List of chief ministers of Kerala

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Chief Minister of Kerala
Kēraḷa Mukhyamantri
Government of Kerala Logo.svg
Pinarayi Vijayan cm.jpg
Incumbent
Pinarayi Vijayan

since 25 May 2016
Chief Minister's Office
StyleThe Honourable (Formal)
Mr./Mrs. Chief Minister (Informal)
StatusHead of Government
AbbreviationCM
Member of
ResidenceCliff House, Thiruvananthapuram
SeatKerala Government Secretariat, Thiruvananthapuram
AppointerGovernor of Kerala
Term lengthAt the Pleasure of the Governor of Kerala[1]
PrecursorPrime Minister of Travancore
Prime Minister of Kingdom of Cochin
Chief Minister of Madras
Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin
Inaugural holderE. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957–1959)
Formation5 April 1957; 65 years ago (1957-04-05)
Salary
  • 185,000 (US$2,300)/monthly
  • 2,220,000 (US$28,000)/annually
WebsiteCMO Kerala

The chief minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Indian state of Kerala. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[2]

Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, the states' monarchs of Travancore and Cochin instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a prime minister and his council of ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. The Malabar District and Kasaragod region of South Canara, which together constitute more than half of present state of Kerala, had their representatives in the Madras Legislative Assembly.

On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking regions, by merging Cochin, Malabar, and Travancore regions, and the Kasaragod region of South Canara.[3] The first assembly election in Kerala state was held in February–March 1957.[3] The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 5 April 1957. The Assembly had 127 members including a nominated member.[3] Since then, 12 people have served as the chief minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). E. K. Nayanar is the longest serving holder of the office for a total of 10 years, 353 days. Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.

Key[edit]

Precursors[edit]

Prime ministers of Travancore (1948–49)[edit]

No.[a] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Monarch)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 Pattom Thanu Pillai Pattom A. Thanu Pillai.jpg 24 March 1948 17 October 1948 210 days Indian National Congress Representative

Body

(1948–49)

Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Maharaja of Travancore
2 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 22 October 1948 1 July 1949 253 days

Prime ministers of Cochin (1947–1949)[edit]

No.[b] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Monarch)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 Panampilly Govinda Menon Panampilly statue.jpg 14 August 1947 22 October 1947 51 days Independent Sixth Council

(1945–48)

Kerala Varma VII,

Maharaja of Cochin

2 T. K. Nair 27 October 1947 20 September 1948 334 days
3 E. Ikkanda Warrier Ikkanda variar.jpg 20 September 1948 30 June 1949 283 days Legislative

Assembly

(1948–49)

Chief ministers of Travancore-Cochin (1949–1956)[edit]

After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state.

No.[c] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Rajpramukh)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 1 July 1949 1 March 1951 1 year, 243 days Indian National Congress 1st Assembly

(1949–51)

Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma,

Maharaja of Travancore

2 C. Kesavan C Kesavan.jpg 3 March 1951 12 March 1952 1 year, 11 days
3 Anaparambil Joseph John 12 March 1952 16 March 1954 2 years, 4 days 2nd Assembly

(1952–53)
(1951 election)

4 Pattom Thanu Pillai Pattom A. Thanu Pillai.jpg 16 March 1954 10 February 1955 331 days Praja Socialist Party 3rd Assembly

(1954–56)
(1954 election)

5 Panampilly Govinda Menon Panampilly statue.jpg 10 February 1955 23 March 1956 1 year, 42 days Indian National Congress
Vacant[d]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 23 March 1956 31 October 1956 222 days N/A Dissolved N/A

List of chief ministers of Kerala[edit]

The Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the new Kerala state, incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks and Sengottai Taluk which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara district. A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.

No.[e] Portrait Name (Birth–Death) Constituency Tenure Assembly
(election)
Alliance Party[f]
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[g](President's rule) N/A 1 November 1956 5 April 1957 155 days Dissolved N/A
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg E. M. S. Namboodiripad
(1909–1998)
Nileshwaram 5 April 1957 31 July 1959 2 years, 117 days 1st
(1957 election)
Communist Party of India
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[h](President's rule) N/A 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 206 days Dissolved N/A
2 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai.jpg Pattom A. Thanu Pillai
(1885–1970)
Trivandrum II 22 February 1960 26 September 1962 2 years, 216 days 2nd
(1960 election)
Joint Front Praja Socialist Party
3 R. Sankar.jpg R. Sankar
(1909–1972)
Cannanore I 26 September 1962 10 September 1964 1 year, 350 days Indian National Congress
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[i](President's rule) N/A 10 September 1964 25 March 1965 2 years, 177 days Dissolved N/A
25 March 1965 6 March 1967 Dissolved
(1965 election)[j]
(1) E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg E. M. S. Namboodiripad
(1909–1998)
Pattambi 6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years, 240 days 3rd
(1967 election)
United Front (Seven Party Alliance) or United Left Front Communist Party of India (Marxist)
4 C. Achutha Menon.jpg C. Achutha Menon
(1913–1991)
Kottarakkara 1 November 1969 3 August 1970 275 days Mini Front/Democratic Front Communist Party of India
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[k](President's rule) N/A 4 August 1970 3 October 1970 60 days Dissolved N/A
(4) C. Achutha Menon.jpg C. Achutha Menon
(1913–1991)
Kodakara 4 October 1970 25 March 1977 6 years, 172 days; 4th
(1970 election)
United Front/Mini Front (later Maxi Front) Communist Party of India
5 Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 25 March 1977 26 April 1977 32 days 5th
(1977 election)
United Front/Ruling Front

(or)

