List of child prodigies
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert professional.
Mathematics and science
- Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who wrote a treatise on vibrating bodies at the age of nine; he wrote his first proof, on a wall with a piece of coal, at the age of 11 years, and a theorem by the age of 16 years. He is famous for Pascal's theorem and many other contributions in mathematics, philosophy, and physics.
Note: Several mathematicians were mental calculators when they were still children. Mental calculation is not to be confused with mathematics. This section is for child prodigies largely or primarily known for calculating skills.
- John von Neumann (1903–1957) A "mental calculator" by the age of six years, who could tell jokes in classical Greek.
See List of child music prodigies for examples.
- William Cullen Bryant published his first poem at the age of 10; at the age of 13 years, he published a book of political satire poems.
- Minou Drouet caught the notice of French critics at the age of eight, leading to speculation that her mother was the true author of her poetry. She later proved herself to be the author.
- Edmund Thomas Clint (1976–1983) was an Indian child prodigy. He is known for having drawn over 25,000 paintings, though he lived to be just six years and 11 months old.
See Chess prodigy for details of child prodigies at chess.
- Sumire Nakamura was competing in national Go tournaments in Japan by the time she was seven, and became the youngest professional go player at age 10.
- Feldman, David H.; Morelock, M. J. (2011). "Prodigies". In Runco, Mark A.; Pritzker, Steven R. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Creativity. Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition). Academic Press. pp. 261–265. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-375038-9.00182-5. ISBN 978-0-12-375038-9.
For the purposes of this and future research, a prodigy was defined as a child younger than 10 years of age who has reached the level of a highly trained professional in a demanding area of endeavor.
- Rose, Lacey (2 March 2007). "Whiz Kids". Forbes. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
At the moment, the most widely accepted definition is a child, typically under the age of 10, who has mastered a challenging skill at the level of an adult professional.
- Feldman, David Henry (Fall 1993). "Child prodigies: A distinctive form of giftedness" (PDF). Gifted Child Quarterly. 27 (4): 188–193. doi:10.1177/001698629303700408. ISSN 0016-9862. S2CID 144180264. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- William Durant; Ariel Durant (1963). The Age of Louis XIV: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Pascal, Molière, Cromwell, Milton, Peter the Great, Newton, and Spinoza: 1648-1715. Simon and Schuster. p. 56.
- "Von_Neumann summary". st-and.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The History of Computing". gmu.edu. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "On William Cullen Bryant". vcu.edu. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Kitten on the Keys"[permanent dead link], (archived page) Time Magazine Jan 28, 1957.
- "The unfading colours of child prodigy". The Hindu. 18 August 2006. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The Hindu : She spells hope and happiness". hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Japanese girl to be youngest Go professional". BBC News. 6 January 2019. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2020.