List of chief ministers of Punjab (India)

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Chief Minister of Punjab, India
Emblem-Punjab-Protocol-Manual-page98-appendix12.svg
Seal of Punjab
Amarinder Singh.jpg
Incumbent
Captain Amarinder Singh

since 16 March 2017
StyleThe Honourable (Formal)
Mr. Chief Minister (Informal)
StatusHead of Government
AbbreviationCM
Member ofPunjab Legislative Assembly
Reports toGovernor of Punjab
SeatPunjab Civil Secretariat, Chandigarh
AppointerGovernor of Punjab
Term lengthAt the confidence of the assembly
Chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]
PrecursorPremier of Punjab
Inaugural holderGopi Chand Bhargava
Formation15 August 1947
(73 years ago)
 (1947-08-15)
DeputyDeputy Chief Minister
SalaryMonthly, 230,000 (US$3,200)[2]

The Chief Minister of Punjab, an Indian state, is the head of the government of Punjab. As per the Constitution of India, the Governor of Punjab is the state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Punjab Legislative Assembly, the governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]

History[edit]

Punjab Province (1937-1947)[edit]

The province of Punjab was then headquartered in Lahore.Under the Government of India Act 1935, a bicameral legislature was set up with a legislative assembly and a legislative council with a government headed by the Prime Minister. The Unionist Party won the Punjab Provincial Assembly elections, 1937 and Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan became the Premier of the Punjab and hold the position till his death in 1942. Khan was succeeded by Sir Khizar Tiwana. In 1946 elections were held the Unionist Party stood fourth place but with the support of Indian National Congress and Shiromani Akali Dal formed the government under Sir Khizar Tiwana. Tiwana later resigned on 2 March 1947 against decision of Partition of India.

Patiala and East Punjab States Union (1948-1956)[edit]

Patiala and East Punjab States Union or PEPSU was an Indian state formed by the union eight princely states, however they were allowed to maintain their native monarchs. The state was inaugurated on 15 July 1948 and formally became a state in 1950. Among these princely states, six were salute states:- Patiala, Jind, Kapurthala, Nabha, Faridkot and Malerkotla. The other two states were Nalagarh and Kalsia. PEPSU was earlier headed by the Premier, from 1952 the Chief Minister become the head of the government. On 1 November 1956, PEPSU was merged mostly into East Punjab( Punjab from 1950) following the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.

East Punjab (1947-1966)[edit]

The state of East Punjab was formed in 1947 later it was renamed to Punjab in 1950. It consisted of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of India. Since 1947, Punjab has had fifteen chief ministers. The first was Gopi Chand Bhargava of the Indian National Congress party, who was sworn-in on 15 August 1947, when India gained independence from the British. He was succeeded by fellow Congressman Bhim Sen Sachar, who was then subsequently replaced after 188 days by former Chief Minister Gopi Chand Bhargava. After a brief term, President Rajendra Prasad placed the Punjab Legislative Assembly under suspension for ninth months to help the state government gets its act together. In 1952, the first state elections took place for the Legislative Assembly. The results of the election saw the return of the Congress government with former Chief Minister Bhim Sen Sachar as its leader. After he resigned in 1956, Partap Singh Kairon became chief minister. Serving until 1964, Khairon remain's one of Punjab's longest-serving chief ministers. He was followed by the returning Chief Minister Gopi Chand Bhargava, who briefly held office as acting chief minister for only 15 days. In July 1964, Ram Kishan assumed the office and served for two years. His tenure was followed by the President's rule which lasted for 119 days. On 1 November 1966, the state of Haryana was partitoned from Punjab along with some other districts were given to the state of Himachal Pradesh.

Punjab (Since 1966)[edit]

The first chief minister of the newly re-configured state was Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir who led a Congress government from the Vidhan Parishad, one of only two to have done so. In the 1967 elections, he was voted out of power in favour of the Akali Das Sant Fateh Singh Group whose leader Gurnam Singh became the first non-Congress chief minister. Gurnam Singh's government was succeeded by three short-lived Akali Dal governments—Lachhman Singh Gill's government for less than a year and for a little more than a year under the returning Gurnam Singh and Parkash Singh Badal. After 272 days under President's rule, the Congress party returned to power under future President Zail Singh. In 1977, Parkash Singh Badal became the chief minister for the second time. Darbara Singh became chief minister in 1980 and remained in office for three years before a long period under President's rule. A brief interlude under Surjit Singh Barnala followed, after which three Congress-led governments took office—led by Beant Singh from 1992 to 1995, Harcharan Singh Brar from 1995 to 1996 and Rajinder Kaur Bhattal from 1996 to 1997. Upon taking office, Rajinder Kaur Bhattal became the first female chief minister of Punjab and overall the 8th female chief minister in India.

