List of children of the presidents of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following people are children of U.S. presidents, including stepchildren and alleged illegitimate children. All full names with married names are given. Currently there are 33 confirmed, known living presidential children, the oldest Lynda Bird Johnson Robb, the youngest confirmed Barron Trump. Two presidential children, John Quincy Adams and George W. Bush, have become president in their own right.

Presidential children have been studied individually and as a class. As individuals they are more often notable in their own right than most individuals: They disproportionately circulate among political and social leaders and the wealthier classes, and they are more likely to be scrutinized as part of celebrity culture. Additionally, as individuals they frequently have significant influence on other family members. For instance, a child may have had a significant influence on the child's parent: acting as a sounding board, or having behavioral issues that affected the parent's beliefs or performance. John Scott Harrison is the only person to be both a child and a parent of a U.S. president, being a son of William Henry Harrison and the father of Benjamin Harrison.

As a class, the children of presidents have also occasioned significant study. Study has generally followed two paths: The issue of what access and inclusion within the circles of power does to individuals' lives, aspirations, and outcomes;[1] and the issue of their influence on society and politics.[2]

18th century[edit]

George and Martha Washington[edit]

No children together. The following were raised by Washington as his own:
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Parke Custis John Parke Custis
nickname: Jacky
November 27, 1754 – November 5, 1781 Eleanor Calvert Stepson; father was Daniel Parke Custis

Father of:

Martha Parke Custis
nickname: Patsy
1756 – June 19, 1773 no spouse Stepdaughter; father was Daniel Parke Custis
Eliza Law Elizabeth Parke Custis
nickname: Eliza
August 21, 1776 – December 31, 1831 Thomas Law Mother of:
  • Elizabeth (1797 – 1822)
  • Unknown number of other children (all died in infancy)
Martha Parke Custis
nickname: Patsy
December 31, 1777 – July 13, 1854 Thomas Peter Mother of:
  • Martha Eliza Angela (1796 – 1800)
  • Columbia Lafayette (1797 – 1820)
  • John Parke Custis (1799 – 1848)
  • George Washington Parke Custis (1801 – 1877)
  • America Pinckney (1803 – 1842)
  • Robert Thomas (1806 – 1807)
  • Martha Custis Castania (1808 – 1809)
  • Brittania Wellington (1815 – 1911)
Nelly Lewis Eleanor Parke Custis
nickname: Nelly
March 31, 1779 – July 15, 1852 Lawrence Lewis Adopted daughter; daughter of stepson John Parke Custis

Mother of:

  • Frances Parke (1799 – 1875)
  • Martha Betty (1801 – 1802)
  • Lawrence Fielding (1802 – 1802)
  • Lorenzo (1803 – 1847)
  • Eleanor Agnes Freire (1805 – 1820)
  • Fielding Augustine (1807 – 1809)
  • George Washington Custis (1810 – 1811)
  • Martha Eleanor Angela (1813 – 1839)
George Custis George Washington Parke Custis
nickname: Wash
April 30, 1781 – October 10, 1857 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Legal ward; son of stepson John Parke Custis

Father of:

John and Abigail Adams[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Nabby Smith Abigail Adams
nickname: Nabby or Amelia
July 14, 1765 – August 15, 1813 William Stephens Smith Mother of:
  • William Steuben Smith
  • John Adams Smith
  • Thomas Hollis Smith
  • Caroline Amelia Smith
J.Q. Adams John Quincy Adams
6th president (1825 – 1829)
July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848 Louisa Catherine Johnson 6th president of the United States, see below at John Quincy and Louisa Adams
Grace Susanna Adams
nickname: Suky
December 28, 1768 – February 4, 1770 no spouse died of unknown causes
Charles Adams Charles Adams May 29, 1770 – November 30, 1800 Sarah Smith Father of:
  • Susanna Boylston (1796 – 1884)
  • Abigail Louisa Smith (1798 – 1836)
Thomas Boylston Adams Thomas Boylston Adams September 15, 1772 – March 13, 1832 Ann Harrod Father of:
  • Abigail Smith Adams Angier (1806 – 1845)
  • Marie Adams Harkins (1808 – 1893)
  • Thomas Boylston Adams (1809 – 1837)
  • Elizabeth Coombs Adams (1809 – 1903)
  • Frances Foster Adams (1811 – 1812)
  • Isaac Hull Adams (1813 – 1900)
  • John Quincy Adams (1815 – 1854)
  • Joseph Harod Adams (1817 – 1853)
Elizabeth Adams July 11, 1777 no spouse stillborn

19th century[edit]

Thomas Jefferson[edit]

with Martha Jefferson[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Patsy Randolph Martha Jefferson Randolph
nickname: Patsy
September 27, 1772 – October 10, 1836 Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.

Mother of 13, including:

  • Thomas Jefferson Randolph (1792 – 1875)
  • Ellen Wayles Randolph (1794 – 1795)
  • Cornelia Jefferson Randolph (1799 – 1871)
  • James Madison Randolph (1806 – 1834)
  • Benjamin Franklin Randolph (1808 – 1871)
  • Meriwether Lewis Randolph (1810 – 1837)
  • George Wythe Randolph (1818 – 1867)
Jane Randolph Jefferson April 3, 1774 – September 1775[3] no spouse died of unknown causes
unnamed son[4] May 28 – June 14, 1777 died in infancy
Mary Jefferson
nickname: Polly or Maria
August 1, 1778 – April 17, 1804 John Wayles Eppes Mother of 3, including:
Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (I) November 30, 1780 – April 15, 1781 no spouse died of an unspecified illness[5]
Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (II) May 8, 1782 – ca. October 13, 1784[6] died of whooping cough[6]

with Sally Hemings[edit]

Alleged children with Sally Hemings; see Jefferson DNA data
Child Lifetime Spouse Children
Thomas Jefferson Hemings
nickname: Tom
1790 – 1879 Jemima Price Father of:
Harriet Hemings (I) October 5, 1795 – December 7, 1797 no spouse died of unknown causes
Edy Hemings 1796 died in infancy
William Beverly Hemings April 1, 1798 – 1873 Darek Joseph one daughter, unknown name
Thenia Hemings December 7, 1799 – ca. 1802 no spouse died in early childhood
Harriet Hemings (II) May 22, 1801 – 1863 unknown
James Madison Hemings January 18, 1805 – November 26, 1877 Mary Hughes McCoy
Eston Hemings May 21, 1808 – January 3, 1856 Julia Ann Isaacs Father of 3, including:

