List of oldest continuously inhabited cities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited as a city. The age claims listed are generally disputed. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuous habitation" and historical evidence is often disputed. Caveats (and sources) to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column.


Northern and the Horn[edit]

Name Historical region Present region Continuously inhabited since Notes
Luxor (as Waset, better known by its Greek name Thebes) Ancient Egypt Egypt c. 3200 BC First established as capital of Upper Egypt, Thebes later became the religious capital of the nation until its decline in the Roman period.
Annaba (as Hippo Regius) Phoenicia Algeria c. 1200 BC Founded by the Phoenicians in the 12th century BC.[citation needed]
Tangier Carthage, then Mauretania Tingitana Morocco c. 800 BC Founded by the Carthaginians, later chief city of the Roman Province of Mauretania Tingitana.
Tripoli (as Oea) Libya c. 700 BC Founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians.[1]
Constantine (as Cirta) Algeria c. 600 BC Founded in the 6th century BC, by the Phoenicians.[2][circular reference]
Benghazi (as Euesperides) Cyrenaica Libya c. 525 BC Founded in the 5th century BC, by the Greeks.[3]
Axum Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia c. 400 BC Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum.
Berbera Bilad al-Barbar Somaliland c. 400 BC The city was described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which was written by a Greek merchant in the 1st century CE.
Mogadishu Bilad al-Barbar Somalia c. 200 BC Successor of the ancient trading power of Sarapion.
Old Cairo Egypt Egypt c. 100 AD Babylon Fortress moved to its current location in the reign of Emperor Trajan, forming the core of Old or Coptic Cairo.[unreliable source?][4]
Zeila/Avalite Bilad al-Barbar Somaliland c. 100 AD Major trading city in the Horn of Africa.
Kismayo Bilad al-Barbar, after the 13th century part of the Ajuran Empre Somalia c. 300 AD The Kismayo area was originally a small fishing settlement and expanded to a major trading city on the Somali coast.[5]
Alexandria Ancient Egypt Egypt 332 BC Founded by Alexander the Great.[6]
Fes (as Fes-al-Bali) Morocco 789 AD Founded as the new capital of the Idrisid Dynasty.[7]
Oujda Morocco 994 Founded by Ziri bnou Atya.
Marrakesh (Murakuc) Morocco 1070 AD Founded by the Almoravid Dynasty.[unreliable source?][8]


Name Historical region Present region Continuously inhabited since Notes
Benin City Kingdom of Benin Nigeria c. 400 BC[citation needed] City of Benin, the oldest cities in Nigeria.
Ife Osun State Nigeria c. 350 BC Earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.[9]
Jenne-Jeno Mali c. 250 BC One of the oldest known cities in sub-Saharan Africa.[10]
Zanzibar Swahili Coast Tanzania 1st–3rd centuries CE[citation needed] A Greco-Roman text between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς), which is probably Unguja, an island suburb of the city.
Walata Ghana Empire Mauritania 7th–10th centuries A Mande Soninke town founded during the apogee of the Ghana Empire. It would remain a relevant, even dominant, trade town until being supplanted by Timbuktu in the 15th Century.[11]
Sofala Swahili Coast Mozambique c. 700[citation needed] One of the oldest harbours documented in Southern Africa.
Pate Swahili Coast Kenya 8th century[citation needed] According to the Pate Chronicle, the town of Pate was founded by refugees from Oman in the 8th century.
Mombasa Swahili Coast Kenya 900[citation needed] The strategic location of this historical Swahili trading centre has seen it fall under the control of many countries.
Moroni Swahili Coast Comoros 10th century[citation needed] Founded, possibly during the 10th century, as the capital of a sultanate connected commercially to Zanzibar in Tanzania.
Kano Kano State Nigeria 11th century The foundation for the construction of Kano City Walls was laid by Sakri Gijimasu from 1095–1134, and was completed in the middle of the 14th century during the reign of Zamnagawa.[12]
Timbuktu Mali Empire Mali 11th century Settled by Tuareg traders as an outpost, its incorporation into the Mali Empire and Mande, Soninke, and Songhai settlement from the 13th century rapidly developed the town.[13]
Malindi Swahili Coast Kenya 13th–14th centuries[citation needed] Once rivaled only by Mombasa for dominance in this part of East Africa, it was first referenced in writing by Abu al-Fida (1273–1331), a Kurdish geographer and historian.
M'banza-Kongo Kongo Empire Angola c. 1390 Capital of the Kongo Empire, already organized as a city before the arrival of the Portuguese.[citation needed]
Quelimane Swahili Coast Mozambique 1400[citation needed] One of the oldest towns in the region, one tradition says that Vasco da Gama, in 1498, enquired about the name of the place from workers in the fields outside the settlement.
Tanga Swahili Coast Tanzania 1500[citation needed] The earliest documentation about Tanga roots from the Portuguese who established a trading post as part of their East African coastal territory and controlled the region for over 200 years between 1500 and 1700.
Lagos Kingdom of Benin Nigeria 16th century Initially established as a war camp for soldiers from the Kingdom of Benin.[14]
Ouidah Kingdom of Whydah Benin 16th century The primary port of the Kingdom of Whydah, originally called Glehue by the Fon inhabitants. The town was conquered by the Kingdom of Dahomey in the 18th century and eventually exported more than 1 million slaves.[15]
Cape Town Dutch East India Company South Africa 1652 Founded by Dutch settlers from Dutch East India Company and is the oldest city in South Africa.
Kumasi Ashanti Empire Ghana c. 1680[citation needed] Founded as Akan village and capital of the Kumaseman State, later becoming capital of Ashanti Empire.