Parkash Singh Badal assumed office for the third time in 1997 and became the first chief minister, since Kairon's resignation in 1964, to serve a full term. Badal was succeeded by Congressman Amarinder Singh, who also successfully served a full term. The incumbent Chief Minister of Punjab is Captain Amarinder Singh who is heading an Indian National Congress government since 16 March 2017.

Key[edit]

Precursors[edit]

Premiers of Punjab (1937-1947)[edit]

No Name Portrait Party
(Coalition with)
Term of office[3] Constituency Election (Assembly) Appointed by
1 Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan.png Unionist Party 5 April 1937 26 December 1942
[d]
5 years, 265 days West Punjab-Landlord 1937 (1) Herbert William Emerson
2 Sir Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana Malik Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana.png 30 December 1942 19 March 1945 2 years, 79 days Khushab Bertrand Glancy
(i) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
- 19 March 1945 21 March 1946 1 year, 2 days - - Viscount Wavell
(2) Sir Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana Malik Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana.png Unionist Party
(INC and SAD)
21 March 1946 2 March 1947 346 days Khushab 1946 (2) Bertrand Glancy
(ii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
- 2 March 1947 15 August 1947
[pd]
166 days - - Earl Mountbatten

Chief Ministers of Patiala and East Punjab States Union (1948-1956)[edit]

No Name Portrait Party
(coalition with)
Term of office[5] Election (Assembly) Appointed by
List of Premier of PEPSU (1948-1952)
1 Gian Singh Rarewala Gian Singh Rarewala ex CM.png IND
(SAD)
15 July 1948 13 January 1949 2 years, 312 days Caretaker Government Yadavindra Singh
13 January 1949 23 May 1951 Not yet created
2 Raghbir Singh Raghbir Singh.jpg Indian National Congress 23 May 1951 21 April 1952 334 days
Chief Minister of PEPSU (1952-1956)
1 Gian Singh Rarewala Gian Singh Rarewala ex CM.png IND
(UDF)
22 April 1952 5 March 1953 317 days 1952 (1) Yadavindra Singh
(i) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
- 5 March 1953 8 March 1954 1 year, 3 days - Rajendra Prasad
2 Raghbir Singh Raghbir Singh.jpg Indian National Congress 8 March 1954 7 January 1955
[d]
305 days 1954 (2) Yadavindra Singh
3 Brish Bhan Brish Bhan.png 12 January 1955 1 November 1956
[pd]
1 year, 294 days

Chief Ministers of Punjab[edit]

Chief Minister of Punjab (1947-1966)[edit]

Name
(constituency)
Portrait Term of office[6]
(Assembly election)
Party
(coalition with)
Appointed by(Governor)
1 Gopi Chand Bhargava Gopi Chand Bhargava.png 15 August 1947 13 April 1949 1 year, 241 days Indian National Congress Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi
Interim Punjab assembly
Bhargava resigned from the post of chief minister on 6 April 1949 but hold the office till Sachar succeeded him on 13 April.
2 Bhim Sen Sachar Bhim Sen Sachar.png 13 April 1949 18 October 1949 188 days Indian National Congress
Interim Punjab assembly
Sachar hold the office for few months and had to resign in October 1949 due to allegations of corruption
(1) Gopi Chand Bhargava Gopi Chand Bhargava.png 18 October 1949 20 June 1951 1 year, 245 days Indian National Congress
Interim Punjab assembly
Bhargava become CM for second time but resigned due to conflict with Party
(i) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
20 June 1951 17 April 1952 302 days - Rajendra Prasad
First time President's rule was imposed due to failure of government
(2) Bhim Sen Sachar
(Ludhiana City South)
Bhim Sen Sachar.png 17 April 1952 22 July 1953 3 years, 281 days Indian National Congress Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi
22 July 1953 23 January 1956 Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh
1952
Sachar was the first elected CM of Punjab. In 1953 he resigned due to conflict with cabinet minister Ram Sharma but re-sworn on same day. In 1956 he resigned due to differences with central leadership.
3 Partap Singh Kairon
( Sujanpur)
Partap Singh Kairon.png 23 January 1956 9 April 1957 8 years, 150 days Indian National Congress
9 April 1957 11 March 1962
11 March 1962 21 June 1964 Narhar Vishnu Gadgil
1957, 1962
First Sikh CM of Punjab and first CM who completed five years term. He resigned due the charges of corruption
- Gopi Chand Bhargava
(MLC)
(Caretaker)
Gopi Chand Bhargava.png 21 June 1964 6 July 1964 15 days Indian National Congress Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim
-
He sworn as caretaker CM of Punjab due to the sudden resignation of Kairon
4 Ram Kishan
(Jalandhar-North East)
Ram Kishan.png 7 July 1964 5 July 1966 1 year, 363 days Indian National Congress
-
He was a comrade. He had to resign due to suspension of assembly for the creation of Haryana
(ii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
5 July 1966 1 November 1966 119 days - Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
President's rule was imposed for the peaceful partition of Punjab in 1966

