List of carillons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carillons are found on all six inhabited continents. Clockwise from the top left: The Belfry of Mons, Belgium; the National Carillon in Canberra, Australia; the Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, US; the carillon at Vaillantsplein in Paramaribo, Suriname; the City Hall of Cape Town, South Africa; and the International YMCA in Jerusalem, Israel.

Carillons, musical instruments of bells in the percussion family, are found on every inhabited continent. The Netherlands, Belgium, and the United States contain more than two thirds of the world's total, and over 90 percent can be found in either Western Europe (mainly the Low Countries) or North America.

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

The World Carillon Federation [nl] (WCF) defines a carillon as an instrument of at least 23 cast bronze bells hung in fixed suspension, played with a traditional keyboard of batons, and tuned in chromatic order so that they can be sounded harmoniously together. It may designate instruments of 15 to 22 bells built before 1940 as "historical carillons".[1] Its member organizations – including for example The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America,[2] the German Carillon Association,[3] and the Flemish Carillon Association[4] – also define a carillon with those restrictions. Conversely, TowerBells.org – a database of tower bells of all types – defines a "non-traditional" carillon, which is an instrument that has had some component electrified or computerized.[5] These instruments fail to meet the definitions of a carillon defined by the associations of carillonneurs mentioned above. This list contains only those carillons that meet the definition outlined by an association of carillonneurs, such as the WCF and its member organizations.

Africa[edit]

Réunion[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Israel[edit]

Israel has one carillon, located at the Jerusalem International YMCA. It was installed and dedicated along with the rest of the newly constructed building in 1933. Gillett & Johnston cast the original 35 bells, the heaviest of which weighs 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb). In 2018, Royal Eijsbouts cast a 36th bell, weighing 800 kilograms (1,800 lb), for the instrument. It is one of the only carillons in the Middle East.[8][9]

Japan[edit]

Japan has been exposed to carillons through its relations with Belgium. Since the 1980s, Belgium has used a targeted cultural diplomacy program to expose Japanese artists and students to the carillon, and to encourage them to construct instruments in their country. The city and province of Antwerp and the city of Mechelen provided Osaka with a mobile carillon in 1984. Hasselt donated a carillon to Itami, its sister city, in 1990. Members of the Shinji Shumeikai religious movement, inspired by their trip to St. Rumbold's Cathedral in Mechelen, purchased a carillon for Shigaraki in 1990. The Japanese School of Brussels and the Royal Carillon School "Jef Denyn" established educational relations on playing and composing for the carillon.[10]

  • Itami: The Bells of Flanders – 43 bells, heaviest 375 kg (827 lb), Royal Eijsbouts 1990[11]
  • Sasebo, Nagasaki: Carillon Symphonica in the 'Huis ten Bosch' – 37 bells
  • Shigaraki: 'The Joy of Angels' at Misono, the international headquarters and spiritual centre of the Shinji Shumeikai organisation – 50 bells, heaviest unlisted, Royal Eijsbouts 1990[10]

Philippines[edit]

South Korea[edit]

Europe[edit]

Belgium[edit]

An ornate stone brick bell tower
The tower St. Rumbold's Cathedral in Mechelen contains two large, 49-bell carillons

Two Belgian carillon associations – the Flemish Carillon Association and the Walloon Carillon Association – count carillons in their respective regions. According to their registries, there are 94 carillons in Belgium: 70 in the Flemish Region, 22 in the Walloon Region, and 2 in the Brussels Capital Region. They are distributed across 77 different cities; several are located within the same city, and two are even within the same building – at St. Rumbold's Cathedral in Mechelen. The population has a wide range in total weights, with bourdons spanning between 30 and 8,180 kilograms (66 and 18,034 lb). They also span a wide range of notes, from 21 (which the Flemish association considers a carillon despite failing its definition that requires at least 23[17]) up to 64. Many carillons were constructed over several centuries by several bellfounders; a minority are constructed entirely by a single bellfounder. The majority of carillons are transposing instruments, and often transpose such that the lowest note on the keyboard is B or C.

