List of child prodigies
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- 1 Mathematics and science
- 2 The arts
- 3 Humanities
- 4 Chess
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Mathematics and science
- Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who wrote a treatise on vibrating bodies at the age of nine; he wrote his first proof, on a wall with a piece of coal, at the age of 11 years, and a theorem by the age of 16 years. He is famous for Pascal's theorem and many other contributions in mathematics, philosophy, and physics.
- Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887–1920), was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, learned college-level mathematics by age 11, and generated his own theorems in number theory and Bernoulli numbers by age 13 (including independently re-discovering Euler's identity).
- Terence Tao (born 1975), is an ethnic Chinese prodigy who was the youngest medalist in International Mathematical Olympiad history, at age 10. and a Fields Medal winner.
- Akshay Venkatesh (born 1981), won a bronze medal at the International Physics Olympiad at 11 years of age. Won a bronze medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) at 12.
Note: Several mathematicians were mental calculators when they were still children. Mental calculation is not to be confused with mathematics. This section is for child prodigies largely or primarily known for calculating skills.
- Zerah Colburn (1804–1839) had a major display of his ability at age eight.
- Ettore Majorana (1906–1938) could multiply two 3 digit numbers in his head in seconds at the age of 4.
- John von Neumann (1903–1957) A "mental calculator" by the age of six years, who could tell jokes in classical Greek.
- Truman Henry Safford (1836–1901) could square 18 digit numbers at the age of ten years; later in life, he became an astronomer.
- Kishan Shrikanth – Directed a feature film on 35 mm, of 130 mins Care of Footpath at age nine and entered the Guinness Book of World Records for being the youngest director of a professional level feature film.
- Sheila Sri Prakash (born 1955), was an acclaimed dancer of Bharatanatyam, having given her first critically acclaimed performance on stage when she was six years of age. She had a prolific career in the Arts between 1961 - 1984, with accomplishments as a Kuchipudi dancer, Veenai musician, a gifted painter and sculptor. She is currently an architect.
- William Cullen Bryant was published at the age of 10 years; at the age of 13 years, he published a book of political satire poems .
- Minou Drouet caught the notice of French critics at the age of eight, leading to speculation that her mother was the true author of her poetry. She later proved herself to be the author.
- Edmund Thomas Clint (1976–1983) was an Indian child prodigy. He is known for having drawn over 25,000 paintings during his life.
- Pablo Picasso painted Picador at the age of eight years. See List of Picasso artworks 1889–1900.
- Jeremy Bentham studied Latin at the age of three years and entered The Queen's College, Oxford at the age of 12 years.
- John Stuart Mill knew several dead languages by the age of eight years and studied scholastic philosophy at the age of 12 years.
- William Wotton could read passages in English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at the age of five. Graduated from Cambridge aged thirteen having acquired Arabic, Syriac, Chaldee, French, Spanish and Italian, together with a good working knowledge of logic, philosophy, mathematics, geography, chronology, and history.
- Samuel Reshevsky learned to play chess at age four, and was soon acclaimed as a child prodigy. At age eight he was beating accomplished players with ease, and giving simultaneous exhibitions.
- Awonder Liang became the youngest chess expert in United States Chess Federation (USCF) history on April 16, 2011, when he played in the Hales Corners Challenge chess tournament in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with a rating of 2000 at the age of 8 years and 7 days. On March 23, 2013, he became the youngest person ever to obtain a master's rating within the United States Chess Federation. Awonder was 17 days shy of his 10th birthday at the time of this achievement.
- Feldman, David H.; Morelock, M. J. (2011). "Prodigies". In Runco, Mark A.; Pritzker, Steven R. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Creativity. Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition). Academic Press. pp. 261–265. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-375038-9.00182-5. ISBN 978-0-12-375038-9. Retrieved 8 April 2015. Lay summary (8 April 2015).
For the purposes of this and future research, a prodigy was defined as a child younger than 10 years of age who has reached the level of a highly trained professional in a demanding area of endeavor.– via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
- Rose, Lacey (2 March 2007). "Whiz Kids". Forbes. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
At the moment, the most widely accepted definition is a child, typically under the age of 10, who has mastered a challenging skill at the level of an adult professional.
- Feldman, David Henry (Fall 1993). "Child prodigies: A distinctive form of giftedness" (PDF). Gifted Child Quarterly. 27 (4): 188–193. doi:10.1177/001698629303700408. ISSN 0016-9862. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- William Durant, Ariel Durant (1963). The Age of Louis XIV: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Pascal, Molière, Cromwell, Milton, Peter the Great, Newton, and Spinoza: 1648-1715. Simon and Schuster. p. 56.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Berndt, Bruce C.; Robert A. Rankin (2001). Ramanujan: Essays and Surveys. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society. pp. 9. ISBN 0-8218-2624-7.
- "Terence Tao". RiAus. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Fields Medal winner Akshay Venkatesh was a child prodigy
- Akshay Venkatesh: What the genius mathematician did to become a Field Medal winner. The Financial Express. Retrieved May 12, 2019
- "Knowledge". google.com. 1889. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The American Mathematical Monthly". google.com. 1918. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Bergmann, Peter G.; De Sabbata, V. (30 April 2002). Advances in the Interplay Between Quantum and Gravity Physics. ISBN 9781402005930. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Amaldi, Edoardo; Battimelli, Giovanni; Paoloni, Giovanni (1998). 20th Century Physics. ISBN 9789810223694. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Von_Neumann summary". st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The History of Computing". gmu.edu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "HP-45". Hpmuseum.org. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Login". timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "On William Cullen Bryant". vcu.edu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Kitten on the Keys"[permanent dead link], (archived page) Time Magazine Jan 28, 1957.
- "The unfading colours of child prodigy". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The Hindu : She spells hope and happiness". hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Pablo Stafforini. "Jeremy Bentham". utilitarian.net. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill". baylor.edu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Biography: John Stuart Mill, philosopher of utilitarianism, liberalism and precursor of feminism". free.fr. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Books of The Times - Gifted Young Minds, and How to Cultivate Them - NYTimes.com". nytimes.com. 28 June 1990. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- David Stoker, 'William Wotton's exile and redemption: an account of the genesis and publication of Leges Wallicae' Y Llyfr yng Nghymru/Welsh Book Studies, 7 (2006), 7–106.
- Lewis, Chelsey. "Chess whiz". Wisconsintrails.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.