of Fez'. Fes-el-Jdid's streets tend to be narrower and less used than those of Jes-el-Bali, and similarly, only foot, cycle, donkey and cart traffic is seen within the medina.
Medina of Essaouira City district 77,000 (2014)[citation needed] Formerly called Mogador, it is a walled city on the coast of Morocco built in the 17th Century. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001. Most of the narrow streets are inaccessible by car, and there is a ban on cars within the walls of the city. However, this rule is ignored by many. The few main streets wide enough to accommodate cars allow donkey and cart traffic as well as emergency vehicles.
Souks, Marrakesh City district Only old sections of the city are car-free, namely the souks, or marketplaces located in the centre. The streets are only narrow enough for pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists. The surrounding medina was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.[25]
Medina of Meknes City district A walled city with narrow streets, Meknes Medina is car-free since it is mostly inaccessible to cars. Motorcycles, bicycles, pedestrians and carts can traverse it. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, under the name 'Historic City of Meknes', in 1996.
Medina of Casablanca City district The streets are only narrow enough for pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.
Medina of Chefchaouen City district 42,000 Only the medina in the city is car-free, as the streets are only narrow enough for pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists.
Medina of Tangier City district Only the medina in the city is car-free, as the streets are only narrow enough for pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists.

Nepal Khumbu Town 9,000 Khumbu valley. Transport by foot or animals

Netherlands Giethoorn City center 2,500 Transport by canal boat, bicycle or by foot in this area
Orvelte Town 230 This is a town and museum in one. The 230 residents live inside the museum village. Parking is on the outskirts of the village.
New Zealand Atafu Island 2.5 524
Tokelau Island 10 1,466 Although cars are allowed on the islands, due to its limited development, only 4 cars are present on the whole of the 4 islands.[26]

Nicaragua Little Corn Island Island 495 Small Caribbean island with no roads, only footpaths. The island is accessible by taking a motorboat at Big Corn Island.
Solentiname Archipelago 38 1,000 Several islands in Lake Nicaragua - access by boat only no cars on the islands

Norway Sandøya, Agder Island 3.8 230
Veierland Island 4.4 150
Lyngør[27] Island 0.7 80
Feøy Archipelago 1.3 40
Panama Bastimentos Island 60.55 1,954

Peru Aguas Calientes Town 0.16 4,525 (2017) Car-free town with arrivals/departures by a local train. Bus rides are provided to the nearby tourist destination of Machu Picchu.
Amantaní Island 9.28 3,663
Taquile Island 5.72 2,200

Philippines Malapascua[citation needed] Island 2 5,000
Talim[28] Island 26 39,283 (2010)
Capul Island 35.56 12,659 (2010)
Maripipi Island 27.83 6,699 (2010)

Portugal Culatra Island 5.9 1,000
Óbidos Town 3,100 Medieval walled hill town (now tourist area); only residents permitted to drive into the town, although cars are a nuisance

Samoa Manono Island 3 889

UK, Scotland Eigg Island 30 87
Tanera More[8] Island 3.1 5
South Rona[8] Island 9.3 2
Shuna[8] Island 2[8]

Senegal Fadiouth[29] Island 0.12 10,000 (2007)
Gorée Island 182 1,102
Carabane Island 57 396

Seychelles Digue (la) Island 9.81 2,450

Solomon Islands Taumako Island 10.7 439

Sweden Donsö[8] Island 1 1,407
Marstrand[8] Island 0.9 1,319
Styrsö[8] Island 1.58 1,304
Brännö[8] Island 0.9 708
Vrångö[8] Island 0.40 400[8]
Ven Island 7.5 359
Tranholmen Island 0.4 338
Sydkoster Island 8 258
Stora Dyrön Island 0.2 250
Kalvsund Island 0.2 221
Åstol Island 0.2 210
Nordkoster Island 4 125
Käringön Island 0.4 127
Köpstadö Island 0.3 114
Sandhamn Island 0.27 108
Gullholmen Island 0.3 99
Arholma Island 50
Hästholmen Island 35
Hanö Island 2.1 33
Nämdö Island 10 24
Kungshatt Island 1.9 20

Sierra Leone Bonthe Town and surrounding island[clarification needed][citation needed] 10,206 Bonthe is a densely populated, compact coastal town and hosts the government's headquarters for the District of Bonthe, Southern Province. It is a former British colony, and all but three streets (Heddle Rd, Medina St, and King St) are only about 1 meter wide. Aside from some concrete portions of Heddle Rd, which also serves as a seawall, there is no tarmac in the town. The town is served daily by passenger boats with a capacity of 50 persons or less from Matru Jong and Yagoi. These boats cannot accommodate cars.