The carillons in Belgium, in the United States, and in the Netherlands account for two-thirds of the world's total.[18]

British Isles[edit]

A red brick tower surrounded by trees and topped with a aged copper observation deck
The Loughborough Carillon in Loughborough, England, memorialises fallen soldiers of the First World War

Carillons are found throughout the British Isles as a result of the First World War. During the German occupation of Belgium, many of the country's carillons were silenced or destroyed. This news circulated among the Allied Powers, who saw it as "the brutal annihilation of a unique democratic music instrument".[19][20] The destruction was romanticized in poetry and music, particularly in England. Poets – often exaggerating reality – wrote that the Belgian carillons were in mourning and awaited to ring out on the day of the country's liberation. Edward Elgar composed a work for orchestra which includes motifs of bells and a spoken text anticipating the victory of the Belgian people.[21] He later even composed a work specifically for the carillon.[22] Following the war, countries in the Anglosphere built their own carillons to memorialise the lives lost and to promote world peace,[20] including two in England.[23]

The Carillon Society of Britain and Ireland (CSBI) counts carillons throughout the British Isles.[24] Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers, a publication that historically concerns itself with bell sets outfitted for full circle ringing, also counts carillons in the region.[25] According to the two sources, there are fifteen carillons: eight in England, one in the Republic of Ireland, one in Northern Ireland, and five in Scotland. There are no carillons in Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Jersey or Wales.[24]

The heaviest carillon is at the Kirk of St Nicholas in Aberdeen, Scotland, weighing 25,846 kilograms (56,981 lb); the lightest is at the Atkinsons Building in London, weighing 3,194 kilograms (7,041 lb). The carillon of St Colman's Cathedral in Cobh has the most bells – 49. The region has several two- and three-octave carillons. The heaviest two-octave carillon in the world – weighing 22,669 kg (49,976 lb) – is located in Newcastle upon Tyne.[26] The carillons were primarily constructed in the interwar period by the English bellfounders Gillett & Johnston and John Taylor & Co.[24] Almost all of the carillons are transposing instruments, all of which transpose such that the lowest note on the keyboard is C.[24]

According to the World Carillon Federation [nl], the carillons of the British Isles account for two percent of the world's total.[27]

France[edit]

Carillonneur Brian Swager plays the carillon at the Cathedral Saint-Jean-Baptiste (John the Baptist) in Perpignan, France.

Germany[edit]

According to the German Carillon Association, there are 49 carillons located throughout Germany. In 4 cities – Berlin, Bonn, Cologne, and Hamburg – there are at least two. Germany has two mobile carillons, "headquartered" in Passau and Rostock. The largest carillon by number of bells is located in Halle (Saale) and has 74.[57] The association, unlike Towerbells.org,[5] does not count carillons that have any component of its action electrified or that are not playable with a traditional baton keyboard.[58]

Netherlands[edit]

Hilversum town hall
Martinikerk in Groningen
Zuiderkerk in Enkhuizen

Nordic countries[edit]

According to the Nordic Society for Campanology and Carillons, there are 56 carillons in the Nordic countries: 29 in Denmark,[125] 1 in Finland,[126] 12 in Norway,[127] and 14 in Sweden.[128]

Denmark[edit]

Finland[edit]

Norway[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Other regions[edit]

Austria[edit]

Heiligenkreuz Abbey, which claims to be the only Cistercian institution that owns a carillon, acknowledges that the tradition of playing carillons is not popular in Austria.[136]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Poland[edit]

Annual concerts since 1999 during the Gdańsk Carillon Festival. See also Traveling carillons below.