James and Dolley Madison[edit]

No children together, but raised the older of Dolley's 2 sons from her first marriage:

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Payne Todd John Payne Todd
nickname: Payne
February 29, 1792 – January 16, 1852 Greta Bunce raised by James Madison; father was John Todd Jr.
William Temple Todd July 4 – October 14, 1793 no spouse died of yellow fever[7]

James and Elizabeth Monroe[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Kortright Monroe
nickname: Eliza
December 1786 – January 27, 1840[8][9] George Hay Mother of
  • Hortensia Hay
James Spence Monroe May 1799 – September 28, 1800[10][a] no spouse died after "several days sickness".[10]
Maria Hester Monroe May 20, 1803 – 1850 Samuel Laurence Gouverneur Mother of
  • James Monroe Gouverneur (1822 – 1885)
  • Elizabeth Kortright Gouverneur (1824 – 1868)
  • Samuel Laurence Gouverneur, Jr. (1826 – 1880)

John Quincy and Louisa Adams[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
George Washington Adams George Washington Adams April 12, 1801 – April 30, 1829 none[b] committed suicide
John Adams II John Adams II July 4, 1803 – October 23, 1834 Mary Catherine Hellen Father of:
  • Mary Louisa (December 2, 1828 – July 16, 1859)
  • Georgiana Frances (September 10, 1830 – November 20, 1839)
unnamed son[12] June 29, 1806 no spouse stillborn
Charles Adams Charles Francis Adams August 18, 1807 – November 21, 1886 Abigail Brown Brooks

Served as United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1861 – 1868)
Father of 7, including:

Louisa Catherine Adams August 12, 1811 – September 15, 1812 no spouse died in St. Petersburg, Russia from an unknown illness while her father was serving as Minister to Russia[13][14]

Andrew and Rachel Jackson[edit]

No biological children together, adopted three:
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Theodore Unknown Unknown Adopted; Native American
Andrew Jackson Jr. December 4, 1808 – April 17, 1865 Sarah Yorke adopted at birth; biological son of Severn Donelson
Lyncoya Jackson c. 1811 – July 1, 1828 No spouse Creek orphan adopted after the Battle of Tallushatchee; died of tuberculosis at the age of sixteen.
Andrew and Rachel also served as guardians to eight children:
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Samuel Donelson before 1805 – 1817 unknown Orphaned nephews of Rachel, sons of Samuel Donelson who died in 1804
Andrew Jackson Donelson Andrew Jackson Donelson August 25, 1799 – June 26, 1871 Emily Tennessee Donelson
Elizabeth Martin Randolph
Daniel Smith Donelson Daniel Smith Donelson June 23, 1801 – April 17, 1863 Margaret Donelson
Andrew Jackson Hutchings 1812 – 1841 Mary Coffee Orphaned grandnephew of Rachel
Caroline Butler before 1804 – 1817 unknown Orphaned children of family friend Edward Butler[15]
Eliza Eleanor Butler April 20, 1791 – November 4, 1850 John Donelson[c]
Edward George Washington Butler February 22, 1800 – September 5, 1888 Frances Parke Lewis[d]
Anthony Wayne Butler 1803 – 1824 unknown

Martin and Hannah Van Buren[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Abraham Van Buren Abraham Van Buren II November 27, 1807 – March 15, 1873 Angelica Singleton 4 children
John Van Buren John Van Buren February 10, 1810 – October 13, 1866 Elizabeth Vanderpoel Father of:
  • Anna (1842 – 1923)
Martin Van Buren Jr.
nickname:Matt
December 20, 1812 – March 19, 1855 no spouse died of tuberculosis
Winfield Scott Van Buren 1814 died in infancy
Smith Thompson Van Buren January 16, 1817 – December 10, 1876[17] Ellen King James
Henrietta Eckford Irving
7 children between 2 wives
unnamed daughter[18] c. 1818 no spouse stillborn

William Henry Harrison[edit]

with Anna Harrison[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Bassett Harrison
nickname: Betsy
September 29, 1796 – September 27, 1846 John Cleves Short
John Cleves Symmes Harrison October 28, 1798 – October 30, 1830 Clarissa Pike[e] 6 children
Lucy Singleton Harrison September 1800 – April 7, 1826[19] David K. Este[20] 4 children
William Henry Harrison Jr. September 3, 1802 – February 6, 1838[19] Jane Findlay Irwin 2 children
John Harrison John Scott Harrison October 4, 1804 – May 25, 1878 Lucretia Knapp Johnson 3 children
Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin 10 children, including President Benjamin Harrison (1833 – 1901)
Benjamin Harrison 1806 – June 9, 1840[19] Louisa Smith Bonner
Mary Raney
Mary Symmes Harrison January 22, 1809 – November 16, 1842[21] John Henry Fitzhugh Thornton
Carter Bassett Harrison October 26, 1811 – August 12, 1839 Mary Anne Sutherland 1 child
Anna Tuthill Harrison October 28, 1813 – July 5, 1845[21] William Henry Harrison Taylor[f]
James Findlay Harrison 1814 – 1817[21] no spouse died of unknown causes

Alleged child with a slave[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Dilsia 1809 – before 1900 Unknown Daughter conceived by one of his slaves.[22]

John Tyler[edit]

with Letitia Tyler[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Mary Tyler April 15, 1815 – June 17, 1847 Henry Lightfoot Jones
Robert Tyler September 9, 1816 – December 3, 1877 Elizabeth Priscilla Cooper
John Tyler III April 27, 1819 – January 26, 1896 Martha Rochelle
Letitia Tyler Semple, daughter of President John Tyler LCCN2014648346.jpg Letitia Christian Tyler
nickname: Letty
May 11, 1821 – December 28, 1907 James Allen Semple no children
Elizabeth Tyler
nickname: Lizzie
July 11, 1823 – June 1, 1850 William Nevison Waller
Anne Contesse Tyler[23] April 5 – July 1825 no spouse died in infancy
Alice Tyler March 23, 1827 – June 8, 1854 Henry Mandeville Denison
Tazewell Tyler December 6, 1830 – January 8, 1874 Nannie Bridges