Maxi Front (Revamped)

Indian National Congress
6 A. K. Antony.jpg A. K. Antony
(1940–)
Kazhakkuttom 27 April 1977 28 October 1978 1 year, 184 days
7 P.K. Vasudevan Nair.jpg P. K. Vasudevan Nair
(1926–2005)
Alleppey 29 October 1978 11 October 1979 347 days Communist Party of India
8 C H Mohammed Koya (1979).jpg C. H. Mohammed Koya
(1927–1983)
Malappuram 12 October 1979 4 December 1979 53 days Indian Union Muslim League
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[l](President's rule) N/A 5 December 1979 25 January 1980 51 days Dissolved N/A
9 EK-NAYANAR.jpg E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
Malampuzha 25 January 1980 20 October 1981 1 year, 268 days 6th
(1980 election)
L D F Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[d](President's rule) N/A 21 October 1981 28 December 1981 68 days N/A
(5) Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 28 December 1981 17 March 1982 79 days U D F Indian National Congress
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[d](President's rule) N/A 17 March 1982 23 May 1982 67 days Dissolved N/A
(5) Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 24 May 1982 25 March 1987 4 years, 305 days 7th
(1982 election)
U D F Indian National Congress
(9) EK-NAYANAR.jpg E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
Trikaripur 26 March 1987 23 June 1991 4 years, 89 days 8th
(1987 election)
L D F Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(5) Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg K. Karunakaran
(1918–2010)
Mala 24 June 1991 21 March 1995 3 years, 270 days 9th
(1991 election)
U D F Indian National Congress
(6) A. K. Antony.jpg A. K. Antony
(1940–)
Thirurangadi 22 March 1995 19 May 1996 1 year, 58 days
(9) EK-NAYANAR.jpg E. K. Nayanar
(1919–2004)
Thalassery 20 May 1996 16 May 2001 4 years, 361 days 10th
(1996 election)
L D F Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(6) A. K. Antony.jpg A. K. Antony
(1940–)
Cherthala 17 May 2001 30 August 2004 3 years, 105 days 11th
(2001 election)
U D F Indian National Congress
10 Oommen Chandy Kerala.jpg Oommen Chandy
(1943–)
Puthuppally 31 August 2004 17 May 2006 1 year, 259 days
11 V. S. Achuthanandan 2016.jpg V. S. Achuthanandan
(1923–)
Malampuzha 18 May 2006 17 May 2011 4 years, 364 days 12th
(2006 election)
L D F Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(10) Oommen Chandy Kerala.jpg Oommen Chandy
(1943–)
Puthuppally 18 May 2011 24 May 2016 5 years, 6 days 13th
(2011 election)
U D F Indian National Congress
12 Pinarayi Vijayan cm.jpg Pinarayi Vijayan
(1945–)
Dharmadam 25 May 2016 19 May 2021 6 years, 124 days 14th
(2016 election)
L D F Communist Party of India (Marxist)
20 May 2021 Incumbent 15th
(2021 election)

Statistics[edit]

List of Chief Ministers by length of term
No. Name Party Length of term
Longest continuous term Total years of premiership
1 E. K. Nayanar CPI(M) 4 years, 361 days 10 years, 353 days
2 K. Karunakaran INC 4 years, 305 days 8 years, 315 days
3 C. Achutha Menon CPI 6 years, 172 days 7 years, 80 days
4 Oommen Chandy INC 5 years, 6 days 6 years, 256 days
5 Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M) 6 years, 124 days 6 years, 124 days
6 A. K. Antony INC 3 years, 105 days 5 years, 347 days
7 V. S. Achuthanandan CPI(M) 4 years, 364 days 4 years, 364 days
8 E. M. S. Namboodiripad CPI(M)/CPI 2 years 240 days 4 years 357 days
9 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai PSP 2 years 216 days 2 years 216 days
10 R. Sankar INC 1 year 350 days 1 year 350 days
11 P. K. Vasudevan Nair CPI 347 days 347 days
12 C. H. Mohammed Koya IUML 53 days 53 days

Timeline[edit]

Pinarayi VijayanV. S. AchuthanandanOommen ChandyOommen ChandyE. K. NayanarE. K. NayanarE. K. NayanarC. K. Mohammed KoyaP. K. Vasudevan NairA. K. AntonyA. K. AntonyA. K. AntonyK. KarunakaranK. KarunakaranK. KarunakaranC. Achutha MenonE. M. S. NamboodiripadRaman SankarPattom Thanu PillaiE. M. S. Namboodiripad

Political parties by total time-span of their member holding CMO (26 September 2022)[edit]

No. Political party Number of Chief ministers Total days of holding CMO
1 CPI(M) 4 9392 days
2 INC 4 8,592 days
3 CPI 3 3,558 days
4 PSP 1 946 days
5 IUML 1 53 days

Living former chief ministers[edit]

As of 26 September 2022, there are three living former chief ministers of Kerala:

The most recent death of a former chief minister was that of K. Karunakaran on 23 December 2010, aged 92.[6]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  3. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  4. ^ a b c When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[4]
  5. ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  6. ^ This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  7. ^ When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]
  8. ^ When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]
  9. ^ When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]
  10. ^ As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.
  11. ^ When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]
  12. ^ When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Article 164 in constitution of India".
  2. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
  3. ^ a b c Sreedhara Menon, A. (January 2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 978-81-264-1588-5.
  4. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  5. ^ a b c d e Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005. Retrieved on 3 March 2013.
  6. ^ Joe A Scaria (23 December 2010). "Karunakaran passes away, bringing curtains down on era in Kerala politics". The Economic Times. Retrieved 20 May 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]