Portugal[edit]

Russia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

North America[edit]

Bermuda[edit]

Canada[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Curaçao[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Honduras[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Nicaragua[edit]

United States[edit]

Century Tower. Gainesville, Florida

Selections of notable carillons in the United States:

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

The National Carillon in Canberra, Australia

New Zealand[edit]

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Suriname[edit]

The carillon at Vaillantsplein Square, Paramaribo, Suriname

Uruguay[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

Traveling carillons[edit]

Traveling or mobile carillons are those which are not housed in a tower. Instead, the bells and keyboard are installed on a frame that allow it to be transported. These carillons are often constructed by bellfounders for advertising purposes, though several exist solely to perform across the world. According to a count by the World Carillon Federation, there are 18 existing mobile carillons headquartered in 11 countries.[216]

  • Barcelona, Spain: "Bronzen Piano 'Reverté van Assche'" – 50 bells, 1,951 kg (4,301 lb) total weight, cast by Eijsbouts, completed in 2013, owned by Anna Maria Reverté & Koen van Assche[217]
  • Béthune, France: "Carillon Christophe" – 48 bells, unknown total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen, constructed in 1938 (expanded in 1998), owned by Association Polyphonia
  • Constância, Portugal: "Lvsitanvs Carillon" – 63 bells, 6,857 kg (15,117 lb) total weight, cast by Royal Eijsbouts owned by the International Center for the Carillon and the Organ
  • Dordrecht, Netherlands: "Bell Moods" – 50 bells, c. 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen, completed in 2003, owned by Boudewijn Zwart
  • Douai, France: "The Walking Carillon of Douai" – 53 bells, 4,045 kg (8,918 lb) total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen, compleded in 2004, owned by the City of Douai
  • Gdańsk, Poland: "Gdańsk" – 48 bells, 4,800 kg (10,600 lb) total weight, cast by Royal Eijsbouts, completed in 2009, fixed on a trailer pulled by MAN 11.168 firetruck[144]
  • Løgumkloster, Denmark: "The Transportable Chime" – 50 bells, c. 3,400 kg (7,500 lb) total weight (including the instrument's truck), cast by Petit & Fritsen, owned by the Løgumkloster Church Music School. Includes an additional 54 kg (119 lb) swinging bell
  • Maastricht, Netherlands: "Traveling Carillon Frank Steijns" – 43 bells, 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen, completed in 2006 (replaced in 2011), owned by Frank Steijns
  • Mechelen, Belgium: 30 bells, unknown total weight, cast by unknown bellfounder, owned by Our Lady of Hanswijk
  • Mons, Belgium: "Carillon Queen Fabiola" – 49 bells, c. 2,800 kg (6,200 lb) total weight, cast by unknown bellfounder, owned by Catiau Montois and Carillons Association
  • Nagasaki, Japan: 50 bells, unknown total weight, cast by unknown bellfounder
  • Neerpelt, Belgium: The carillon of carillonneur Jan Verheyen from "Bells Lab"
  • Osaka, Japan: 37 bells, unknown total weight, cast by unknown bellfounder
  • Passau, Germany: "The Mobile Perner-Carillon" – 49 bells, 2,197 kg (4,844 lb) total weight, completed in 2009, cast and owned by Rudolf Perner GmbH & Co.
  • Pottstown, Pennsylvania, US
    • "CariBelle" – 35 bells, 1,814 kg (3,999 lb) total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen, completed in 1980, owned by Frank DellaPenna, originally called "America's Only Traveling Carillon," part of the "Cast in Bronze" band group[218]
    • "DellaPenna Traveling Carillon" – 35 bells, 1,754 kg (3,867 lb) total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen (originals) and Eijsbouts (enlargement), completed in 1951 (enlarged in 2010), owned by Frank DellaPenns, part of "Cast in Bronze" band group[218]
  • Prague, Czech Republic: "The Traveling Carillon of Prague" – 57 bells, 4,950 kg (10,910 lb) total weight, cast by Royal Eijsbouts, completed in 2001[142]
  • Ripalta Cremasca, Italy: "Fonderia Allanconi Carillon" – 25 bells[219]
  • Rostock, Germany: "Concert Carillon Olaf Sandkuhl" – 37 bells, unknown total weight, cast by Petit & Fritsen, owned by Olaf Sandkuhl