Alleged child with a slave[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Dunjee John William Dunjee 1833 – 1903 Lydia Ann Taylor allegedly the son of John Tyler; unproven as of 2011[24]

with Julia Tyler[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Gardie Tyler David Gardiner Tyler
nickname: Gardie
July 12, 1846 – September 5, 1927 Mary Morris Jones 5 children
John Alexander Tyler
nickname: Alex
April 7, 1848 – September 1, 1883 Sarah Griswold Gardiner  
Julia Gardiner Tyler December 25, 1849 – May 8, 1871 William H. Spencer
Lachlan Tyler December 2, 1851 – January 26, 1902   Georgia Webb Powell
Lyon Tyler Lyon Gardiner Tyler August 24, 1853 – February 12, 1935 Anne Baker Tucker Father of:
  • John Tyler
  • Elizabeth Gilmour Tyler
  • Julia Gardiner Tyler
Sue Ruffin Father of:
  • Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (1925 – 2020)
  • Harrison Ruffin Tyler (1928 – )
  • Henry Tyler (1931 – 1931)

Harrison is still alive as of December 3, 2020,[25] making John Tyler the earliest president with still-living grandchildren.

Robert Fitzwalter Tyler March 12, 1856 – December 30, 1927 Fannie Glenn at least 3 children
Margaret Pearl Tyler June 20, 1860 – June 30, 1947 William Munford Ellis

James and Sarah Polk[edit]

The Polks are the only presidential couple to never have children while together, biologically, adopted, or from previous marriage.

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Marshal Polk Marshall Tate Polk Jr. May 15, 1831 – February 29, 1884 Evalina McNeal Bills Guardianship/Legal ward, nephew, son of brother Marshall Tate Polk
Sarah Polk Fall Sarah Polk Fall April 1, 1847 – July 22, 1924 George William Fall Legal ward, shortly after the death of the president his widow unofficially adopted a great niece

Zachary and Margaret Taylor[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Ann Margaret Mackall Taylor Wood April 9, 1811 – December 2, 1875 Dr. Robert Crooke Wood Mother of four children, including John Taylor Wood (1830 – 1904)
Sarah Taylor Sarah Knox Taylor
nickname: Knoxie
March 6, 1814 – September 15, 1835[26] Jefferson Finis Davis died from malaria as a newlywed
Octavia Pannel Taylor[27] [g] August 15, 1816 – September 1820[26] no spouse died from malaria [h]
Margaret Smith Taylor July 17, 1819 – October 1820 died from malaria [i]
Mary Taylor Bliss Mary Elizabeth Taylor
nickname: Betty
April 20, 1824 – July 25, 1909 William Wallace Smith Bliss Betty Bliss served as President Taylor's White House hostess, as the First Lady was an invalid.
Philip Pendleton Dandridge
Richard Taylor Richard Scott Taylor
nickname: Dick
January 27, 1826 – April 17, 1879[26] Louise Marie Myrthe Bringier Father of Richard, Zachary, Louise, Elizabeth, and Myrthe.

Millard and Abigail Fillmore[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Millard Powers Fillmore Millard Powers Fillmore
nickname:Powers
April 25, 1828 – November 15, 1889 no spouse
Abby Fillmore Mary Abigail Fillmore
nickname: Abby
March 27, 1832 – July 26, 1854 Served as Acting First Lady during her mother's illness

Franklin and Jane Pierce[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Franklin Pierce Jr. February 2–4, 1836 no spouse died in infancy
Frank Robert Pierce
nickname: Frank
August 27, 1839 – November 14, 1843 died of typhus fever
Benjamin Pierce with his mother Jane Benjamin Pierce
nickname:Benny
April 13, 1841 – January 6, 1853 died in train accident in front of his parents, weeks before his father was inaugurated

James Buchanan[edit]

No biological children, and never married
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Mary Elizabeth Speer Lane 1826 – 1855 George Washington Baker Adopted daughter;
niece (daughter of sister Jane Buchanan and Elliot Tole Lane)
Harriet Lane Harriet Rebecca Lane May 9, 1830 – July 3, 1903 Henry Elliott Johnston Adopted daughter;
niece (daughter of sister Jane Buchanan and Elliot Tole Lane);
served as Acting First Lady

Mother of:

  • James Buchanan Johnston
  • Henry Elliott Johnston

Abraham and Mary Lincoln[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Robert Lincoln Robert Todd Lincoln August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926 Mary Eunice Harlan Served as Secretary of War under the administrations of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur.

Father of:

Eddie Lincoln Edward Baker Lincoln
nickname: Eddie
March 10, 1846 – February 1, 1850 no spouse died of "chronic consumption"
Willie Lincoln William Wallace Lincoln
nickname: Willie
December 21, 1850 – February 20, 1862 died from typhoid fever
Tad Lincoln Thomas Lincoln III
nickname: Tad
April 4, 1853 – July 15, 1871 The cause of Tad Lincoln's death has been reported as possibly any one of the following:

Andrew and Eliza Johnson[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Martha Johnson Martha Johnson October 25, 1828 – July 10, 1901 David Trotter Patterson 2 children
Charles Johnson February 19, 1830 – April 4, 1863 no spouse
Mary Johnson May 8, 1832 – April 19, 1883 Daniel Stover
William Browne
Robert Johnson February 22, 1834 – April 22, 1869 no spouse died from suicide
Andrew Johnson Jr.
nickname: Frank
August 5, 1852 – March 12, 1879 Bessie May Kumbaugh

Ulysses and Julia Grant[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Frederick Grant Frederick Dent Grant May 30, 1850 – April 12, 1912 Ida Marie Honoré Father of:
Buck Grant Ulysses S. Grant Jr.
nickname: Buck
July 22, 1852 – September 25, 1929 Frances Josephine Chaffee Father of 5 children, including Ulysses Simpson Grant IV (1893 – 1977)
America Workman Will no children
Nellie Grant Ellen Wrenshall Grant
nickname: Nellie
July 4, 1855 – August 30, 1922 Algernon Charles Frederick Sartoris Mother of:
  • Grant Grenville Edward Sartoris (1875 – 1876)
  • Algernon Edward Sartoris (1877 – 1907)
  • Vivien May Sartoris (1879 – 1933)
  • Rosemary Alice Sartoris (1880 – 1914)
Frank Hatch Jones
Jesse Root Grant Jesse Root Grant II February 6, 1858 – June 8, 1934 Elizabeth Chapman Father of two, including Chapman Grant (1887 – 1983)
Lillian Burns

