List of cardiology mnemonics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of cardiology mnemonics, categorized and alphabetized. For mnemonics in other medical specialities, see this list of medical mnemonics.

Aortic regurgitation: causes[edit]

CREAM:

Congenital

Rheumatic damage

Endocarditis

Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation

Marfan’s

Aortic stenosis characteristics[edit]

SAD:[1]p. 29

Syncope

Angina

Dyspnoea

Aortic to right Subclavian path[edit]

ABC'S[1]p. 1

Aortic arch gives rise to:

Brachiocephalic trunk

Left Common Carotid

Left Subclavian

Heart valves (right to left)[edit]

Toilet Paper My Ass, or They Pay Me Alcohol, or "T"hugs "P"ush "Me" "A"round. [2]

Tricuspid valve

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

Aortic semilunar valve

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable[edit]

HILT:[1]p. 29

Heaving

Impalpable

Laterally displaced

Thrusting/ Tapping

If it's impalpable, causes are COPD:[1]p. 29

COPD

Obesity

Pleural, Pericardial effusion

Dextrocardia

Atrial Arrhythmias[edit]

Anticoagulants: To prevent embolization.

Beta blockers: To block the effects of certain hormones on the heart to slow the heart rate.

Calcium Channel Blockers: Help slow the heart rate by blocking the number of electrical impulses that pass through the AV node into the lower heart chambers (ventricles).

Digoxin: Helps slow the heart rate by blocking the number of electrical impulses that pass through the AV node into the lower heart chambers (ventricles).

Electrocardioversion: A procedure in which electric currents are used to reset the heart's rhythm back to regular pattern.[3]

Atrial Fibrillation causes[edit]

Pirates:[1]p. 3

Pulmonary: PE, COPD

Iatrogenic

Rheumatic heart: mitral regurgitation

Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD

Thyroid: hyperthyroid

Endocarditis

Sick sinus syndrome

Atrial fibrillation management[edit]

ABCD:[1]p. 30

Anti-coagulate

Beta-block to control rate

Cardiovert

Digoxin

Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade)[edit]

3 D's:[1]p. 30

Distant heart sounds

Distended jugular veins

Decreased arterial pressure

Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers[edit]

Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium:[1]p. 30

Betaxolol

Acebutelol

Esmolol

Atenolol

Metoprolol

CHF Treatment[edit]

LMNOP

Lasix

Morphine

Nitrites

Oxygen

VassoPressors[4]

CHF: causes of exacerbation[edit]

FAILURE[1]p. 30

Forgot medication

Arrhythmia/ Anaemia

Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection

Lifestyle: taken too much salt

Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism

Renal failure

Embolism: pulmonary

Complications of Myocardial Infarction[edit]

Darth Vader

Death

Arrythmia

Rupture(free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles)

Tamponade

Heart failure (acute or chronic)

Valve disease

Aneurysm of Ventricles

Dressler's Syndrome

thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus)

Recurrence/ mitral Regurgitation[5]

Coronary artery bypass graft: indications[edit]

DUST:[1]p. 31

Depressed ventricular function

Unstable angina

Stenosis of the left main stem

Triple vessel disease

ECG: left vs. right bundle block[edit]

WiLLiaM MaRRoW:[1]p. 31

W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.

M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.

Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications[edit]

RAMP:[1]p. 31

Recent MI

Aortic stenosis

MI in the last 7 days

Pulmonary hypertension

Endocarditis[edit]

FROM JANE:

Fever

Roth's spots

Osler's nodes

Murmur of heart

Janeway lesions

Anemia

Emboli

Heart valve sequence[edit]

Try Puling My Aorta:[1]p. 3

Tricuspid

Pulmonary

Mitral (bicuspid)

Aorta

Heart blocks[edit]

If the R is far from P, then you have a First Degree.

Longer, longer, longer, drop! Then you have a Wenkebach.

if some P's don't get through, then you have Mobitz II.

