List of largest cities

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Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used. The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities may be classified using the same criteria.[1] Cities may be defined by the extent of their urban area, the metropolitan region, and the city proper.[1]

Common methods for defining the boundaries of a city[edit]

Urban areas[edit]

A city can be defined as a conditionally contiguous urban area, without regard to territorial or other boundaries inside an urban area. UNICEF[1] defines urban area as follows:

The definition of "urban" varies from country to country, and, with periodic reclassification, can also vary within one country over time, making direct comparisons difficult. An urban area can be defined by one or more of the following: administrative criteria or political boundaries (e.g., area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee), a threshold population size (where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000), population density, economic function (e.g., where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or where there is surplus employment) or the presence of urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage).

Metropolitan area[edit]

A city can be defined by the habits of its demographic population, as by metropolitan area, labour market area, or similar in a metropolitan area. UNICEF[1] defines metropolitan area as follows:

A formal local government area comprising the urban area as a whole and its primary commuter areas, typically formed around a city with a large concentration of people (i.e., a population of at least 100,000). In addition to the city proper, a metropolitan area includes both the surrounding territory with urban levels of residential density and some additional lower-density areas that are adjacent to and linked to the city (e.g., through frequent transport, road linkages or commuting facilities).

City proper (administrative)[edit]

A city can be defined by its administrative boundaries (city proper). World Urbanization Prospects, a UN publication, defines population of a city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority." UNICEF[1] defines city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city, e.g., Washington, D.C.". A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government.[2][3][4] Cities proper and their boundaries and population data may not include suburbs.[5]

The use of city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives.[5] Because of this definition, the city proper population figure may differ greatly with the urban area population figure, as many cities are amalgamations of smaller cities (Australia), and conversely, many Chinese cities govern territories that extend well beyond the traditional "city proper" into suburban and rural areas.[6]

List[edit]