Chief Minister of Punjab (Since 1966)[edit]

Name Portrait Term of office[6]
(Assembly election)
Party
(coalition with)
Appointed by (Governor)
5 Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir
(MLC)
Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir 2001 stamp of India (cropped).jpg 1 November 1966 8 March 1967 127 days Indian National Congress Dharma Vira
-
Musafir was the former Jathedar of Akal Takht and First CM after reorganisation of Punjab
6 Gurnam Singh
(Qila Raipur)
Gurnam Singh ex-CM Punjab India.jpg 8 March 1967 25 November 1967 262 days Akali Dal - Sant Fateh Singh
(Samyukta Vidhayak Dal-CPI)
1967
He was the First non-Congress CM of Punjab and former Judge of Punjab High Court. He resigned due to defection in his party
7 Lachhman Singh Gill
(Dharamkot)
Lachhman Singh Gill.png 25 November 1967 23 August 1968 272 days Punjab Janta Party
(INC)
D. C. Pavate
-
He was minister in Gurnam Singh's cabinet, after defection formed coalition government but resigned after breakdown of coalition
(iii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
23 August 1968 17 February 1969 178 days - Zakir Hussain
President's rule was imposed due to failure of any party to form government
(6) Gurnam Singh
(Qila Raipur)
Gurnam Singh ex-CM Punjab India.jpg 17 February 1969 27 March 1970 1 year, 38 days Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJS)
D. C. Pavate
1969
Second time became the CM. Resigned due to change in leadership
8 Parkash Singh Badal
(Giddarbaha)
Parkash Singh Badal3.png 27 March 1970 14 June 1971 1 year, 79 days Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJS)
-
He became CM after resignation of Gurnam Singh but resigned due to poor performance in Lok Sabha election
(iv) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
14 June 1971 17 March 1972 277 days - Varahagiri Venkata Giri
President's rule was imposed due to resignation of Badal government
9 Giani Zail Singh
(Anandpur Sahib)
Giani Zail Singh 1995 stamp of India (cropped).png 17 March 1972 30 April 1977 5 years, 44 days Indian National Congress D. C. Pavate
1972
After Kairon he was the second CM who completed five years term. Later became the President of India
(v) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
30 April 1977 20 June 1977 51 days - B. D. Jatti
President's rule was imposed to conduct fresh election after abrogation of National Emergency
(8) Parkash Singh Badal
(Gidderbaha)
Parkash Singh Badal3.png 20 June 1977 17 February 1980 2 years, 242 days Shiromani Akali Dal
(JP-CPI)
Mahendra Mohan Choudhry
1977
Second time became CM of Punjab but resigned due to dissolution of assembly
(vi) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
17 February 1980 6 June 1980 110 days - Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
President's rule was imposed after proclamation of article 356 of Constitution although Badal government had majority in assembly
10 Darbara Singh
(Nakodar)
Darbara Singh.png 6 June 1980 6 October 1983 3 years, 122 days Indian National Congress (Indira) Jaisukh lal Hathi
1980
He became CM during the time of Insurgency in Punjab and due to this President's rule was imposed in 1983
(vii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
6 October 1983 29 September 1985 1 year, 358 days - Zail Singh
President's rule was imposed due to breakdown of law and order
11 Surjit Singh Barnala
(Barnala)
The Vice President, Shri Mohd. Hamid Ansari with the Governor of Tamil Nadu, Shri Surjit Singh Barnala and the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi (cropped) (Surjit Singh Barnala).png 29 September 1985 11 June 1987 1 year, 255 days Shiromani Akali Dal Arjun Singh
1985
He also became CM during Insurgency in Punjab and due to this President's rule was imposed in 1987. Later on he was appointed Governor of various States of India
(viii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg
11 June 1987 25 February 1992 4 years, 259 days - Zail Singh
President's rule was imposed due breakdown of law and order. It was the longest President's rule in Punjab
12 Beant Singh
( Jalandhar Cantonment)
Beant Singh 2013 stamp of India (cropped).png 25 February 1992 31 August 1995
[†]
3 years, 187 days Indian National Congress (Indira) Surendra Nath
1992
He also became CM during Insurgency in Punjab. He was the first Indian CM who was assassinated in his office
13 Harcharan Singh Brar
(Muktsar)
Harcharan Singh Brar ex CM.png 31 August 1995 21 November 1996 1 year, 82 days Indian National Congress (Indira) B. K. N. Chhibber
-
He became CM after assassination of Beant Singh but resigned due to personal reasons
14 Rajinder Kaur Bhattal
(Lehra)
Rajinder Kaur Bhattal.jpg 21 November 1996 11 February 1997 82 days Indian National Congress (Indira)
-
She is the first and only female CM of Punjab and the shortest served CM of Punjab
(8) Parkash Singh Badal
(Lambi)
Parkash Singh Badal3.png 12 February 1997 26 February 2002 5 years, 14 days Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJP)
1997
First non-Congress CM who completed five years term
15 Amarinder Singh
(Patiala Urban)
Capt. Amarinder Singh.png 26 February 2002 1 March 2007 5 years, 3 days Indian National Congress J. F. R. Jacob
2002
He served as Cabinet Minister of Punjab in Barnala's government and belongs to Patiala Royal Family
(8) Parkash Singh Badal
(Lambi)
Parkash Singh Badal3.png 1 March 2007 14 March 2012 10 years, 15 days Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJP)
S. F. Rodrigues
14 March 2012 16 March 2017 Shivraj Patil
2007, 2012
Till now Badal is the longest served CM of Punjab and after Kairon he is the only who took office for two terms continuously
(15) Amarinder Singh
(Patiala Urban)
Amarinder Singh.jpg 16 March 2017 Incumbent 4 years, 26 days Indian National Congress V. P. Singh Badnore
2017
Amarinder Singh is the second after Kairon under whose leadership Congress won two elections.