Slovenia Ljubljana City center Slow-moving taxis ("Kavalir") provide free rides for the elderly, pregnant people, and others.

Spain Málaga City center 0.0039 Moorish and 19th-century historic center. Car-free and limited access streets
Bilbao City center Casco Viejo (Old Town) district has narrow streets with limited car access
Vitoria-Gasteiz City center Medieval quarter and 19th-century center. Most of the old walled city, as well as most of the "Ensanche" streets are car-free


City center Pontevedra's car free center helped transform it into one of the most accessible European cities, leading to various European and American studies on its exemplary urban planning been carried out in recent years.
Laguardia Town

Switzerland Zermatt Town 5,687 car-free Alpine resort with prototype "Utility Area" at the entrance; slow electric taxis and freight vehicles used, although these are sometimes driven at higher speeds
Bettmeralp Town Alpine resort, sometimes considerable traffic of utility vehicles
Braunwald Town 398 Alpine resort
Riederalp Town 555
Rigi Town Mountain resort, some utility vehicles
Saas-Fee Town 1,607 Alpine resort; small electric utility vehicles
Stoos Town Alpine resort; small electric utility vehicles, mainly from the resorts hotels.
Wengen Town 1,400 Alpine resort
Mürren Town 450 Alpine resort; some utility traffic
Gimmelwald Town 130 Small village

Tanzania Tumbatu Island 91 9,450 (2002)

Thailand Islands in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea[clarification needed] Archipelago thousands Several island are not accessible to cars, but the large ones may have motorbike tracks.[citation needed]
Ko Kret Island 3.4 6,174
Ko Lipe Island 2 700

Turkey Büyükada Island 5.4 7,320 Almost entirely car-free.
Heybeliada Island 2.4 3,000
Burgazada Island 1.5 1,500
Kınalıada Island 1.3 1,500
Channel Islands Island of Sark Island 5.44 492 Entirely car-free (only motorized vehicles are tractors)
Island of Herm Island 2 60 Cars and bicycles are both banned (quad bikes are allowed, but only for maintenance)