City Nation Image Population
City proper Urban area[7] Metropolitan area
Shanghai  China PudongSkyline-pjt (cropped).jpg 24,256,800[8] 23,416,000[a] 34,750,000[9]
Karachi  Pakistan KHI Skyline.jpg 24,500,000[10] 25,400,000[11] 25,400,000
Beijing  China View of Beijing.jpg 21,516,000[12] 21,009,000 21,148,000[13]
São Paulo  Brazil Ponte estaiada Octavio Frias - Sao Paulo.jpg 11,895,893[14] 20,365,000 36,842,102[15]
Dhaka  Bangladesh Dhaka-skyline-aymash.jpg 16,970,105[16] 15,669,000 18,305,671[17][not in citation given]
Delhi  India LotusDelhi.jpg 16,787,941[18] 24,998,000 21,753,486[19]
Lagos  Nigeria Lagos Island.jpg 16,060,303[note 1] 13,123,000 21,000,000[22]
Istanbul  Turkey Halic.png 14,025,000[23] 13,520,000 14,657,000[23]
Tokyo  Japan Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January (revised).jpg 13,513,734[24] 37,843,000 36,923,000[25]
Mumbai  India Mumbai 03-2016 10 skyline of Lotus Colony.jpg 12,478,447[19] 17,712,000 20,748,395[19]
Moscow  Russia Moscow-City skyline.jpg 12,197,596[26] 16,170,000 16,800,000
Guangzhou  China ZhujiangTown.jpg 13,080,500[27] 44,259,000[28] 20,800,654[29]
Shenzhen  China Shenzhen CBD and River.jpg 10,778,900[30] 12,084,000 10,630,000
Suzhou  China Panmen Scenic Area 1.jpg 10,650,501[31]
Kinshasa  Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa-Gombe, from CCIC.JPG 10,130,000[32] 13,265,000
Cairo  Egypt Kairo 001.jpg 10,230,350[33] 18,290,000 22,439,541
Jakarta  Indonesia Jakarta.jpg 10,075,310[34] 30,539,000 30,075,310[35]
Lahore  Pakistan Kalma Underpass1.jpg 10,052,000 10,355,000
Seoul  Korea, South Seoul view.jpg 9,995,784[36] 12,700,000 25,520,000[37]
Mexico City  Mexico Ciudad.de.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Paseo.Reforma.Skyline.jpg 8,974,724[38] 20,063,000 21,178,959[39]
Lima  Peru City of Lima, Peru.jpg 8,852,000[40] 10,750,000 9,886,647[41]
London  United Kingdom Canary Wharf Skyline 2, London UK - Oct 2012.jpg 8,673,713[42] 13,879,757 9,787,426[43]
New York City  United States LowerManhattanSept2013.png 8,550,405[44] 20,182,305 23,723,696[45]
Bengaluru  India UB City.jpg 8,425,970[19] 9,807,000 8,728,906[19]
Bangkok  Thailand The Baiyoke Tower II in Bangkok, Thailand.jpg 8,280,925[46] 14,998,000 8,305,218[47]
Dongguan  China Dongguan -03.jpg 8,220,207[48]
Chongqing  China Chongqing, China.jpg 8,189,800[b] 18,384,100[50]
Nanjing  China Nanjingpanorama001.jpg 8,187,828[51]
Tehran  Iran North Tehran Towers.jpg 8,154,051[52] 13,532,000 14,595,904[53]
Shenyang  China Shenyang Qingnian Street.JPG 8,106,171[54]
Bogotá  Colombia Centro-Internacional-Bogotá.jpg 7,878,783 [55] 9,800,000[56][57] 9,520,000 [7]
Ho Chi Minh City  Vietnam Một khúc sông Sài Gòn.JPG 7,681,700[58]
Hong Kong  Hong Kong Hong Kong view from The Peak 01.jpg 7,298,600[59] 7,331,699[60]
Baghdad  Iraq Haifa street, as seen from the medical city hospital across the tigres.jpg 7,180,889[61]
Chennai  India Chennai India.jpg 7,088,000[62] 9,373,521[19]
Changsha  China The Huángxīng Lù Commercial Pedestrian Street in Changsha.jpg 7,044,118
Wuhan  China WuhanSkyline.jpg 6,886,253[63]
Tianjin  China 炫彩津门99海河夜景.jpg 6,859,779[64] 10,920,000
Hyderabad  India MindSpace campus in Hyderabad, India.jpg 6,809,970[19] 7,749,334[19]
Hanoi  Vietnam Hanoi Cityscape.jpg 6,844,100[58]
Faisalabad  Pakistan Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem.jpg 6,480,765[65] 3,675,000
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil Vista aérea Centro do Rio de Janeiro RJ.jpg 6,429,923[66] 12,727,000 13,973,505[14]
Foshan  China Downtown of Guicheng.jpg 6,151,622[67][68]
Zunyi  China Zunyi.JPG 6,127,009
Santiago  Chile Santiago de Chile.jpg 5,743,719[69] 6,683,852[70]
Riyadh  Saudi Arabia Riyadh 1337.jpg 5,676,621[71]
Ahmedabad  India Amdavad Aerial.jpg 5,570,585[19] 6,352,254[19]
Singapore  Singapore Singapore CBD skyline from Esplanade at dusk.jpg 5,535,000[72]
Shantou  China China-shantou03.jpg 5,391,028[73]
Ankara  Turkey Ankara and mosque wza.jpg 5,271,000[23] 4,585,000[23] 4,919,000[23]
Yangon  Myanmar Downtown Yangon (2006).jpg 5,214,000[74]
Saint Petersburg  Russia Petersburg-square.jpg 5,191,690[75] 5,900,000 6,200,000