List of Chief Ministers by Party[edit]

Following is the summary of hold of Chief Minister's office by members of Indian political parties.

S. No. Party Number of Chief Ministers Total days of holding CM Office
1 Indian National Congress 13 16334 days
2 Shiromani Akali Dal 3 7977 days
3 Unionist Party 2 3251 days
4 Independent 1 2090 days
5 Punjab Janta Party 1 272 days
6 Akali Dal Fateh Singh 1 262 days

Parties by number of their members served as Punjab Chief Ministers[edit]

2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
INC
SAD
UP
ADSF
PJP
IND

Living former Chief Ministers of Punjab[edit]

Name Portrait Birth
(age)
Tenure as CM
Parkash Singh Badal Parkash Singh Badal3.png 8 December 1927
(93)
1970-1971, 1977-1980, 1997-2002, 2007-2017
Rajinder Kaur Bhattal Rajinder Kaur Bhattal.jpg 3 September 1945
(75)
1996-1997

The most recent death of a former chief minister was that of Surjit Singh Barnala on 14 January 2017.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k President's rule may be imposed when the "government in a state is not able to function as per the Constitution", which often happens because no party or coalition has a majority in the assembly. When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant, and the administration is taken over by the governor, who functions on behalf of the central government. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Punjab as well.
  2. ^ Captain Amarinder Singh. Pay Check. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  3. ^ World statesman - British India
  4. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  5. ^ worldstatesmen.org PEPSU
  6. ^ a b page v of Punjab Vidhan Sabha Compendium.Retrieved on 25 September 2018.
  7. ^ The Hindu, 14 January 2017. Surjit Singh Barnala passes away. Retrieved 11 February 2021.

External links[edit]