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This carillon or its keyboard might not be in fully working order.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Organization". World Carillon Federation. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021. The definition of a carillon is fixed as follows: 'A carillon is a musical instrument composed of tuned bronze bells which are played from a baton keyboard'. Only those carillons having at least 23 bells will be taken into consideration.
  2. ^ "Articles of Incorporation" (PDF). The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America. Retrieved 3 May 2022. For the purpose of these Articles, a carillon is a musical instrument consisting of at least two octaves of carillon bells arranged in a chromatic series and played from a keyboard permitting control of expression through variation of touch. A carillon bell is a cast bronze cup- shaped bell whose partial tones are in such harmonious relationship to each other as to permit many such bells to be sounded together in varied chords with harmonious and concordant effect.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Was ist ein Carillon?" [What Is a Carillon?]. Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung [German Carillon Association]. Retrieved 28 July 2022. Ein Carillon (im deutschen Sprachgebrauch manchmal auch als Turmglockenspiel oder Konzertglockenspiel bezeichnet), hat gegenüber einem Kirchengeläut mindestens 23 Bronzeglocken (zwei Oktaven in chromatischer Reihenfolge), die mit einer Handspieleinrichtung verbunden sind. Diese Handspieleinrichtung, auch Stockspieltisch genannt, ist mit dem Spieltisch einer Orgel vergleichbar, jedoch in anderen Dimensionen. Die Tasten für die Hände sind als gerundete Holzstäbe gefertigt und werden auch Stocktasten genannt. [A carillon (sometimes also referred to as a tower glockenspiel or concert glockenspiel in German) has at least 23 bronze bells (two octaves in chromatic order) compared to a church bell, which are connected to a hand-held device. This hand-held device, also known as a stick console, is comparable to the console of an organ, but in different dimensions. The keys for the hands are made as rounded wooden sticks and are also called stick keys.]
  4. ^ "Componeren" [Composing]. Vlaamse Beiaard Vereeniging [Flemish Carillon Association] (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022. We spreken over een beiaard (of carillon) als er tenminste 23 (2 octaven) ten opzichte van elkaar gestemde bronzen klokken aanwezig zijn die handmatig worden bespeeld met behulp van een stokkenklavier waardoor expressiviteit mogelijk wordt. [We speak of a carillon if there are at least 23 (2 octaves) bronze bells tuned relative to each other that are played manually with the help of a baton keyboard, allowing expressiveness.]
  5. ^ a b "More About Carillons and Other Tower Bell Instruments". TowerBells.org. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  6. ^ "RECLSNDN". TowerBells.org. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  7. ^ "Cape Town, Women's War Memorial (South Africa)". War Memorial and Peace Carillons. Archived from the original on 4 July 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  8. ^ Ackerman, Adam (30 October 2019). "The YMCA Bell Tower Rings True in Jerusalem". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  9. ^ "IL-JRSYM". Towerbells.org. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  10. ^ a b Haazen, Jo (2019). "The Origin and Evolution of the Flemish Carillon Art in Japan" (PDF). The Bulletin. The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America. 68 (1): 34–38. OCLC 998832003. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Itami, The Bells of Flanders (Japan)". War Memorial and Peace Carillons. Archived from the original on 4 July 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  12. ^ "MARIAN Events". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 4 July 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  13. ^ "NTG: Bagong Carillon Bell Tower ng Baclaran Church, binasbasan ni Cardinal Tagle". YouTube. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021.
  14. ^ www.upcarillon.org by the University of the Philippines Alumni Association. Archived September 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Restored in 2007. The tower and its carillon had been in a bad state.
  15. ^ "New Carillon in Taejon". World Carillon Federation. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  16. ^ "KRTJNHYC". TowerBells.org. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  17. ^ "Componeren" [Composing]. Vlaamse Beiaard Vereeniging [Flemish Carillon Association] (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022. We spreken over een beiaard (of carillon) als er tenminste 23 (2 octaven) ten opzichte van elkaar gestemde bronzen klokken aanwezig zijn die handmatig worden bespeeld met behulp van een stokkenklavier waardoor expressiviteit mogelijk wordt. [We speak of a carillon if there are at least 23 (2 octaves) bronze bells tuned relative to each other that are played manually with the help of a baton keyboard, allowing expressiveness.]
  18. ^ Rombouts, Luc (2014). Singing Bronze: A History of Carillon Music. Translated by Communicationwise. Leuven University Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-90-5867-956-7. ... and the three 'great' carillon countries – the Netherlands, the United States and Belgium – are responsible for almost 70% of all carillons worldwide.