North America[edit]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Cholula Old Cholula Mexico 2nd century BC Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century. Oldest still-inhabited city in the Americas.
Flores Maya civilisation, then New Spain Guatemala 1st millennium BC[16] Formerly Nojpetén, the capital of the Itza kingdom, it has been occupied continuously since prehispanic times.[17] Earliest archaeological traces date back to 900–600 BCE, with major expansion of the settlement occurring around 250–400 CE.[18] Ethnohistoric documents claim the founding of Nojpetén in the mid-15th century CE.[19]
Acoma Pueblo Puebloan peoples US c. 1144[citation needed] Acoma Pueblo is said to have been founded during the 1200s, but extant buildings from the 1100s and the consensus of Tribal peoples support the 1144 date.
Oraibi, Arizona Puebloan peoples US c. 1150[citation needed]
Tucson Hohokam US c. 1300[20] Hohokam village founded at the base of Sentinel Peak, later Tohono O'odam. Afterwards, became a Spanish presidio.[21]
Mexico City Mexica culture Mexico 1325 Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Name changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas.
Santo Domingo New Spain Dominican Republic 1496 Oldest European settlement in the New World.
San Juan New Spain Puerto Rico 1508 Oldest continuously inhabited city in a US territory.
Nombre de Dios, Colón New Spain Panama 1510 Oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in continental America.
Baracoa New Spain Cuba 1511 Oldest European settlement in Cuba.
Havana New Spain Cuba 1519 Oldest major city in Cuba, established 1515, granted city status in 1592 by Philip II of Spain as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies".
Veracruz New Spain Mexico 1519 Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in the North American continent.
Panama City Cueva Civilisation. After European colonisation: New Spain Panama 1519[22] Oldest European settlement on the Pacific.
Guadalajara New Spain Mexico 1542
Cartago, Costa Rica New Spain Costa Rica 1563 Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Costa Rica.
St. Augustine, Florida New Spain US 1565 Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city of the current 50 U.S. states; oldest city in state of Florida.
Santa Fe, New Mexico New Spain US 1607 Oldest continuously inhabited state or territorial capital in the continental United States.
Quebec City New France Canada 1608 Oldest city in Canada and oldest French-speaking city in the Americas.
Hampton, Virginia Virginia Company US 1610 With Jamestown, Virginia having been abandoned in 1699 the city of Hampton claims to be the oldest continuously occupied English settlement in the United States.
Hopewell, Virginia Virginia Company US 1613 Founded as Bermuda City in 1613 and later known as City Point, Virginia, this location has undergone several name changes but has remained continuously inhabited.
Albany, New York New Netherlands US 1614 Followed by Jersey City, New Jersey (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and did not become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.)
Plymouth, Massachusetts Plymouth Colony US 1620 Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States[23]
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland Colony Canada c. 1630 Some claims[citation needed] to being the oldest city in Canada. Incorporated in 1883; inhabited continuously since sometime after 1630.
Saint John New France Canada 1631 Oldest incorporated city in Canada.
Trois-Rivières New France Canada 1634 Fourth oldest city in Canada.
Montreal New France Canada 1642 Fifth oldest city in Canada.
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan New France US 1668 Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest US city west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Colony US 1681
Natchitoches, Louisiana New France US 1699 Natchitoches was established in 1714 by French explorer Louis Juchereau de St. Denis. It is the oldest permanent European settlement within the borders of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.[24] Natchitoches was founded as a French outpost on the Red River for trade with Spanish-controlled Mexico; French traders settled there as early as 1699.
Detroit, Michigan New France US 1701 First European settlement above tidewater in North America.
Winnipeg British America Canada 1738 Founded as Fort Rouge. Oldest city in the Canadian Prairies.
San Diego New Spain US 1769 Birthplace of California and oldest city on the West Coast of the United States.
Toronto British America Canada 1793 Succeeded the destroyed Fort Rouillé. See also Teiaiagon.
Victoria Colony of Vancouver Island Canada 1843 Oldest city on the West Coast of Canada.

South America[edit]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Quito Quitu culture Ecuador 980 Quito's origins date back to 2000 BCE,[dubious ] when the Quitu tribe occupied the area.
Cusco Inca Empire Peru c. 1100[dubious ] The Killke occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Incas in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, has demonstrated that the Killke culture constructed the fortress about 1100.[25]
Cumaná New Granada Venezuela 1515 Oldest continuously-inhabited, European-established settlement in the continent.
Santa Marta New Granada Colombia 1525 Oldest still-inhabited city founded by Spaniards in Colombia.
São Vicente, São Paulo Governorate General of Brazil Brazil 1532 First Portuguese village in South America.
Piura Peru Peru 1532 Oldest European-founded city in Peru.[26]
Lima Peru Peru 1535 Second-oldest continuously inhabited European-settled capital city in South America. The oldest being Quito.
Cali New Granada Colombia 1536 On 25 July 1536 Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali, first established a few kilometres north of the present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrío.
Buenos Aires Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Argentina 1536 First established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza
Asuncion Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata Paraguay 1537 Juan de Salazar y Espinoza, traversing the Paraguay River on his way from Buenos Aires, stopped briefly at a bay in the left bank to resupply his ships. He found the natives friendly, and decided to found a fort there in August 1537. He named it Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción (Our Lady Saint Mary of the Assumption – the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on August 15).
Santiago Captaincy General of Chile Chile 1541 Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement in Chile.
Salvador Governorate General of Brazil Brazil 1549 First city founded by Portuguese, and first capital of Brazil
Santiago del Estero Río de la Plata Argentina 1553 Oldest continuously inhabited city in Argentina.