Sydney  Australia Sydney CBD at night.jpg 4,920,970[76]
Abidjan  Ivory Coast Plateau Centre-est.jpg 4,765,000[77]
Chengdu  China Jiuyanqiao.jpg 4,741,929[78] 10,376,000
Alexandria  Egypt Alexandria - Egypt.jpg 4,616,625[79]
Melbourne  Australia Melbourne skyline.jpg 4,529,500[76]
Kolkata  India Sheetalnathji Jain Temple 03.jpg 4,486,679[19] 14,667,000 14,617,882[19]
Xi'an  China 1 xian china wild goose pagoda view.JPG 4,467,837[80]
Surat  India GauravPath1.jpg 4,462,002[19]
Johannesburg  South Africa Johannesburg CBD.jpg 4,434,827[81]
Dar es Salaam  Tanzania Dar es Salaam aerial.jpg 4,364,541[82]
Harbin  China Kitayskaya Street.jpg 4,280,701[83][84]
Giza  Egypt Egipt 383.jpg 4,239,988[85]
İzmir  Turkey View of Konaj Square.jpg 4,168,000[23] 3,019,000[23] 3,575,000[23]
Zhengzhou  China Hnyszx.png 4,122,087[86]
New Taipei City  Taiwan Roctpchall.jpg 3,954,929[87]
Los Angeles  United States LA Skyline Mountains2.jpg 3,884,307[88] 15,058,000 13,262,220[45]
Cape Town  South Africa Central Cape Town.jpg 3,740,026[81]
Yokohama  Japan Minato Mirai In Blue.jpg 3,726,167[24]
Hangzhou  China Hangzhou-yellow-dragon-stad.jpg 3,560,391[89]
Xiamen  China View of Urban Area of Amoy from Mount Riguangyan.jpg 3,531,347[90]
Quanzhou  China Lingshan Islamic Cemetery - city view - DSCF8486.JPG 3,520,846[91]
Berlin  Germany PotsdamerPlatz Vogelperspektive 2004 1.jpg 3,517,424[92] 5,871,022
Busan  Korea, South August Afternoon in Haeundae 2.jpg 3,510,833[37]
Rawalpindi  Pakistan Rohtas Fort 8.jpg 3,510,000[citation needed]
Guayaquil  Ecuador Malecón 2000 Ecuador326.JPG 3,500,000[citation needed] 5,000,000
Jeddah  Saudi Arabia Jeddeh4.jpg 3,456,259[93]
Durban  South Africa VWestDurban.jpg 3,442,361[81]
Hyderabad  Pakistan Navalrai Market Clock Tower view 2.JPG 3,429,471[94]
Kabul  Afghanistan Khair Khana in 2012.jpg 3,414,100[95]
Casablanca  Morocco CasablancaFAR.jpg 3,359,818[96]
Hefei  China Hefei Street Scene.jpg 3,352,076[97]
Pyongyang  Korea, North 0322 Pyongyang Turm der Juche Idee Aussicht.jpg 3,255,388[98]
Madrid  Spain Gran Vía (Madrid) 1.jpg 3,207,247[99] 6,378,297[43]
Peshawar  Pakistan University of Peshawar.jpg 3,201,000[citation needed]
Ekurhuleni  South Africa Germiston CBD.jpg 3,178,470[81]
Nairobi  Kenya Nairobi view 1 (949939763).jpg 3,138,369[100]
Zhongshan  China Zhongshan City -02.jpg 3,121,275[101]
Multan  Pakistan Yaadgaar-E-Shauhda Multan Cantt.jpg 3,117,000[102]
Pune  India AmonoraTownCentre.jpg 3,115,431[19]
Addis Ababa  Ethiopia Aerials Ethiopia 2009-08-27 15-26-13.JPG 3,103,673[103] 4,567,857 3,384,569
Jaipur  India World Trade Park Jaipur in 2012.jpg 3,073,350[19]
Buenos Aires  Argentina Banco de la Nación Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2014-11-20 WTourAR AA 03.jpg 3,054,300[104] 14,122,000 13,074,000[105]
Lucknow  India Night View of the Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow.jpg 3,001,475[19] 6,500,000[19]
Wenzhou  China Vue générale de Wenzhou.JPG 3,039,439[106]
Incheon  Korea, South Songdo Central.jpg 2,978,367[107]
Quezon City  Philippines PIC TEMP GEO 100827 0 (149).JPG 2,936,116[108][c]
Kyiv  Ukraine View to Kiev.jpg 2,908,703 [109] 3,375,000[110]
Salvador  Brazil Avtancredoneves23012011.JPG 2,902,927[111] 3,919,864[112]
Rome  Italy Le dôme de Saint Pierre vu depuis la villa Médicis (Rome) (5841266833).jpg 2,869,461[113] 4,321,244[d][114]
Luanda  Angola Avenida Amilcar Cabral Luanda March 2013 03.JPG 2,825,311 6,542,944[115]
Kaohsiung  Taiwan Ddm 2004 027 Kaohsiung Harbor.jpg 2,778,918[116] 2,540,000
Surabaya  Indonesia Surabaya skyline.jpg 2,765,487[117] 7,302,283
Taichung  Taiwan Taichung skyline on a clear day.JPG 2,752,413[118] 2,520,000[119]
Taipei  Taiwan Taipei Rushhour birdseye.JPG 2,704,974 7,045,488[120]
Gujranwala  Pakistan PSX 20140925 153352.jpg 2,700,003[121]
Chicago  United States Chicago skyline, viewed from John Hancock Center.jpg 2,695,598[122] 9,156,000 9,554,598[45]
Osaka  Japan Osaka Central Public Hall in 201504 007.JPG 2,691,742[24] 19,341,976[25] 17,444,000
Quito  Ecuador Quitopanoramica.jpg 2,671,191 4,700,000
Dubai  United Arab Emirates Dubai Skyline on 10 January 2008.jpg 2,643,410