Rutherford and Lucy Hayes[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Sardis Birchard Austin Hayes November 4, 1853 – January 24, 1926 Mary Nancy Sherman
Webb Hayes James Webb Cook Hayes
nickname: Webb
March 20, 1856 – July 26, 1934 Mary Otis Brinkerhoff Miller
Rutherford Platt Hayes Rutherford Platt Hayes June 24, 1858 – July 31, 1937 Lucy Hayes Platt
Joseph Thompson Hayes
nickname: Jody
December 21, 1861 – June 24, 1863 no spouse died of dysentery
George Crook Hayes September 29, 1864 – May 4, 1866 died of scarlet fever
Frances Hayes
nickname: Fanny
September 2, 1867 – March 18, 1950 Harry Eaton Smith
Scott Russell Hayes February 8, 1871 – May 6, 1923 Maude Anderson
Manning Force Hayes August 1, 1873 – August 28, 1874[34] no spouse died in infancy

James and Lucretia Garfield[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Eliza Arabella Garfield
nickname: Trot
July 3, 1860 – December 3, 1863 no spouse died of diphtheria[35]
Hal Garfield Harry Augustus Garfield
nickname: Hal
October 11, 1863 – December 12, 1942 Belle Hartford Mason 4 children
James Garfield James Rudolph Garfield October 17, 1865 – March 24, 1950 Helen Newell He was Secretary of the Interior during Theodore Roosevelt's administration.
Father of 4 children, including:
  • John Newell Garfield (1892 – 1931)
  • Newell Garfield (1895 – 1975)
  • Rudolph Hills Garfield (1899 – 1946)
Mollie, James, Hal, Irvin, and Abram Garfield Mary Garfield
nickname: Mollie
January 16, 1867 – December 30, 1947 Joseph Stanley Brown
Irvin McDowell Garfield August 3, 1870 – July 18, 1951 Susan Emmons
Abram Garfield November 21, 1872 – October 16, 1958 Sarah Granger Williams
Helen Grannis Matthews
Edward Garfield December 25, 1874 – October 25, 1876 no spouse died of whooping cough

Chester and Ellen Arthur[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
William Lewis Arthur December 10, 1860 – July 7, 1863 no spouse died of "convulsions"
Chester Alan Arthur II Chester Alan Arthur II
nickname: Alan
July 25, 1864 – July 18, 1937 Myra Townsend Father of Chester Alan "Gavin" Arthur III (1901 – 1972)
Rowena Graves
Ellen Hansbrough Herndon Arthur
nickname: Nell
November 21, 1871 – September 6, 1915 Charles Pinkerton

Grover Cleveland and Maria Halpin[edit]

See also section on Grover and Frances Cleveland
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Oscar Folsom Cleveland September 14, 1874 – March 9, 1947[36] unknown name

(married for ten years)[37]

Illegitimate. Cleveland made payments to Maria Halpin after the boy was born.[38]

Grover Cleveland acknowledged possibility he was Oscar Folsom Cleveland's father.[38]
During the 1884 presidential race the controversy prompted Cleveland's opponents to adopt the chant, "Ma, ma, where's my pa?"[39][40]
The child was adopted as "James E. King Jr" into the family of Dr. James King.[37][40][41]

Benjamin Harrison[edit]

with Caroline Harrison[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Russell Benjamin Harrison August 12, 1854 – December 13, 1936 May Angeline Saunders born Russell Farnum Lord Harrison

Father of 2, including William Henry Harrison III (1896 – 1990)

Mamie McKee Mary Scott Harrison
nickname: Mamie
April 3, 1858 – October 28, 1930 James Robert McKee served as acting First Lady

Mother of 2

unnamed daughter June 13, 1861 no spouse died in infancy

with Mary Harrison[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Harrison Elizabeth Harrison Walker February 21, 1897 – December 25, 1955 James Blaine Walker 1 daughter Jane

Grover and Frances Cleveland[edit]

See also section on Grover Cleveland and Maria Halpin
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Ruth Cleveland Ruth Cleveland
nickname: Baby Ruth
October 3, 1891 – January 7, 1904 no spouse died of diphtheria
Esther Cleveland Esther Cleveland September 9, 1893 – June 25, 1980 William Sydney Bence Bosanquet First presidential child to be born in the White House.
Mother of 2 children, including Philippa Foot, née Bosanquet (1920 – 2010)
Marion Cleveland July 7, 1895 – March 10, 1977 William Stanley Dell
John Harlan Amen
Richard Folsom Cleveland
nickname: Dick
October 28, 1897 – January 10, 1974 Ellen Douglas Gailor 3 children
Jessie Maxwell Black 3 children
Francis Grover Cleveland June 18, 1903 – November 8, 1995 Alice Erdman One daughter Marion (1925 – 2014)

William and Ida McKinley[edit]

Child Lifetime Notes
Katie McKinley Katherine McKinley
nickname: Katie
December 25, 1871 – June 25, 1875 died of typhoid fever
Ida McKinley April 1 – August 22, 1873 died in infancy

20th century[edit]

Theodore Roosevelt[edit]

with Alice Roosevelt[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Alice Roosevelt Alice Lee Roosevelt
nickname: Lee
February 12, 1884 – February 20, 1980 Nicholas Longworth IV Mother of Paulina Longworth (1925 – 1957)[42]

with Edith Roosevelt[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Ted Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
nickname: Ted
September 13, 1887 – July 12, 1944 Eleanor Butler Alexander Governor General of the Philippines and Governor of Puerto Rico.
Father of:
Kermit Roosevelt Kermit Roosevelt October 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943 Belle Wyatt Willard[42] Father of 4, including:
Ethel Roosevelt Ethel Carow Roosevelt August 13, 1891 – December 10, 1977 Richard Derby Mother of:
Archie Roosevelt Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt
nickname: Archie
April 10, 1894 – October 13, 1979 Grace Lockwood Father of 4, including:
Quentin Roosevelt Quentin Roosevelt
nickname: Quentyquee or Quinikins
November 19, 1897 – July 14, 1918 no spouse died in combat in World War I

