List of charges in United States v. Manning
United States v. Manning is the court-martial case involving United States Army Private First Class Bradley Manning (now known as Chelsea Manning), who delivered U.S. government documents to those not entitled to receive them in 2009 and 2010. Media reports alleged that the receiver was Julian Assange of WikiLeaks. Manning was arrested in May 2010 and the court-martial on the charges was held in June–August 2013. The charges were related to events which occurred "at or near" Contingency Operating Station Hammer, Iraq, in 2009 and 2010.
- 1 Charges
- 1.1 Listed by alleged code violation
- 1.2 Listed by document
- 1.3 Listed in the order given on the charge sheets
- 1.3.1 First set of charges (2010)
- 1.3.2 Second set of charges (2011)
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Listed by alleged code violation
The charges can be broken down as follows:
- UCMJ 92 (Failure to obey a lawful order or regulation): 9 counts. Mostly related to computers.
- Army Regulation 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(3): Modifying or installing unauthorized software to a system, using it for 'unintended' purposes.
- Army Regulation 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(4): Circumventing security mechanisms
- Army Regulation 25-2, para. 4-6(k): Forbids transferring classified or sensitive information to non-secure systems
- Army Regulation 380-5: Improper storage of classified information
- UCMJ 134 (General article): 24 counts. Most of these counts incorporate civilian statutes from the United States Code:
- : Embezzlement and Theft of Public Money, Property or Records. The government claimed that various sets of records that Manning transferred without authorization were 'things of value'.
- Espionage Act. The law forbids 'unauthorized persons' from taking 'national defense' information and either 'retaining' it or delivering it to 'persons not entitled to receive it'. Section 793(e) exists because the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950 modified the original 1917 Espionage Act, partly because of the Alger Hiss/Pumpkin papers case. It is also the same law used against Daniel Ellsberg and Anthony Russo in the Pentagon papers case. : This is part of the
- Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986. Section 1030(a)(1) is sometimes called the 'Computer Espionage' law as it borrows much of its language from the Espionage Act. It was modified by the USA Patriot Act of 2001, which added it to the 'Federal Crimes of Terrorism' list, as well as making it prosecutable under RICO (Racketeering) law. 1 & 2: These are from the
Total number of counts: 34
Listed by document
Most of Manning's charges are directly related to the alleged transferral of a specific document to another party. These documents are as follows:
- The 2007 July 12 Baghdad airstrike video
- various groups of US State Department cables, unclassified and classified
- The "Reykjavik 13" US State Department cable
- Records from the CIDNEI database
- Records from the CIDNEA database
- A Microsoft PowerPoint presentation
- Records from a US Southern Command database
- Files "BE22 PAX.zip" and "BE22 PAX.wmv".
- United States Forces – Iraq email address list
- a record from United States Army Intelligence and Security Command[clarification needed]
- A memorandum from an intelligence agency
The media has alleged that many of these documents are the same as documents published by Wikileaks, including:
- The July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike ("Collateral Murder") video
- United States diplomatic cables leak
- The Reykjavic 13 cable
- Iraq War documents leak (CIDNEI)
- Afghan War documents leak (CIDNEA)
- Granai airstrike video (BE22 PAX) (alleged by Wired and Marcy Wheeler)
Listed in the order given on the charge sheets
First set of charges (2010)
The first set of charges came on July 5, 2010. The Specifications (Spec.) are listed below in the same order as they are listed on the charge sheets. To the right of each specification is a description of the related documents or actions.