Central Asia and South Asia[edit]

Name Historical region Present region Continuously inhabited since Notes
Delhi Indraprastha National Capital Region (India) 700 BC[27]
Bukhara Sogdia Bukhara Region, Uzbekistan c. 500 BC[28]
Varanasi Kashi Uttar Pradesh, India [29] c. 1000 BC
Balkh (as Bactra) Bactria Balkh Province, Afghanistan 1300 BC[citation needed]
Ujjain Malwa Madhya Pradesh, India c. 600 BC.[30] Rose to prominence in c. 600 BC as capital of Avanti.
Vaishali Magadha Bihar, India 500 BC[unreliable source?][31]
Kanchipuram Pallavas Tamil Nadu, India 3rd Century BC Place of all 4 (budha/jain/saiva/vainava) learning and the birthplace of Chanakya
Patna (Patliputra) Haryanka dynasty of Magadha Bihar, India 4th century BC The city of Pataliputra was formed by fortification of a village by Haryanka ruler Ajatashatru, son of Bimbisara.
Anuradhapura Kingdom of Rajarata North Central Province, Sri Lanka 4th century BC[32]
Samarqand Sogdia Samarqand Region, Uzbekistan 800-500 BC [33]
Madurai Pandyan Kingdom Tamil Nadu, India 6th century BC Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BC, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts.[34] The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan Empire.[35]
Chittagong Chattogram Bangladesh 4th century BC
Peshawar Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2nd century BC[36] Ongoing excavations in the Gorkhatri area have uncovered evidence of the earliest building in the city.
Bamyan Bactria Bamyan Province, Afghanistan 1st century AD
Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur Nepal Kathmandu valley, Nepal 2nd century AD The epigraphically attested history of Kathmandu valley begins in the 2nd century.
Dacca Dhaka Bangladesh 7th century AD
Gauḍa West Bengal India 7th century AD
Tiruvannamalai Pallava dynasty or Hoysala Empire Tamil Nadu, India 6th century AD
Cuttack Somavamshi dynasty Odisha, India 989
Lahore Punjab, Pakistan 982 The first document that mentions Lahore by name is the Hudud al-'Alam ("The Regions of the World"), written in 982 CE[37] in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards."[38][39]

East Asia[edit]

1/1000 scale model of Heijō-kyō, held by Nara City Hall
1/1000 scale model of Heian-kyō, held by Kyoto City Heiankyo Sosei-Kan Museum
Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Yanshi, Henan (Erlitou Site) Xia dynasty (Erlitou culture) Henan, China c. 1900 BC[citation needed]
Luoyang (as Xibo, Luoyi, Zhongguo, Henan, Dongdu, Shendu) Shang Dynasty Henan, China c. 1600 BC[citation needed]
Xi'an (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Jingzhao, Daxing) Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi, China c. 1100 BC[citation needed]
Handan Jin Hebei, China c. 1080 BC[citation needed]
Beijing (as Ji, Youzhou, Fanyang, Yanjing, Zhongdu, Dadu) Ji, Yan Beijing, China c. 1045 BC Paleolithic homo sapiens lived in the caves from about 27,000 to 10,000 years ago.[40]
Zibo (as Yingqiu, Linzi, Qiling, Zichuan, Boping) Qi Shandong, China c. 1045 BC[citation needed] The Lord of Qi, Jiang Ziya, set the capital of his manor at Yingqiu(营丘), which is today's Linzi District.
Jingzhou (as Jinan, Yingdu, Jiangling, Jingsha, Nanjun) Chu Hubei, China c. 689 BC[citation needed]
Hefei (as Luyi, Ruyin, Luzhou, Hezhou, Lujiang) Zhou Dynasty Anhui, China c. 650 BC The Viscount of Lu was asked to set the capital of his manor at Luyi(庐邑), which is in the north of today's downtown Hefei.
Suzhou (as Gusu, Wu, Pingjiang) Wu Jiangsu, China 514 BC
Taiyuan (as Jinyang) Jin Shanxi, China c. 497 BC
Nanjing (as Yecheng, Moling, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling, Yingtian, Jiangning) Wu Jiangsu, China c. 495 BC Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area.
Chengdu Shu Sichuan, China c. 400 BC The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian.
Changsha (as Linxiang, Xiangzhou, Tanzhou, Tianlin) Chu Hunan, China c. 365 BC
Kaifeng (as Daliang, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing) Wei Henan, China c. 364 BC The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁)as its capital in this area.
Liaoyang (as Xiangping, Changping, Liaodong, Pingzhou, Liaozhou, Dongdu, Dongjing) Yan Liaoning, China c. 279 BC
Guangzhou (as Panyu) Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China 214 BC[citation needed]
Hangzhou (as Lin'an, Yuhang, Qiantang) Qin Dynasty Zhejiang, China c. 200 BC The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty.
Pyeongyang (as Wanggeom-seong) Gojoseon North Korea 194 BC Built as the capital city of Gojoseon in 194 BC.
Gyeongju Silla South Korea 57 BC Built as the capital city of Silla in 57 BC.
Seoul (as Wiryeseong) Baekjae South Korea 18 BC Built as the capital city of Baekjae in 18 BC.
Osaka (as Naniwa) Japan Japan c. 400 AD It was inhabited as early at the 6th–5th centuries BC, and became a port city during the Kofun period. It temporarily served as the capital of Japan from 645 to 655.
Nara (as Heijō-kyō) Japan Japan 710 Built as a new capital city in 710.
Kyoto (as Heian-kyō, and sometimes known in the west as Miyako) Japan Japan 794 Shimogamo Shrine was built in the 6th century, but the city was officially founded as Heian-kyō when it became the capital in 794.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Hanoi Âu Lạc Vietnam 257 BC In 257 BC, after defeating the last Hùng king, An Dương Vương merged Văn Lang and Nam Cương in to Âu Lạc and set the capital at Cổ Loa citadel, nowadays Đông Anh district of Hanoi. It was also mentioned as Tống Bình in 454 AD and the Đại La citadel was built in 767 during the reign of Emperor Daizong of Tang. Ly Cong Uan then renamed it Thăng Long in 1010.
Jakarta Tarumanagara Indonesia 397 AD[41] Despite the popular belief that Jakarta (Jayakarta) was founded by Demak Sultanate in 1527 ,[42] Jakarta is the oldest and the biggest city in the South East Asia region. The area of North Jakarta around Tugu area was inhabited far earlier since early 5th century. Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentioned King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.[41]
Palembang Srivijaya Indonesia 683[43] Believed to be the oldest city in the Malay realm, capital of the Srivijaya empire. According to Kedukan Bukit inscription[43] Jayanasa established Srivijaya kingdom in Palembang area.
Luang Prabang Muang Sua Laos 698
Yogyakarta Mataram Kingdom Indonesia 732[44] The historic realm of Mataram of Southern Central Java region, which corresponds to today Yogyakarta city and its surrounding has its root in 8th century Mataram Kingdom. According to Canggal inscription dated 732, the area traditionally known as "Mataram" became the capital of the Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya.[44] The city reestablished again as the capital of Mataram Sultanate in 1587, and Yogyakarta Sultanate in 1755.
Siem Reap Khmer Empire Cambodia 801[45] Capital of the Khmer Empire.
Bagan Pagan Empire Myanmar 849[46]
Magelang Mataram Indonesia 907 Magelang was established on 11 April 907. Magelang was then known as a village called Mantyasih, which is now known as Meteseh.[47]
Hoa Lư Đại Cồ Việt Vietnam 968 After reunifying Vietnam and ending the anarchy of the 12 warlords, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh was crowned Emperor of Đại Cồ Việt and set the capital at Hoa Lư, Ninh Bình. The city lies in a mountainous area and had a defensive position that contributed to the victory of Đại Cồ Việt against the Song dynasty of China.
Bandar Seri Begawan Po-ni and Bruneian Empire Brunei 977[48] Oldest city in Borneo.
Butuan Rajahnate of Butuan Philippines 1001[49][50] Oldest continuously inhabited city in Mindanao.
Bắc Ninh Đại Cồ Việt Vietnam 1009 In 1009, Cổ Pháp village was converted into the city of Thiên Đức, nowadays Bắc Ninh city.
Kediri Kediri Kingdom Indonesia 1042[51] Along with changes in name, it is essentially a union of the two capitals of Panjalu Kingdom and Janggala Kingdom. The settlements are always interspersed along both banks of Brantas River. Administratively, the Government of Indonesia divides Kediri into two political entities, Kediri Regency and the Town of Kediri which is located in the middle of the regency. Nevertheless, archaeological remains exist beyond administrative boundaries and settlements often spread disregarding administrative boundaries between both entities.
Yangon Konbaung Dynasty Myanmar 1043[52] Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century (circa 1028–1043) by the Mon but was renamed to "Yangon" after King Alaungpaya conquered Dagon.
Surabaya Janggala Kingdom Indonesia 1045[53]:147