William and Helen Taft[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Robert Taft Robert Alphonso Taft September 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953 Martha Wheaton Bowers US senator and Majority Leader (1953)
Father of:
Helen Taft with her father Helen Herron Taft
nickname: Helene
August 1, 1891 – February 21, 1987 Frederick Johnson Manning Mother of:
  • Helen Taft Manning (1921 – 2013)
  • Caroline Manning (1925 – 2020)
Charles Taft with his father Charles Phelps Taft II
nickname: Charlie
September 20, 1897 – June 24, 1983 Eleanor Kellogg Chase Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio
Father of:
  • Eleanor Kellogg Taft (1918 – 2004)
  • Sylvia Howard Taft (1920 – 2008)
  • Seth Chase Taft (1922 – 2013)
  • Lucia Chase Taft (1924 – 1955)
  • Cynthia Herron Taft (1928 – 2013)
  • Rosalyn Rawson Taft (1930 – 1941)
  • Peter Rawson Taft III

Woodrow and Ellen Wilson[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Margaret Wilson Margaret Woodrow Wilson
nickname: Nistha
April 16, 1886 – February 12, 1944 no spouse Served as acting First Lady for a brief period
Jessie Wilson Jessie Woodrow Wilson August 28, 1887 – January 15, 1933 Francis Bowes Sayre Sr. Mother of:
Eleanor Wilson Eleanor Randolph Wilson October 16, 1889 – April 5, 1967 William Gibbs McAdoo Mother of:
  • Ellen Wilson McAdoo (1915 – 1946)
  • Mary Faith McAdoo (1920 – 1988)

Warren G. Harding[edit]

with Florence Harding[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Marshall Eugene DeWolfe
nickname: Pete
September 22, 1880 – January 1, 1915 Esther Naomi Neely stepson from Florence's first marriage, to Henry Athenton DeWolfe

with Nan Britton[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Ann Britton
nickname: Emma or Ann
October 22, 1919 – November 17, 2005 Henry Edward Blaesing Illegitimate daughter of Warren G. Harding, proven by DNA testing in 2015[43]

Calvin and Grace Coolidge[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Coolidge John Calvin Coolidge September 7, 1906 – May 31, 2000 Florence Trumbull Father of:
  • Cynthia Coolidge Jeter (1933 – 1989)
  • Lydia Coolidge Sayles (1939 – 2001)
Calvin Coolidge Calvin Coolidge Jr. April 13, 1908 – July 7, 1924 no spouse died of blood poisoning

Herbert and Lou Hoover[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Herbert Hoover Jr.jpg Herbert Clark Hoover Jr.                     August 4, 1903 – July 9, 1969 Margaret Ava Watson Served as Under Secretary of State (October 4, 1954 – February 5, 1957) in the Eisenhower Administration.

Variously named as "Herbert Hoover, Jr.,"[44] "Herbert Charles Hoover,"[45] and "Herbert Clark Hoover."[46]

Father of:

  • Margaret Ann Hoover (1926 – 2011)
  • Herbert "Pete" Hoover III (1927 – 2010)
  • Joan Leslie Hoover (1930 – 2002)
Allan Hoover November 1930.jpg Allan Henry Hoover July 17, 1907 – November 4, 1993 Margaret Coberly Father of:
  • Allan Henry Hoover Jr. (1938 – 2013)
  • Andrew Hoover (b. 1940)
  • Lou Henry Hoover (1943 – 2012)

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Anna Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt May 3, 1906 – December 1, 1975 Curtis Bean Dall Mother of:
Clarence John Boettiger Mother of John Roosevelt Boettiger (b. 1939)[42]
James Addison Halsted
James Roosevelt James Roosevelt
nickname: Jimmy
December 23, 1907 – August 13, 1991 Betsey Maria Cushing[42] Father of 2 children, including:
Romelle Theresa Schneider Father of 3 children, including:
Gladys Irene Owens 1 adopted child
Mary Lena Winskill 1 child
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (I) March 18, 1909 – November 8, 1909 no spouse died as an infant
Elliott Roosevelt Elliott Roosevelt September 23, 1910 – October 27, 1990 Elizabeth Browning Donner Father of William Donner Roosevelt (1932 – 2003)[42]
Ruth Josephine Googins Father of:
  • Ruth Chandler Roosevelt (Lindsley) (1934 – 2018)[42]
  • Elliott "Tony" Roosevelt Jr. (b. 1936)[42]
  • David Boynton Roosevelt (b. 1942)[42]
Faye Margaret Emerson
Minnewa Bell
Patricia Peabody 1 child, adopted 4 stepchildren
Franklin Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (II) August 17, 1914 – August 17, 1988 Ethel du Pont Father of:
Suzanne Perrin Father of:
  • Nancy Suzanne Roosevelt (b. 1952)[42]
  • Laura Delano Roosevelt (b. 1959)[42]
Felicia Schiff Warburg
Patricia Luisa Oakes Father of:
  • John Alexander Roosevelt (b. 1977)[42]
Linda McKay Stevenson
John Roosevelt John Aspinwall Roosevelt II March 13, 1916 – April 27, 1981 Anne Lindsay Clark Father of:
  • Haven Clark Roosevelt[42]
  • Anne Sturgis "Nina" Roosevelt (b. 1942)[42]
  • Sara Delano "Sally" Roosevelt (1946 – 1960)[42]
  • Joan Lindsay Roosevelt (1952 – 1997)[42]
Irene Elder Boyd

Harry and Bess Truman[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Note Place of Birth
Margaret Truman Mary Margaret Truman February 17, 1924 – January 29, 2008 Elbert Clifton Daniel Jr. Mother of:
  • Clifton Truman Daniel (b. 1957)
  • William Wallace Daniel (1959 – 2000)
  • Harrison Gates Daniel (b. 1963)
  • Thomas Washington Daniel (b. 1966)
Independence, Missouri

Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Doud Eisenhower Doud Dwight Eisenhower
nickname: Icky
September 24, 1917 – January 2, 1921 no spouse died of scarlet fever San Antonio, Texas
John Eisenhower John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower August 3, 1922 – December 21, 2013 Barbara Jean Thompson Served as United States Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971.

Father of:

Denver, Colorado
Joanne Thompson

John and Jackie Kennedy[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Arabella Kennedy Arabella Kennedy August 23, 1956 no spouse stillborn
Caroline Kennedy Caroline Bouvier Kennedy born November 27, 1957 Edwin Arthur Schlossberg Served as United States Ambassador to Japan from 2013 to 2017.