If P's and Q's don't agree, then you have a Third Degree.[6]

Infarctions[edit]

INFARCTIONS[1]p. 34

IV access

Narcotic analgesics (e.g. morphine, pethidine)

Facilities for defibrillation (DF)

Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)

Rest

Converting enzyme inhibitor

Thrombolysis

IV beta blocker

Oxygen 60%

Nitrates

Stool Softeners

JVP: wave form[edit]

ASK ME[1]p. 32

Atrial contraction

Systole (ventricular contraction)

Klosure (closure) of tricuspid valve, so atrial filling

Maximal atrial filling

Emptying of atrium

MI: basic management[edit]

BOOMAR:[1]p. 32

Bed rest

Oxygen

Opiate

Monitor

Anticoagulate

Reduce clot size

MI: signs and symptoms[edit]

PULSE:[1]p. 32

Persistent chest pains

Upset stomach

Lightheadedness

Shortness of breath

Excessive sweating

MI: therapeutic treatment[edit]

O BATMAN![1]p. 32

Oxygen

Beta blocker

ASA

Thrombolytics (e.g. heparin)

Morphine

Ace prn

Nitroglycerin

MI: treatment of acute MI[edit]

COAG:[1]p. 32

Cyclomorph

Oxygen

Aspirin

Glycerol trinitrate

Murmur attributes[edit]

"IL PQRST" (person has ill PQRST heart waves):[1]p. 32

Intensity

Loccasion

Pitch

Quality

Radiation

Shape

Timing

Murmurs: innocent murmur features[edit]

8 S's:[1]p. 32

Soft

Systolic

Short

Sounds (S1 & S2) normal

Symptomless

Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)

Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)

Sternal depression

Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration[edit]

LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration

RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration.[1]p. 32

Murmurs: questions to ask[edit]

SCRIPT:[1]p. 32

Site

Character (e.g. harsh, soft, blowing)

Radiation

Intensity

Pitch

Timing

Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic[edit]

PASS:Pulmonic & Aortic

Stenosis=Systolic.

PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic

Insufficiency=Diastolic.[1]p. 32

Pericarditis: causes[edit]

CARDIAC RIND:[1]p. 34

Collagen vascular disease

Aortic aneurysm

Radiation

Drugs (such as hydralazine)

Infections

Acute renal failure

Cardiac infarction

Rheumatic fever

Injury

Neoplasms

Dressler's syndrome

Pericarditis: EKG[edit]

PericarditiS:[1]p. 34

PR depression in precordial leads.

ST elevation.

Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria[edit]

SICVD:[1]p. 34

Symmetry of leg musculature

Integrity of skin

Color of toenails

Varicose veins

Distribution of hair

Pulseless electrical activity: causes[edit]

PATCH MED:[1]p. 34

Pulmonary embolus

Acidosis

Tension pneumothorax

Cardiac tamponade

Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia

Myocardial infarction

Electrolyte derangements

Drugs

ST elevation causes in ECG[edit]

ELEVATION:[1]p. 34

Electrolytes

LBBB

Early repolarization

Ventricular hypertrophy

Aneurysm

Treatment (e.g. pericardiocentesis)

Injury (AMI, contusion)

Osborne waves (hypothermia)

Non-occlusive vasospasm

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment[edit]

ABCDE:[1]p. 35

Adenosine

Beta-blocker

Calcium channel antagonist

Digoxin

Excitation (vagal stimulation)

Ventricular tachycardia: treatment[edit]

LAMB:[1]p. 35

Lidocaine

Amiodarone

Mexiltene/ Magnesium

Beta-blocker

White Blood Cell Count[edit]

Never let monkeys eat bananas:

Neutrophils

lymphocytes

monocytes

eosinophils

basophils[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Anatomy" (PDF). medicalmnemonics.com. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  2. ^ Mega List of Mnemonics for Nurses & Nursing Students. Examville Study Guides. 2010.
  3. ^ Pharmacology nursing mnemonics
  4. ^ Myers, Jeffrey W.; Neighbors, Marianne; Tannehill-Jones, Ruth (2002). Principles of Pathophysiology and Emergency Medical Care. Cengage Learning. p. 144. ISBN 9780766825482.
  5. ^ "Cardiovascular Mnemonics - Oxford Medical Education". Retrieved 2015-08-23.
  6. ^ "The Heart Block Poem". Nurseslabs. tumblr.com.
  7. ^ Connie Allen; Valerie Harper (5 January 2011). Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 418–. ISBN 978-0-470-59890-0.