  19. ^ Thorne, Stephen J. (21 November 2018). "The Seizing of Europe's Bells". Legion. OCLC 1120054332. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Carillons and Peace". War Memorial and Peace Carillons. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  21. ^ Rombouts, Luc (2014). "The Broken Bells of Flanders". Singing Bronze: A History of Carillon Music. Translated by Communicationwise. Leuven University Press. pp. 195–200. ISBN 978-90-5867-956-7.
  22. ^ Orr, Scott Allan (2022). "The Origins, Development, and Legacy of Elgar's Memorial Chimes (1923)" (PDF). Beiaard- en klokkencultuur in de Lage Landen [Carillon and Bell Culture in the Low Countries] (1 ed.). Amsterdam University Press. 1: 81–101. doi:10.5117/BKL2022.1.004.ORR. S2CID 249082470.
  23. ^ "World map of peace carillons". War Memorial and Peace Carillons. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d "Carillons in Britain and Ireland". Carillon Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  25. ^ "About Dove's Guide". Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  26. ^ "Edith Adamson Carillon, Newcastle Civic Centre". Carillon Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  27. ^ "Carillons". World Carillon Federation. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  28. ^ "Arbois". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  29. ^ "Avranches". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  30. ^ "Bergues". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Bourbourg". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  32. ^ "Cappelle-la-Grande". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  33. ^ "Castres". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  34. ^ "Châlons-en-Champagne". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). 11 January 2021. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  35. ^ "Châtellerault". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  36. ^ "Le Carillon à Douai" [The Carillon of Douai] (in French). Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
  37. ^ "Douai". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  38. ^ "Dunkerque" [Dunkirk]. Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  39. ^ "Gourdon en Quercy". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  40. ^ "Grézieu-la-Varenne". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  41. ^ a b "Organization". World Carillon Federation. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021. Only those carillons having at least 23 bells will be taken into consideration. Instruments built before 1940 and composed of between 15 and 22 bells may be designated as 'historical carillons'.
  42. ^ "Hombleux". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  43. ^ "Hondschoote". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  44. ^ "City hall". City of Lyon. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011.
  45. ^ "Maubeuge". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  46. ^ "Miribel". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  47. ^ "Orchies". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  48. ^ "Pamiers". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  49. ^ "Poligny". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  50. ^ "Rouen". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  51. ^ "Saint-Amand-Les-Eaux". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  52. ^ "Saint-Gaudens". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  53. ^ "Saint-Quentin". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  54. ^ "Seurre". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  55. ^ "Le Carillon de Taninges" (in French). Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  56. ^ "Villefranche-de-Rouergue". Guilde des Carillonneurs de France [Guild of Carillonneurs of France] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  57. ^ "Carillons in Deutschland" [Carillons in Germany]. Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  58. ^ "Was ist ein Carillon?" [What is a carillon]. Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  59. ^ "Aachen". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  60. ^ "Altenburg". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  61. ^ "Aschaffenburg". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  62. ^ "Französischer Dom" [French Cathedral]. Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  63. ^ "Nikolaikirche" [St. Nicholas Church]. Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  64. ^ "Parochialkirche". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  65. ^ "Tiergarten". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  66. ^ "Bonn-Bad Godesberg". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  67. ^ "Bonn-Beuel". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  68. ^ "Buchen". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  69. ^ "Chemnitz". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  70. ^ "Altes Rathaus". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  71. ^ "Kirche St. Maria". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  72. ^ "Düren". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  73. ^ "Emmerich". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  74. ^ "Eppingen". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  75. ^ "Erfurt". Deutsche Glockenspielvereinigung e.V. [German Carillon Association] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
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External links[edit]