Mother of:

Manhattan, New York
John Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr.
nickname: John-John
November 25, 1960 – July 16, 1999 Carolyn Jeanne Bessette Killed in a plane crash Washington, D.C.
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy Patrick Bouvier Kennedy August 7–9, 1963 no spouse Died after a premature birth Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts

Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Lynda Bird Robb Lynda Bird Johnson[47] born March 19, 1944 Charles Spittal Robb[47] Currently the oldest living presidential child

Mother of:

  • Lucinda Desha Robb (b. 1968)[47]
  • Catherine Lewis Robb (b. 1970)[47]
  • Jennifer Wickliffe Robb (b. 1978)[47]
Washington, D.C.
Luci Johnson Lucy Baines Johnson[47]
nickname: Luci
born July 2, 1947 Patrick John Nugent Mother of:
  • Patrick Lyndon Nugent (b. 1967)
  • Nicole Marie Nugent (b. 1970)
  • Rebekah Johnson Nugent (b. 1974)
  • Claudia Taylor Nugent (b. 1976)
Ian Johnstone Turpin

Richard and Pat Nixon[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Tricia Cox Patricia Nixon
nickname: Tricia
born February 21, 1946 Edward Ridley Finch Cox Mother of Christopher Nixon Cox (b. 1979) Whittier, California
Julie Eisenhower Julie Nixon born July 5, 1948 Dwight David Eisenhower II
son of John Eisenhower and grandson of 34th President Dwight Eisenhower
Mother of: Washington, D.C.

Gerald and Betty Ford[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Michael Ford Michael Gerald Ford born March 14, 1950 Gayle Ann Brumbaugh Father of:
  • Sarah Joyce (b. 1979)
  • Rebekah Elizabeth (b. 1982)
  • Hannah Gayle (b. 1985)
Jack Ford John Gardner Ford
nickname: Jack
born March 16, 1952 Juliann Felando Father of:
  • Christian Gerald (b. 1997)
  • Jonathan August (b. 1999)
Steven Ford Steven Meigs Ford born May 19, 1956 no spouse East Grand Rapids, Michigan
Susan Bales Susan Elizabeth Ford born July 6, 1957 Charles Vance Mother of:
  • Tyne Mary (b. 1980)
  • Heather Elizabeth (b. 1983)
Washington, D.C.
Vaden Bales

Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
John William Carter
nickname: Jack
born July 3, 1947 Juliet Langford Father of: Portsmouth, Virginia
Elizabeth Brasfield
James Earl Carter III James Earl Carter III
nickname: Chip, Jim III, and Jimmy Jr.
born April 12, 1950 Caron Griffin Father of James Earl Carter IV (b. 1977) Honolulu, Hawaii
Ginger Hodges Father of Margaret Alicia Carter
Becky Payne
Donnel Jeffrey Carter
nickname: Jeff
born August 18, 1952 Annette Jene Davis Father of:
  • Joshua Jeffrey Carter
  • Jeremy Davis Carter (1987 – 2015)
  • James Carlton Carter
New London, Connecticut
Amy Carter Amy Lynn Carter born October 19, 1967 James Gregory Wentzel Mother of Hugo James Wentzel (b. 1999) Plains, Georgia

Ronald Reagan[edit]

with Jane Wyman[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Maureen Reagan Maureen Elizabeth Reagan January 4, 1941 – August 8, 2001 John Filippone Los Angeles, California
David Sills
Dennis C. Revell Mother of:
  • Margaret "Rita" Mirembe Revell (adopted)
Michael Reagan Michael Edward Reagan (adopted) born March 18, 1945 Pamela Gail Putnam
Colleen Sterns Father of:
  • Cameron Reagan (b. 1978)
  • Ashley Reagan (b. 1983)
Christine Reagan June 26, 1947 died shortly after birth

with Nancy Reagan[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Place of Birth
Patti Davis Patricia Ann Reagan
nickname: Patti
born October 21, 1952 Paul Grilley Los Angeles, California
Ron Reagan Ronald Prescott Reagan
nickname: Ron
born May 20, 1958 Doria Palmieri

George H. W. and Barbara Bush[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
George Bush George Walker Bush
43rd president (2001 – 2009)
born July 6, 1946 Laura Lane Welch 46th governor of Texas (1995 – 2000) and 43rd president of the United States

see below at George W. and Laura Bush

New Haven, Connecticut
Pauline Robinson Bush
nickname: Robin
December 20, 1949 – October 11, 1953 no spouse died of leukemia Compton, California
John Bush John Ellis Bush
nickname: Jeb
born February 11, 1953 Columba Garnica Gallo 43rd governor of Florida (1999 – 2007)

Father of:

Midland, Texas
Neil Bush Neil Mallon Bush born January 22, 1955 Sharon Smith Father of:
Maria Andrews
Marvin Bush Marvin Pierce Bush born October 22, 1956 Margaret Conway Molster Father of:
  • Marshall Lloyd Bush (b. 1986) (adopted)
  • Charles Walker Bush (b. 1989) (adopted)
Dorothy Koch Dorothy Walker Bush
nickname: Doro
born August 18, 1959 William LeBlond Mother of:
  • Samuel Bush "Sam" LeBlond (b. 1984)
  • Nancy Ellis "Ellie" LeBlond (b. 1986)
Harris County, Texas
Robert P. Koch Mother of:
  • Robert David Koch (b. 1993)
  • Georgia Grace "Gigi" Koch (b. 1996)

Bill and Hillary Clinton[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Chelsea Clinton Chelsea Victoria Clinton born February 27, 1980 Marc Mezvinsky Mother of:
  • Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky (b. 2014)
  • Aidan Clinton Mezvinsky (b. 2016)
  • Jasper Clinton Mezvinsky (b. 2019)
Little Rock, Arkansas

21st century[edit]

George W. and Laura Bush[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Barbara Bush Barbara Pierce Bush born November 25, 1981 Craig Coyne Dallas, Texas
Jenna Hager Jenna Welch Bush Henry Chase Hager Mother of:
  • Margaret Laura Hager (b. 2013)
  • Poppy Louise Hager (b. 2015)
  • Henry "Hal" Harold Hager (b. 2019)

Barack and Michelle Obama[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Malia Obama Malia Ann Obama born July 4, 1998 Unmarried Chicago, Illinois
Sasha Obama Natasha Obama
Nickname: Sasha
born June 10, 2001

Donald Trump[edit]

with Ivana Trump[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Donald Trump Jr.
Donald John Trump Jr.
Nickname: Don
born December 31, 1977 Vanessa Kay Haydon
divorced
Trustee of The Trump Organization along with Eric.