The port city of Janggala or Hujung Galuh was one of the two Javanese capital city that was formed when Airlangga abdicated his throne in 1045 in favour of his two sons.[53]:147 The Kingdom of Janggala comprised the northeastern part of the Kingdom of Kahuripan. The other Kingdom was Kediri. Derived its name from the words "suro" (shark) and "boyo" (crocodile), two creatures which are in a local myth.[54]

Singapore Kingdom of Singapura Singapore 1170[55]
Singhapala Rajahnate of Cebu Philippines 13th century[56][57] Ancient city founded by Sri Rajahmura Lumaya or Sri Lumay, a half Tamil Chola prince.[58] Now part of Barangay Mabolo in Northern district of Cebu City.[56][57]
Banda Aceh Aceh Sultanate Indonesia 1205

Originally named Kutaraja, which means "City of the King".

Sukhothai Sukhothai Kingdom Thailand 1238
Manila Tondo and Rajahnate of Maynila Philippines 1258[59] A settlement in the Manila area already existed by the year 1258. This settlement was ruled by Rajah Avirjirkaya whom described as a "Majapahit Suzerain". This settlement was attacked by a Bruneian commander named Rajah Ahmad, who defeated Avirjirkaya and established Manila as a "Muslim principality".[59] By 1570, when the Spanish, led by Miguel López de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one Lakan and several Rajahs.
Nam Định Đại Việt Vietnam 1262 In 1262, Tức Mặc village was converted into the city of Thiên Trường, nowadays Nam Định city.
Huế Đại Việt Vietnam 1307 The province of Châu Ô and Châu Lý, which had been ceded to Đại Việt by Champa after as a dowry for the marriage of the Vietnamese princess Huyền Trân and the Cham king Jaya Simhavarman III, were renamed to Châu Thuận and Châu Hoá, which then merged to become Thuận Hoá. The city was then renamed to Phú Xuân and served as the capital city of both Đàng Trong and Tây Sơn territory during the Trịnh-Nguyễn war and the Tây Sơn rebellion. However, it is most famously known for being the capital of the last Vietnamese dynasty, Nguyễn dynasty. After the end of this dynasty, it was renamed to Huế and is a cultural center in central Vietnam.
Ayutthaya Ayutthaya Kingdom Thailand 1351

Derived its name from the holy Hindu city of Ayodhya, it was the capital city of Siam from 1351 until 1767.

Muar Majapahit Malaysia 1361[60]
Phnom Penh Khmer Empire Cambodia 1372[61]
Malacca Malacca Sultanate Malaysia 1396[62]
Hội An Đại Việt Vietnam 1471[63]
Bogor Sunda Kingdom Indonesia 1482

West Asia[edit]

Ruins of ancient city of Damascus
Ruins of ancient city of Damascus
Ruins in Byblos
Ruins in Byblos
Ancient city of Aleppo
Ancient city of Aleppo

Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is vaguely possible but highly problematic to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Damascus, Byblos, Aleppo, Jericho, Sidon and Beirut).

Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.[citation needed]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Damascus Levant Syria late 2nd millennium BC. It is not documented as an important city until the arrival of the Aramaeans.[64][65]
Byblos Levant Lebanon Chalcolithic; 3000 BC[66] Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000 BC[67]), a city since the 3rd millennium BC.[68][66] Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).
Jericho Levant West Bank late 1st millennium BC Traces of habitation from 9000 BC.[69][70] Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.[71]

Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion.[72][73]

Rey Media Iran 3000 BC[74] A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rey (also Ray or Rayy) is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism) as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit.[74]
Beirut Levant Lebanon 3000 BC[75]
Jerusalem (Old City) Levant West Bank c. 18th century BC The Execration Texts (c. 19th century BC), which refer to a city called rwš3lmm, variously transcribed as Rušalimum/Urušalimum/Rôsh-ramen[76][77] and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BC) may be the earliest mention of the city.[78][79] Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BC.[80]
Tyre Levant Lebanon 2750 BC[81]
Jenin Levant West Bank c. 2450 BC[82] Jenin's history goes back to 2450 BC, when it was built by the Canaanites. After 1244, Jenin flourished economically because of its location on the trade route, until a major earthquake completely destroyed the city.[83]
Aleppo Levant Syria 2nd millennium BC
Homs Levant Syria possibly early 3rd century BC May have been founded by Seleucus I Nicator
Erbil Mesopotamia Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq 2300 BC[84] The Citadel of Arbil is a fortified settlement in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. The city corresponds to ancient Arbela. Settlement at Erbil (Kurdish: Hewlêr) can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC, but not urban life until c. 2300.
Kirkuk (as Arrapha) Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq 3000–2200 BC[85]
Ankara Anatolia Central Anatolia, Turkey at least 2000 BC The oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bronze Age.
Jaffa Levant Israel c. 2000 BC Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.[86]
Acre Levant Israel c. 2000 BC There were initial settlements in the Acre area dated around 3000 BC [87].
Sidon Levant Lebanon 2nd millennium BC Sidon becomes a city-state during the 2nd millennium BC.[88]
Hebron Levant West Bank c. 2200 BC "Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously inhabited for nearly 4200 years."[89]Abraham purchased Machpelah (the Cave of the Patriarchs) in Hebron in 2081 BCE.
Gaziantep Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey c. 3650 BC[90] Although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact.[91] Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC.[citation needed]
Eskişehir Anatolia Turkey c. 1000 BC The city was founded by the Phrygians in at least 1000 BC, although it has been estimated to be older than 4,000 years old. Many Phrygian artifacts and sculptures can still be found in the city's archeological museum.
Gaza Levant Gaza Strip c. 1000 BC While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.[92][93]
Hamadan (as Ecbatana) Media Iran c. 800 BC[94] The Capital City of Median Empire was Located there .
Yerevan Urartu Armenia 782 BC Founded as Erebuni. The Shengavit Settlement in the southwestern district of Yerevan was founded in the late 4th millennium BC, during the Calcolithic period.
Istanbul (as Byzantion) Thrace, Anatolia Turkey 685 BC Anatolia; 660 BC Thrace[95] Founded as a colony of Megara. Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC.
Lod Levant Israel 200 AD[96]
Tabriz Caucasus Iran 3rd–7th century AD The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century CE, or later in the 7th century.[97]
Yazd Media Iran 5th century AD[98] It has long been a haven for Zoroastrians.[98]


Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Argos Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Greece continuous habitation as a city uncertain[99] The city has been cycling between village and city status for 7,000 years. Recorded history begins in mid 2nd millennium BC.
Genoa Neolithic Italy 5th millennium BC[100]
Athens Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica, Greece 5th–4th millennia BC[101][102][103] Oldest Recorded history begins at least from 1600 BC[104], making it the oldest European capital city
Chania Crete Crete, Greece c. 1700–1500 BC[105][unreliable source?] Minoan foundation as Kydonia.
Thebes Mycenaean Greece Boeotia, Greece c. 1600–1250 BC[106] Mycenaean foundation.
Larnaca Alashiya Cyprus c. 1400 BC[citation needed] Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony.
Trikala Mycenaean Greece Thessaly, Greece before 1200 BC[citation needed] Founded as Trikke.
Chalcis Mycenaean Greece Greece before 1200 BC[citation needed] Mentioned by Homer.
Lisbon Ulissipo (Phoenician) Portugal c.1200 BC[107] Second-oldest European capital city
Cádiz Carthaginian Iberia Andalusia, Spain 1104 BC[108] Founded around 1104 BC as Gadir or Agadir by Phoenicians from Tyre.
Patras Mycenaean Greece Greece c. 1100 BC[citation needed] Founded by Patreus.
Chios Chios North Aegean, Greece c. 1100 BC[citation needed]
Nicosia Mycenaean Greece Cyprus c. 1050 BC[citation needed] Mycenaean foundation as Ledra. Archaeological evidence of continuous habitation since the beginning of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC.[citation needed]
Zadar Illyricum Croatia c. 1000 BCE[citation needed] Founded by Liburnians. Oldest continuously inhabited city in Croatia. Main Liburnian settlement.
Mtskheta Caucasian Iberia Georgia c. 1000 BC[citation needed] Remains of towns at this location have been dated to earlier than the year 1000 BC, and Mtskheta was capital of the early Georgian Kingdom of Iberia during the 3rd century BC – 5th century CE. It was the site of early Christian activity, and the location where Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia in 337.
Mytilene Lesbos North Aegean, Greece 10th century BC[citation needed]
Vani Colchis Imereti, Georgia before 8th century BC[109][110]
Seville Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain 8th century BC[citation needed] founded as Tartessian Spal.[111]
Málaga Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain 8th century BC[citation needed] founded as Phoenician Malaka.[112][page needed]
Mdina Antiquity Malta Malta 8th century BC[113] founded as Phoenician Melite.
Cagliari Sardinia Sardinia, Italy 8th century BC[citation needed] Founded by Phoenicians from Tyre as Krly, Caralis in Roman times, Calaris in Middle Ages.
Messina (as Zancle) Sicily Sicily, Italy 8th century BC[citation needed] Greek colony
Rome Latium Lazio, Italy 753 BC[citation needed] Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.
Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion) Magna Graecia Calabria, Italy 743 BC[114] Continuous habitation since approximately 1500 BC, as we have notice about the Ausonian-Italic pre-Greek settlement and about the sculptor Léarchos of Reggio (late 15th century BC)[115] and King Iokastos (early 13th century BC).[116]
Palermo (as זִיז, Ziz) Phoenicia Sicily, Italy 734 BC[citation needed] Settlement presence since approximately 8000 BC, as we know through cave drawings in the area now known as Addaura, but continuous documented habitation since the Phoenician times (734 BC is traditionally considered as the founding year).
Syracuse Sicily Sicily, Italy 734 BC[citation needed] A colony of the Greek city of Corinth.
Volterra Tuscany Tuscany, Italy c. 725 BC[citation needed] An Etruscan mining settlement.[117]
Crotone (as Kroton) Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy 710 BC[citation needed] Greek colony.
Taranto (as Taras) Magna Graecia Apulia, Italy 706 BC[citation needed] Founded as the only Spartan colony by the Partheniae, children of unmarried Spartan women and perioikoi, free non-citizen residents of Sparta and her territories.
Corfu, Kerkyra Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece 700 BC[citation needed] A colony of the Greek city of Corinth.
Kerch (as Panticapaeum) pre-Roman Crimea Crimea, Ukraine 7th century BC[citation needed] Greek colony.
Feodosiya (as Theodosia) pre-Roman Crimea Crimea, Ukraine 7th century BC[citation needed] Greek colony.
Istanbul (as Byzantion) Thrace, Anatolia Turkey 685 BC Anatolia; 660 BC Thrace[95] Founded as a colony of Megara; Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC.
Naples Magna Graecia Italy c. 680 BC[118] Actually the date at which an older settlement close by, called Parthenope, was founded by settlers from Cumae. This eventually merged with Neapolis proper, which was founded c. 470 BC.
Ibiza (as Ybsm) Balearic Islands Spain 654 BC[citation needed] Founded by the Phoenicians, according to Diodorus Siculus, book 5, chap. 16. Date consistent with archaeological finds.[119]
Durrës Illyria Albania 627–625 BC[120] Founded as the Greek colony of Epidamnos.
Sozopol Thrace Burgas Province, Bulgaria 610 BC Founded by Miletian colonists around 610 BC, was named Apollonia Pontica in honour of the patron deity of Miletus – Apollo. The Ancient authors identify the philosopher named Anaximander as the founder of the city.
Edessa, Greece Macedonia Greece before the 6th century BC[citation needed] Greek city, capital of the kingdom of Macedon up to the 6th century BC.
Marseille (as Massilia) Gaul France 600 BC[citation needed] A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea.
Kavala Macedonia Greece 6th century BC[citation needed] Greek colony. Founded as Neapolis.
Mangalia Dacia Romania 6th century BC[citation needed] Founded as Callatis.
Constanţa Dacia Romania 6th century BC[citation needed] Founded as Tomis.
Mantua Po Valley Lombardy, Italy 6th century BC[citation needed] Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.
Milan Po Valley, Cisalpine Gaul Lombardy, Italy 6th century BC Founded by the Insubres in the 6th century BC according to Titus Livy. Conquered by the Romans in 222 BC.
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (as Tyras) Bessarabia Ukraine 6th century BC[citation needed]
Kutaisi Colchis Imereti province, Georgia 6th to 4th century BC Archaeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis in the sixth to fifth centuries BC.[121]
Varna Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria 585–570 BC[citation needed] Founded[122] as Odessos by settlers from the Greek city of Miletus.
Sant Martí d'Empúries (as Emporion) Iberia Catalonia, Spain c. 575 BC[citation needed] A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea. Present Sant Martí is on the ancient Palaiopolis of Emporion, in an island next to the coast; in 550 BC, the inhabitants moved to the mainland, creating the Neapolis: Palaiapolis remained as a small neighbourhood.
Lamia Greece before the 5th century BC[citation needed] Greek city. First mentioned 424 BC