United Kingdom York City center Part of the city centre is car-free (approximately 400 x 400 m) during the day. Restricted access for deliveries; disabled car access and parking is maintained.
Clovelly Town 1,600 Village in North Devon
Easdale[30] Island Island 59 Entirely car-free
Cardiff City center Most of Central Cardiff is car-free (approximately 500x500m), including Queen Street, The Hayes, High Street and parts of St Mary Street. Around 2.7 km of connected pedestrian streets. There are also several arcades (covered streets) in the city centre.
Tresco Island 2.97 180
United States Mackinac Island,[7] Michigan Island 9.8 523 Cars were initially banned from streets in July, 1898.[31] The use or possession of any motor vehicle is against the law, with very limited exceptions.[32] In rare cases, vehicles are permitted to be transported to and operated on the island.[33]
Monhegan, Maine Town 69 Visitors cars not allowed
Beaver River, New York Town 8 Small hamlet, also lacking electric power, at east end of Stillwater Reservoir in the Adirondacks can only be reached by hiking trail, boat or electric rail car; in winter, only overland access is possible. One of only two permanently inhabited places in the entire Eastern United States inaccessible by road.
Fire Island, New York Island 491 (summer: 15,000) Most of the island is accessible only by passenger ferries, or by foot or bicycle from the parking lot at the western end (which is reachable by a cars-only bridge); wagons used for transport. Residents can get car access permits for non-summer months. The community of Cherry Grove has boardwalk streets only five feet wide and is completely inaccessible to conventional motor vehicles. It is one of the most populous truly car-free areas in the United States.
Governors Island, New York Island 0 Cars and trucks are only allowed for specific purposes. Electric golf carts and minibuses are in limited use by park staff and contractors. Bicycles and human-powered quad vehicles are allowed and available for rent. Access is via ferry or private, human-powered boat.
Rock Island, Wisconsin Island 0 State park, ferry access from nearby Washington Island. No cars or bicycles allowed.
Bald Head Island, North Carolina Island 15.18 182 Ferry access. Primary modes of transportation are by foot, golf cart, or bicycle.
Vail, Colorado Town 5,305 Ski resort
Culdesac Tempe, Tempe, Arizona City district 0.069 1,000 (planned) Under construction. Intended to be the first market-rate rental housing development in the nation to ban tenants from owning cars. Bikes and emergency vehicles allowed.[34][35]
Tangier, Virginia Island 1.40 727 Primary modes of transportation on the island are golf carts, mopeds, and bikes. Ferries, airplanes and boats can be used for transport off of the island.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2016 Green Island, Census All persons QuickStats | Australian Bureau of Statistics". Retrieved 2022-09-20.
  2. ^ "Melbourne: A Pedestrian Paradise". Streetfilms.
  3. ^ The Age, January 27, 2010
  4. ^ "Document Library | Hay Street Mall - Public Realm Enhancement Concept Plan | Engage Perth".
  5. ^ "George Street - City of Sydney". Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  6. ^ "Boipeba Island". Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e Îles sans voitures, Marcel Robert, 2013. L'auteur présente cet ouvrage 22 îles : Houat, Hœdic, Sein, Aix, Frioul, Sercq, Molène, Batz, Bréhat, Juist, Hiddensee, Langeoog, Baltrum, Heligoland, Prvić, Zlarin, Hydra, Büyükada, Gulangyu, Mackinac, Lamu et Venise.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Brouillard, Etienne (2014). Îles de rêve sans voitures : 34 îles en Europe et 10 îles en France. Paris: Hachette tourisme. ISBN 978-2-01-244069-2.
  9. ^ Top 10 Laid-back Islands without Cars
  10. ^ Carfree France
  11. ^ Goodman, Lanie. "Porquerolles: Paradise Isle off the Provençal Coast". Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  12. ^ Carfree France
  13. ^ Carfree France
  14. ^ Carfree France
  15. ^ Carfree France
  16. ^ Carfree France
  17. ^ Carfree islands
  18. ^ Îles Chausey, sur
  19. ^ Monheim, R. (1997). "The Evolution from Pedestrian Areas to 'Car-free' City Centres in Germany". In Tolley, R. (ed.). The greening of urban transport : planning for walking and cycling in Western cities (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley. pp. 253–265.
  20. ^ Elephanta island on Lonely Planet
  21. ^ Conserving and Valuing Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: Economic, Institutional and Social Challenges, Livre numérique Google, page 117, 2012
  22. ^ Malawi Bradt Travel Guides, page 271, 2016
  23. ^ Frommer's 500 Extraordinary Islands, Livre numérique Google, ISBN 0470500700, page 24, 2010
  24. ^ by J.H. Crawford
  25. ^ by J.H. Crawford
  26. ^ "Tokelau looks to independence". The Sunday Star-Times. October 21, 2007. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  27. ^ Lyngør, sur
  28. ^ Talim Island
  29. ^ Fadiouth, l’île aux coquillages
  30. ^ About Easdale: An Introduction to Easdale Island,
  31. ^ Mackinac State Historic Parks (1999). "Early Automobiles on Mackinac Island". Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2021. [T]he running of horseless carriages be prohibited within the limits of the village of Mackinac
  32. ^ City of Mackinac Island, Michigan, Code of Ordinances §66.33, et seq. [1]
  33. ^ Huschka, Amy (23 September 2019). "Shepler's Ferry responds to Mike Pence motorcade backlash: 'Exceptions always exist'". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  34. ^ Johnson, Ryan (2020-06-22). "Introducing Culdesac". Medium. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  35. ^ Dougherty, Conor (2020-10-31). "The Capital of Sprawl Gets a Radically Car-Free Neighborhood". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-09-11.