Father of:

  • Kai Madison Trump (b. 2007)
  • Donald John Trump III (b. 2009)
  • Tristan Milos Trump (b. 2011)
  • Spencer Frederick Trump (b. 2012)
  • Chloe Sophia Trump (b. 2014)
Manhattan, New York
Ivanka Trump
Ivana Marie Trump
Nickname: Ivanka
born October 30, 1981 Jared Corey Kushner former Senior Advisor to the President

Mother of:

  • Arabella Rose Kushner (b. 2011)
  • Joseph Frederick Kushner (b. 2013)
  • Theodore James Kushner (b. 2016)
Eric Trump
Eric Frederick Trump born January 6, 1984 Lara Lea Trump Trustee of The Trump Organization along with Don Jr.

Father of:

  • Eric Luke Trump (b. 2017)
  • Carolina Dorothy Trump (b. 2019)

with Marla Maples[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Tiffany Trump
Tiffany Ariana Trump   born October 13, 1993 Unmarried On January 19, 2021, announced her engagement to Michael Boulos.[48] West Palm Beach, Florida

with Melania Trump[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Barron Trump
Barron William Trump born March 20, 2006 Unmarried Youngest living child of any president.[49] Manhattan, New York

Joe Biden[edit]

with Neilia Hunter Biden[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Beau Biden
Joseph Robinette Biden III
Nickname: Beau
February 3, 1969 – May 30, 2015 Hallie Olivere

Attorney General of Delaware (2007 – 2015)

Father of:

  • Natalie Naomi Biden (b. 2004)
  • Robert Hunter Biden II (b. 2006)
Wilmington, Delaware
Hunter Biden
Robert Hunter Biden
Nickname: Hunter
born February 4, 1970 Kathleen Buhle
divorced

Father of:

  • Naomi Biden (b. 1993)
  • Catherine "Finnegan" Biden (b. 2000)
  • Maisy Biden (b. 2001)
Melissa Cohen

Father of:

  • Joseph Robinette "Beau" Biden IV (b. 2020)
Naomi Christina Biden
Nickname: Amy
November 8, 1971 – December 18, 1972 no spouse Died in a car accident with her mother

with Jill Biden[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Ashley Biden
Ashley Blazer Biden born June 8, 1981 Howard David Krein Wilmington, Delaware

Living presidential children[edit]

As of February 2021, 33 presidential children are living. In order of their ages, they are:

  Current First Child

Name Birth President
Lynda Bird Johnson Robb (1944-03-19) March 19, 1944 (age 76) Lyndon B. Johnson
Michael Reagan (1945-03-18) March 18, 1945 (age 75) Ronald Reagan
Tricia Nixon Cox (1946-02-21) February 21, 1946 (age 74) Richard Nixon
George W. Bush (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 74) George H. W. Bush
Luci Baines Johnson (1947-07-02) July 2, 1947 (age 73) Lyndon B. Johnson
Jack Carter (1947-07-03) July 3, 1947 (age 73) Jimmy Carter
Julie Nixon Eisenhower (1948-07-05) July 5, 1948 (age 72) Richard Nixon
Michael Gerald Ford (1950-03-14) March 14, 1950 (age 70) Gerald Ford
James E. Carter III (1950-04-12) April 12, 1950 (age 70) Jimmy Carter
John Gardner Ford (1952-03-16) March 16, 1952 (age 68) Gerald Ford
Jeff Carter (1952-08-18) August 18, 1952 (age 68) Jimmy Carter
Patti Davis (1952-10-21) October 21, 1952 (age 68) Ronald Reagan
Jeb Bush (1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 68) George H. W. Bush
Neil Bush (1955-01-22) January 22, 1955 (age 66)
Steven Ford (1956-05-19) May 19, 1956 (age 64) Gerald Ford
Marvin P. Bush (1956-10-22) October 22, 1956 (age 64) George H. W. Bush
Susan Ford (1957-07-06) July 6, 1957 (age 63) Gerald Ford
Caroline Kennedy (1957-11-27) November 27, 1957 (age 63) John F. Kennedy
Ron Reagan (1958-05-20) May 20, 1958 (age 62) Ronald Reagan
Dorothy Bush Koch (1959-08-18) August 18, 1959 (age 61) George H. W. Bush
Amy Carter (1967-10-19) October 19, 1967 (age 53) Jimmy Carter
Hunter Biden (1970-02-04) February 4, 1970 (age 51) Joe Biden
Donald Trump Jr. (1977-12-31) December 31, 1977 (age 43) Donald Trump
Chelsea Clinton (1980-02-27) February 27, 1980 (age 40) Bill Clinton
Ashley Biden (1981-06-08) June 8, 1981 (age 39) Joe Biden
Ivanka Trump (1981-10-30) October 30, 1981 (age 39) Donald Trump
Barbara Pierce Bush (1981-11-25) November 25, 1981 (age 39) George W. Bush
Jenna Bush Hager
Eric Trump (1984-01-06) January 6, 1984 (age 37) Donald Trump
Tiffany Trump (1993-10-13) October 13, 1993 (age 27)
Malia Obama (1998-07-04) July 4, 1998 (age 22) Barack Obama
Sasha Obama (2001-06-10) June 10, 2001 (age 19)
Barron Trump (2006-03-20) March 20, 2006 (age 14) Donald Trump