Toronto  Canada Toronto skyline and waterfront.jpg 2,615,060 5,583,064 5,132,794
Chittagong  Bangladesh Dhaka-skyline-aymash.jpg 2,581,643[123] 4,009,423
Bandung  Indonesia Bandung city at night (2517163687).jpg 2,575,478 6,965,655
Brasília  Brazil Brasilia aerea setorbancariosul.jpg 2,556,149[124] 3,919,864[125]
Daegu  Korea, South Korea-Daegu-Shincheon River-01.jpg 2,492,994[126]
Houston  United States Houston.jpg 2,489,558[127] 6,490,180 4,944,332
Nagpur  India Nagpur Dawning.jpg 2,405,665[citation needed] 2,497,870
Brisbane  Australia Brisbane storm.jpg 2,308,700
Nagoya  Japan 151023 Nagoya Castle & Skyscrapers in Meieki.jpg 2,296,014[24] 9,107,414[25] 10,177,000
Phnom Penh  Cambodia Phnom Penh sunset.jpg 2,234,566
Kochi  India Kochi City-Vembanad Rail Bridge at Vallarpadam, is the longest rail bridge in India.jpg 2,232,456 4,221,140
Paris  France Seine and Eiffel Tower from Tour Saint Jacques 2013-08.JPG 2,229,621 10,601,122
Medan  Indonesia Medanskyline2013.jpg 2,097,610 4,103,696
Perth  Australia Perth CBD from balcony of Annalakshmi Restaurant - Perth.jpg 2,039,200
Minsk  Belarus Belarus-Minsk-Railway Station Square-4.jpg 1,959,781[128]
Sapporo  Japan Sapporo station syuuhenn.JPG 1,918,096[24] 2,584,880
Bucharest  Romania Palatul Regal.jpg 1,883,425 2,272,163[129] 1,931,000[130]
Manila  Philippines Manila by night.jpg 1,780,148[108] 12,877,253[108] 24,123,000
Hamburg  Germany HP L4225.JPG 1,774,242[131] 5,046,182
Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia Petronas Twin Towers and the KL Tower.jpg 1,768,000[132] 7,200,000[133]
Montreal  Canada Montreal 1 db.jpg 1,649,519 4,127,100 3,407,963
Davao City  Philippines DavaoSkyline.jpg 1,632,991[134] 2,516,216[e]
Barcelona  Spain Panoramic view of Barcelona.jpg 1,604,555[135] 5,375,774 4,740,000[136]
Caloocan  Philippines 09083jfLandscape Caloocan Quezon City Barangays EDSA Balintawak LRT Stationfvf 09.jpg 1,583,978[108][f]
Philadelphia  United States Philadelphia from South Street Bridge July 2016 panorama 1.jpg 1,567,442[137] 6,051,170[138] 7,146,706[139]
Phoenix  United States Phoenix.skyline.750pix.jpg 1,563,025[140] 4,574,531 3,629,114
Kobe  Japan Kobe Mosaic06s4s3200.jpg 1,536,499[24][g]
Guadalajara  Mexico Vfoto 27.JPG 1,495,189 4,424,252
Auckland  New Zealand Skyline (7187438034).jpg 1,495,000[141] 1,614,300[142]
Fukuoka  Japan Night view of Fukuoka from Atago jinja.jpg 1,483,052[24] 5,590,378
Kyoto  Japan Sapporo station syuuhenn.JPG 1,474,570[24][h]
Munich  Germany Historische Altstadt Muenchen 01.JPG 1,450,381[143] 2,606,021
Kawasaki  Japan Kawasaki Station East Exit 2.jpg 1,437,266[24]
Milan  Italy 20110724 Milano 5359.jpg 1,359,905[144] 3,206,465[i]
Prague  Czech Republic CharlesBridgeMalaStranaPragueCzechRepublic.jpg 1,324,000[145]
Adelaide  Australia Adelaide city centre at night.jpg 1,316,779
T'Bilisi  Georgia Dzveli Tbilisi, Tbilisi, Georgia - panoramio (4).jpg 1,118,035[146] 1,485,293
Fez  Morocco Vue sur la médina.jpg 1,112,072[147]
Calgary  Canada Calgary Skyline 2015.png 1,096,833[148] 1,214,839 1,095,404
Yerevan  Armenia Mount Ararat and the Yerevan skyline in spring (50mm).jpg 1,060,138[149]
Cologne  Germany 2013-08-10 07-09-10 Ballonfahrt über Köln EH 0578.jpg 1,057,327[150] 3,573,500
  1. ^ Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  2. ^ Sum of the 2014 population estimates for the "urban-function core district" and "urban-function extended district" of Chongqing, which were 3,677,600 and 4,512,200 respectively.[49] See also the next note.
  3. ^ Quezon City and Caloocan City are both under the administration of Metropolitan Manila
  4. ^ Rome and its neighbouring comunes are all under the administration of Metropolitan City of Rome Capital.
  5. ^ Davao City and its neighbouring cities and towns are all under part of Metropolitan Davao.
  6. ^ Quezon City and Caloocan City are both under the administration of Metropolitan Manila
  7. ^ Kyoto and Kobe are both part of the Keihanshin, centered on Osaka.
  8. ^ Kyoto and Kobe are both part of the Keihanshin, centered on Osaka.
  9. ^ Milan and its neighbouring comunes are all under the administration of Metropolitan City of Milan.