Charge 1: Violation of UCMJ Article 92 (Failure to obey a lawful order or regulation)
- Spec. 1: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-6(k): The 2007 July 12 Baghdad video
- Spec. 2: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-6(k): 50 classified US Dept of State cables
- Spec. 3: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-6(k): A classified Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation
- Spec. 4: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(3): Adding unauthorized software to SIPRNet
Charge 2: Violation of UCMJ Article 134 (General article)
- Spec. 1: : The 2007 July 12 Baghdad video
- Spec. 2: : The 2007 July 12 Baghdad video
- Spec. 3: US State Dept Cable named "Reykjavik 13" : The classified
- Spec. 4: : 50 classified US State Dept cables
- Spec. 5: : The 2007 July 12 Baghdad video
- Spec. 6: : The classified US State Dept Cable named "Reykjavik 13"
- Spec. 7: : 150,000 diplomatic cables
- Spec. 8: Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation : A classified
Second set of charges (2011)
The second set of charges came on March 1, 2011, and are as follows:
Additional Charge 1: Violation of UCMJ Article 104 (Aiding the enemy)
- Spec. 1: Knowingly giving intelligence to the enemy through indirect means
Additional Charge 2: Violation of UCMJ Article 134 (General article)
- Spec. 1: (statute not given): Causing intelligence to be published, knowing that it is accessible to the enemy
- Spec. 2: : A file named "12 JUL 07 CZ ENGAGEMENT ZONE 30 GC Anyone.avi"
- Spec. 3: : Memorandi from a US intelligence agency
- Spec. 4: : 380,000 records from the CIDNEI database
- Spec. 5: : >20 records from the CIDNEI database
- Spec. 6: : >90,000 records from the CIDNEA database
- Spec. 7: : >20 records from the CIDNEA database
- Spec. 8: : >700 records from a US Southern Command database
- Spec. 9: : >3 records from a US Southern Command database
- Spec. 10: : >5 records relating to an operation in Farah Province, Afghanistan
- Spec. 11: : The files "BE22 PAX.zip" and "BE22 PAX.wmv"
- Spec. 12: : 250,000 records from the State Dept Net-Centric Diplomacy database
- Spec. 13: : >75 US State Dept cables
- Spec. 14: : The State Dept cable named "Reykjavik-13"
- Spec. 15: : A record of a US Army Intelligence organization
- Spec. 16: : The US Forces – Iraq Microsoft Outlook / SharePoint Exchange Server global address list
Additional Charge 3: Violation of UCMJ Article 92 (Failure to obey a lawful order or regulation)
- Spec. 1: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(4): Bypassing security mechanisms
- Spec. 2: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(3): Adding unauthorized software to a SIPRNet computer
- Spec. 3: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(3): Adding unauthorized software to a SIPRNet computer
- Spec. 4: Army Reg. 25-2, para. 4-5(a)(3): Using an information system for other than its intended purpose
- Spec. 5: Army Reg. 380-5, para. 7-4: Wrongfully storing classified information
- Espionage Act of 1917
- McCarran Internal Security Act/Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950
- Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
- USA Patriot Act
- The Hague Academic Coalition, DomCLIC Project (2011). "The United States Army v Bradley Manning". Retrieved 2011-04-13.[dead link]
- US Army (2000). "Army Regulation 308-5" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-13.
- US Army (2009). "Army Regulation 2-25" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-13.
- Harold Edgar & Benno C. Schmidt, Jr. (May 1973). "The Espionage Statutes and Publication of Defense Information" (PDF). Columbia Law Review 73 (5): 937. Retrieved 2011-04-11. from the Federation of American Scientists website
- Jennifer K. Elsea (2010-01-10). "Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-13. from the Federation of American Scientists website
- US DOJ, Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section , Scott Eltringham, ed. (Feb 2007). "Prosecuting Computer Crimes". Retrieved 2011-04-16. Chapter 1, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, pg 14
- How Manning Stole The Cables by Nick Dubaz on November 30, 2010, conflicthealth.com (website of Christopher Albon) retr Sep 2011
- A Narrative Chronology of Bradley Manning’s Alleged Leaks, March 5, 2011, Marcy Wheeler
- Video Captures Bradley Manning With Hacker Pals at Time of First Leaks Kim Zetter, Wired.com, May 20, 2011
- US Army HHC, 2d BCT, 10th MTN Div (LI) (2010-07-05). "Charge Sheet of Bradley E. Manning" (PDF). FAS. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
- US Army, MDW, OSJA, HQ CMD BN, USA (2011-03-02). "Charge Sheet of Bradley E. Manning (Additional)" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
- Army Wikileaker Manning Faces Possible Death Penalty With New Charges Jason Mick – March 3, 2011, dailytech.com
- Bradley Manning/Wikileaks Timeline, Fire Dog Lake.com