The most recent presidential child to die was Beau Biden, the son of Joe Biden, who died on May 30, 2015 at the age of 46, before his father became president. The most recent presidential child to die who lived during their father's presidency was John Eisenhower, the son of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who died on December 21, 2013 at the age of 91. He was also the father-in-law of Julie Nixon Eisenhower, another presidential child.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ James Monroe wrote that his only son died on September 28, 1800. The date of September 28, 1801 that is said to appear on the James Spence Monroe gravestone in the St. John's Episcopal Church (Richmond, Virginia) churchyard is not contemporaneous to the child's death, the location of the actual grave remains unknown.[11]
  2. ^ He had a mistress, Eliza Dolph, who had a child, but it is unclear who the baby's father was.
  3. ^ John Donelson was not related to Rachel Donelson Jackson
  4. ^ Frances Parke Lewis was the step great-granddaughter of George Washington[16]
  5. ^ Clarissa Pike was the daughter of Zebulon Pike, who discovered Pike's Peak
  6. ^ William Henry Harrison Taylor was Anna Tuthill Harrison's cousin
  7. ^ Some sources spell this name as Octavia Pannill Taylor.[28]
  8. ^ Octavia's illness was described by her father as "bilious fever."[29]
  9. ^ Margaret's illness was described by her father as "bilious fever."[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See, e.g., Angelo, First Families.
  2. ^ See, e.g., Zwicker, "America's Royalty", Presidential Studies Quarterly.
  3. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's Family". Jefferson Quotes & Family Letters (Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series). Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  4. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 9780313295355.
  5. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 9780313295355.
  6. ^ a b "Lucy Jefferson (1782 – 1784)". monticello.org. Thomas Jefferson Foundation. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  7. ^ "Dolley Madison". Biography.
  8. ^ Letter, April 10, 1788, James Monroe (Richmond, Virginia) to Thomas Jefferson (Paris)The Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.: "...I think I mention'd to you in my last Mrs. M[onroe] had made us happy by giving us a daughter who is now 16 months old an[d] begins to talk..."
  9. ^ February 3, 1840, The Observer (London, England), page 1: "BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS...DIED... [January] 27th, at her residence in the Champs Elysees, Paris, Mrs. Elizabeth K. M. Hay, relict of the late George Hay, Esq., of Virginia, and daughter of the late James Monroe, Esq., formerly President of the United States of America."
  10. ^ a b Monroe, James. "James Spence Monroe". The Papers of James Monroe. University of Mary Washington. Retrieved February 2, 2018. An unhappy event has occurr'd which has overwhelmed us with grief. At ten last night our beloved babe departed this life after several days sickness
  11. ^ Stuart, Leibiger, ed. (2012). A Companion to James Madison and James Monroe. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118281437.
  12. ^ Roberts, Cokie (2008). Ladies of Liberty: The Women Who Shaped Our Nation. Harper Collins.
  13. ^ "Louisa Catherine Adams: A Father Reflects on the Death of his Infant Daughter". Massachusetts Historical Society. Retrieved February 2, 2018. ...had been unwell for weeks. She experienced extreme discomfort due to teething (in his diary, JQA stated she was cutting seven teeth at the same time), had dysentery, and was feverish.
  14. ^ "First Lady Biography: Louisa Adams". National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  15. ^ "Children | Andrew Jackson's Adopted Family". The Hermitage. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  16. ^ Plater, David D. (2015). The Butlers of Iberville Parish, Louisiana: Dunboyne Plantation in the 1800s. LSU Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 9780807161296.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ [2], firstladies.org
  19. ^ a b c Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. Simon and Schuster. p. 338.
  20. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 338. ISBN 9780743446334.
  21. ^ a b c Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. Simon and Schuster. p. 339.
  22. ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006, p.2
  23. ^ http://www.historybyzim.com/2013/07/john-tyler-most-children/
  24. ^ Forever Free: Abraham Lincoln's Journey to Emancipation at library.buffalo.edu/exhibits/ForeverFree/index.htm
  25. ^ https://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/nation/2020/12/31/america-crossroads-new-beginning/115240662/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ a b c "Margaret Taylor Biography :: National First Ladies' Library". www.firstladies.org.
  27. ^ Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. Simon and Schuster. p. 342.
  28. ^ Bauer, K. Jack (1993). Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwest. LSU Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780807118511.
  29. ^ a b Bauer (August 1993). Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwes. p. 38. ISBN 9780807118511.
  30. ^ Davenport, Don (2001). In Lincoln's Footsteps: A Historical Guide to the Lincoln Sites in Illinois. Big Earth Publishing. p. 210. ISBN 9781931599054.
  31. ^ Emerson, Jason. Giant in the Shadows: The Life of Robert T. Lincoln. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2012, P. 478.
  32. ^ "Abraham Lincoln and Chicago (Abraham Lincoln's Classroom)". The Lincoln Institute. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  33. ^ "The Lincoln Boys". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  34. ^ Gould, Lewis L. (February 4, 2014). American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy. Routledge. ISBN 9781135311483.
  35. ^ Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. Simon and Schuster. p. 348.
  36. ^ https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/48066577/james-e_-king
  37. ^ a b Kendall, Joshua (2016). First Dads: Parenting and Politics from George Washington to Barack Obama. Grand Central Publishing. p. 147. ISBN 9781455551965.
  38. ^ a b Sibley, Katherine A.S., ed. (2016). A Companion to First Ladies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 269. ISBN 9781118732243.
  39. ^ Matthew Yglesias (January 15, 2010). "Historic Sex Scandals". ThinkProgress. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  40. ^ a b Serratore, Angela (September 26, 2013). "President Cleveland's Problem Child". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian/The Smithsonian. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  41. ^ Lachman, Charles (2011). A Secret Life: The Sex, Lies, and Scandals of President Grover Cleveland. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 9781616082758.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Roosevelt Genealogy". fdrlibrary.marist.edu. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  43. ^ "DNA Is Said to Solve a Mystery of Warren Harding's Love Life". The New York Times. August 13, 2015.
  44. ^ Cameron Hawley, "The Honored Name I Bear?", Life, October 11, 1954
  45. ^ "Hoover Genealogy – Herbert Hoover National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)".
  46. ^ "Herbert Clark Hoover (1903 – 1969)". Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Doug Wead (2003). All the Presidents' All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's Families. Simon & Schuster. p. 359. ISBN 978-0743446310.
  48. ^ Rose Minutaglio. January 19, 2021. "Inside Tiffany Trump's Relationship with Fiancé Michael Boulos" Town & Country. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  49. ^ Haberman, Maggie (November 20, 2016). "Melania and Barron Trump Won't Immediately Move to White House". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  • Bonnie Angelo, First Families: The Impact of the White House on Their Lives, ISBN 0-06-056356-7
  • William A. Degregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, Wings Books, 1991
  • Doug Wead, All the President's Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families, Atria Books, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-7434-4631-3

Further reading[edit]

  • Larry D. Underwood. All the President's Children, Dageford Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-886225-85-0 (a children's book)
  • Quinn-Musgrove, Sandra L. and Kanter, Sanford, America's Royalty: All the President's Children, Olympic Marketing, ISBN 0-313-23645-3