Databases of cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lagos consists 16 out of Lagos State's 20 LGA, which excludes: Badagry, Epe, Ibeju-Lekki and Ikorodu.[20][21]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  3. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". Millenniumindicators.un.org. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  4. ^ Demographic Yearbook 2005, Volume 57. United Nations. 2008. p. 241. ISBN 92-1-051099-2. 
  5. ^ a b World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. United Nations. 2004. ISBN 92-1-151396-0. 
  6. ^ Alexander, Ruth (29 January 2012). "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them?". BBC News. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Demographia (January 2015). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (11th ed.). Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  8. ^ 2014年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Shanghai Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Shanghai Bureau of Statistics. 2015-02-28. Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  9. ^ National Development and Reform Commission (PRC)
  10. ^ Amer, Khawaja (10 June 2013). "Population explosion: Put an embargo on industrialisation in Karachi". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  11. ^ Brinkhoff, Thomas. citypopulation.de "The Principal Agglomerations of the World" Check |url= value (help). City Population. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  12. ^ 北京市2014年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Beijing Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Beijing Bureau of Statistics. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  13. ^ (Chinese) 国家统计局北京调查总队, "北京市2013年国民经济和社会发展统计公报", 北京市统计局 2014-02-13
  14. ^ a b "2014 Brazilian Cities Population Estimates" (PDF) (in Portuguese). IBGE. Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  15. ^ "IBGE releases population estimates of municipalities in 2016". IBGE. August 28, 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Population & Housing Census-2011" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. p. 41. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  17. ^ Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics – Community Report
  18. ^ "India: Delhi". citypopulation.de. citypopulation.de. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Census of India. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  20. ^ "Population-Lagos State". Lagos State Government. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  21. ^ "Lagos and Its Potentials for Economic Growth". 2 July 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  22. ^ "Population". Lagos State Government. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Turkish Statistical Institute – Address Based Population Record System, 2015
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i "2015 Population Census". Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c "Table 2.10 Population of Three Major Metropolitan Areas". Statistics Bureau of Japan. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  26. ^ "RUSSIA: Moscow". mos.ru. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  27. ^ "土地面积、人口密度(2008年)". Statistics Bureau of Guangzhou. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  28. ^ "统计年鉴". gzstats.gov.cn. 
  29. ^ 统计年鉴2014 [Statistical Yearbook 2014] (in Chinese
    Guangzhou Cantonese). Statistics Bureau of Guangzhou. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
     
  30. ^ "Shenzhen Statistics". Shenzhen Government Online. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  31. ^ "Suzhou (Statistics 2013)" (PDF). Sztjj.gov.cn. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  32. ^ "DemographiaWorld Urban Areas – 8th Annual Edition" (PDF). Demographia. April 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  33. ^ "Egypt". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  34. ^ "Data Jumlah Penduduk DKI Jakarta (2014)". Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Retrieved 5 December 2015. 
  35. ^ "Data Jumlah Penduduk DKI Jakarta (2014)". Data.jakarta.go.id – Jakarta Open Data. Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Retrieved 5 December 2015. 
  36. ^ "Seoul Statistics.". Seoul Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  37. ^ a b 통계표명 : 주민등록 인구통계 (in Korean). Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  38. ^ "MEXICO: Mexico City (2014)". CityPopulation.De. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  39. ^ "Proyecciones de la Población de las Zonas Metropolitanas, 2010–2030" (in Spanish). CONAPO. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
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