Serres Macedonia Greece 5th century BC[citation needed] Greek city. First mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris.
Veria Macedonia Greece c. 432 BC[citation needed] Greek city. First mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC.
Rhodes Rhodes, Aegean Sea Dodecanese, Greece c. 408 BC[citation needed] Greek city.
Plovdiv Thrace Plovdiv Province, Bulgaria 4th century BC[123][124] Site inhabited since Neolithic times. Hypothesized that it was precisely in the 4th Century BC when Philipopolis (Plovdiv) emerged as a city.
Bitola (as Heraclea Lyncestis) Macedonia (ancient kingdom) North Macedonia 4th century BC Founded by Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great
Sofia Moesia Sofia Valley, Bulgaria 4th century BC[citation needed] Celtic foundation as Serdica.[125]
Metz Gaul France 4th century BC[citation needed] Founded as the oppidum of Celtic Mediomatrici. However, human permanent presence has been established in the site since 2500 BC.
Roses (as Rhode) Iberia Catalonia, Spain 4th century BC[citation needed] The exactly origin of the city is unknown, but there are remains of a Greek colony from the 4th century BC, although some historians consider the foundation earlier, at the 8th century BC. However, permanent human presence has been established in the site since 3000 BC as evidenced by the different megalithic monuments surrounding the city.
Qabala (as Kabalaka) Caucasian Albania Azerbaijan 4th century BC[126] Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the Caucasian Albania as early as the 4th century BC.[126]
Shkodra Illyria Albania 4th century BC[127][128] Founded in the 4th century BC as an urban settlement with the name Scodra and fortified in moenia aeacia style,[127] it became the capital of the Illyrian Kingdom under the Ardiaei and has been continuously inhabited ever since.[citation needed]
Stara Zagora Thrace Bulgaria 342 BC[citation needed] It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon[129][130][131][132] although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well. It also has the oldest copper mines in Europe (5th millennium BC)
Thessaloniki Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Greece 315 BC[citation needed] Greek city. Founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.
Berat Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Albania 314 BC[citation needed] Founded[133] by Cassander as Antipatreia.
Barcelona (as Barkeno) Iberia Catalonia, Spain 4th century BC[citation needed] Unknown origin. Several neolithic tombs (5000–4500 BC) and remains from the Iberian period have been found, as well as several drachma coins inscribed with the word "Barkeno". The first archaeological remains of buildings are from the Roman period.
Vukovar Illyria Croatia 300 BC [134] Vučedol culture.
Belgrade Illyria Serbia 279 BC[135] The present day territory of Belgrade continuously inhabited for more than 7000 years. Proto-urban Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. The fortified city of Belgrade founded around 279 BC as Singidunum.
Niš Illyria Serbia 279 BC[citation needed] Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000–2000 BC.
Matera Latium Basilicata, Italy after 251 BC[136] The town of Matera was a founded by the Roman Lucius Caecilius Metellus in 251 BC who called it Matheola.
Cartagena (as Carthago Nova) Iberia Spain 228 BC[citation needed] Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca.
Tarragona (as Tarraco) Iberia Catalonia, Spain 218 BC[citation needed] Roman colony, founded by Gnaeus and Publius Cornelius Scipio.
Stobi/Gradsko Macedonia North Macedonia 217 BC[citation needed] Founded as Stobi by Philip V of Macedon.
Bratislava Pannonia Slovakia 2nd century BC[citation needed] Founded by Celtic Boii tribe. The first written reference to a Slavic settlement dates to 907.
Valencia Iberia Valencia, Spain 138 BC Roman colony founded as Valentia Edetanorum.
Sremska Mitrovica Illyria Serbia 1st century BC[citation needed] Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation.
Smederevo Illyria Serbia 1st century BC[citation needed] Founded as Semendria.
Ptuj Pannonia Slovenia 1st century BC[citation needed] Ptuj is the oldest city in Slovenia. There is evidence that the area was settled in the Stone Age. In the Late Iron Age it was settled by Celts. By the 1st century BC, the settlement was controlled by Ancient Rome.
Évora Lusitania Portugal 53 BC (Roman conquest)[citation needed] Evidence of Lusitanian settlement prior to Roman occupation.
Paris Lutetia France 52 BC[citation needed] Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC.[137] During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine."[138] While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 CE[139][140]
Zürich (Lindenhof) Gaul Switzerland c. 50 BC[citation needed] Lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.
Cologne Germania Inferior Germany 38 BC[citation needed] Founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Germanic tribe, as Oppidum Ubiorum. In 50 CE, the Romans adopted the location as Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium and the city became in 85 CE the capital of the Roman province "Germania Inferior".
Trier Gallia Belgica Germany 30 BC[citation needed] Oldest Roman city in Germany.
Lugo Gallaecia Spain c. 25 BC Lucus Augusti was founded in 25 AD under the order of the emperor Augustus.
Cáceres Lusitania Spain c. 25 BC There have been settlements near Cáceres since prehistoric times. Evidence of this can be found in the caves of Maltravieso and El Conejar. The city was founded by the Romans in 25 BC.
Mérida Lusitania Spain c. 25 BC Emerita Augusta was founded as a Roman colony in 25 AD under the order of the emperor Augustus to serve as a retreat for the veteran soldiers (emeritus) of the legions V Alaudae and X Gemina. The city, one of the most important in Roman Hispania, was endowed with all the comforts of a large Roman city and served as capital of the Roman province of Lusitania since its founding and as the capital of the entire Diocese of Hispania during the fourth century.
Nijmegen Netherlands c. 17 BC[citation needed] Oldest city in the Netherlands.
Augsburg Raetia, Roman Empire Germany 15 BC Third oldest city in Germany after Cologne and Trier. Located in the Swabian region of Bavaria. Founded by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum.
Chur Raetia Prima Grisons, Switzerland 15 BC[citation needed] habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).
Worms Germania Superior Germany 14 BC[citation needed] The name of the city derives from the Latin designation Borbetomagus which is of Celtic origin.
Skopje Macedonia (Roman province) North Macedonia 13–11 BC Founded in the time of Roman Emperor Octavian Augustus as Scupi.
Strasbourg Germania Superior France 12 BC First official mention as the Roman camp of Argentoratum. The area had been populated since the Middle Paleolithic.[141]
Tongeren Germania Inferior Belgium 10 BC[citation needed] Oldest city in Belgium.


Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a city since Notes
Sydney New South Wales Australia 1788 Oldest city in Australia and oldest city in Oceania. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years, in the Upper Paleolithic period.[142][143] However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools found in Sydney's far western suburbs' gravel sediments were dated to be from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would mean that humans could have been in the region earlier than thought.[144][145] The first people to occupy the Sydney region were an Indigenous Australian group called the Eora.[146][147]
Hobart Tasmania Australia 1803 Second-oldest city in Australia. Prior to British settlement, the area had been occupied for at least 8,000 years, but possibly for as long as 35,000 years,[148] by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.[149]
George Town Tasmania Australia 1804 Third oldest city in Australia.
Newcastle New South Wales Australia 1804 Fourth oldest city in Australia.
Launceston Tasmania Australia 1806 Fifth oldest city in Australia.
Kerikeri Northland New Zealand c. 1818 Oldest European-founded settlement in New Zealand.
Bluff Southland New Zealand 1824 Previously known as Campbelltown, the oldest European-founded settlement in the South Island.
Brisbane Queensland Australia 1825 Oldest city in Northern Australia, State Capital.
Albany Western Australia Australia 1827 Oldest city in the West Coast of Australia.
Perth Western Australia Australia 1829 The area had been inhabited by the Whadjuk Noongar people for over 40,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological findings on the Upper Swan River.[150]
Melbourne Victoria Australia 1835 Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was occupied for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years.[151] At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 20,000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes: the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong.[152][153]
Adelaide South Australia Australia 1836 State Capital.
Wellington Wellington Region New Zealand 1839 New Zealand's capital city from 1865 until the present day.
Auckland Auckland Region New Zealand 1840 New Zealand's capital city from 1841–1865.
Darwin Northern Territory Australia 1869 Territory Capital.
Canberra Australian Capital Territory Australia 1913 Capital city of Australia. Artifacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in Canberra dating at around 21,000 years ago.[154]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Anthony R. Birley, Septimus Severus Archived 2016-06-17 at the Wayback Machine Routledge 2002 ISBN 978-1-134-70746-1), p. 2
  2. ^ fr:Constantine (Algérie)#P.C3©riode antique
  3. ^ Economou, Maria (August 1993). "Euesperides: A Devastated Site". Electronic Antiquity: Communicating the Classics. Digital Library and Archives, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 1 (4). Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  4. ^ "Fort Babylon In Cairo". Archived from the original on 2012-11-28. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  5. ^ Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600–1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p. 75.
  6. ^ "Historic cities – Africa". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  7. ^ "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 March 2007
  8. ^ "Embassy of The Kingdom of Morocco in London". Archived from the original on 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  9. ^ "Ife (from ca. 350 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Archived from the original on 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  10. ^ McIntosh, Susan Keech; McIntosh, Roderick J. "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city". Rice University Anthropology. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20.
  11. ^ Cleaveland, Timothy. "Becoming Walāta: A history of Saharan social formation and transformation." (Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 2002)
  12. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Ancient Kano City Walls and Associated Sites – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Archived from the original on 2019-09-13. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  13. ^ Saad, Elias. "Social history of Timbuktu: 1400–1900. The role of Muslim scholars and notables. (Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1980)
  14. ^ Mann, Kristin (2007). Slavery and the Birth of an African City. Indiana University Press.
  15. ^ Anderson, David and Rathbone, Richard. "Africa's Urban Past." Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) pp. 85–87
  16. ^ Gámez, Laura (2007). J.P. Laporte; B. Arroyo; H. Mejía) (eds.). "Salvamento arqueológico en el área central de Petén: Nuevos resultados sobre la conformación y evolución del asentamiento prehispánico en la isla de Flores" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología. XX, 2006: 259–260, 269. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  17. ^ Gámez, Laura (2007). J.P. Laporte; B. Arroyo; H. Mejía (eds.). "Salvamento arqueológico en el área central de Petén: Nuevos resultados sobre la conformación y evolución del asentamiento prehispánico en la isla de Flores" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología. XX: 258–259. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  18. ^ Gámez, Laura (2007). J.P. Laporte; B. Arroyo; H. Mejía) (eds.). "Salvamento arqueológico en el área central de Petén: Nuevos resultados sobre la conformación y evolución del asentamiento prehispánico en la isla de Flores" (PDF). Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología. XX, 2006: 261. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  19. ^ Rice, Prudence M. (2009). "The Kowoj in Geopolitical-Ritual Perspective". In Prudence M. Rice; Don S. Rice (eds.). The Kowoj: identity, migration, and geopolitics in late postclassic Petén, Guatemala. Boulder, Colorado, US: University Press of Colorado. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-87081-930-8. OCLC 225875268.
  20. ^ Thiel, J. Homer. Cultural History of the Tucson Basin and the Project Area. pp. 7–11.
  21. ^ Downum, Charles E. (1993). Between Desert and River. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. pp. 1–30. ISBN 9780816518128.
  22. ^ Arango, J.; Durán, F.; Martín, J.G.; Arroyo, S. (Eds.). Panamá Viejo. De la aldea a la urbe. Patronato Panamá Viejo, Panamá, 2007.
  23. ^ Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is sometimes cited for this, was abandoned due to Indian raiding from 1680 to 1692, and its inhabitants did not succeed in living in the area continuously until after 1692.
  24. ^ "City of Natchitoches". Archived from the original on 2016-01-08. Retrieved 2016-01-16.[verification needed]
  25. ^ Kelly Hearn, "Ancient Temple Discovered Among Inca Ruins" Archived 2017-07-21 at the Wayback Machine, National Geographic News, 31 March 2008, accessed 12 January 2010
  26. ^ Marzal, M. (1996). Historia de la antropología indigenista: México y Perú. Ed. Anthropos, Extremadura
  27. ^ Singh, Upinder (2006). Delhi: Ancient History. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9788187358299.
  28. ^ "Zaman-Baba". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
  29. ^ "4,000-year-old crafts village unearthed near Varanasi". The Hindu. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020. Professor Dubey "said the site gains significance because of its proximity to Varanasi, which is said to be 5,000 years old, though modern scholars believe it to be around 3,000 years old."
  30. ^ Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger, eds. (2012). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 835. ISBN 9781136639791. Archived from the original on 2020-05-17. Retrieved 2016-03-23.
  31. ^ "". Archived from the original on 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  32. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Sacred City of Anuradhapura". Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  33. ^ Vladimir Babak, Demian Vaisman, Aryeh Wasserman, Political organization in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: sources and documents, p.374
  34. ^ Harman, William. P (1992). The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–36. ISBN 978-81-208-0810-2. Archived from the original on 2016-12-29. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  35. ^ Quintanilla, Sonya Rhie (2007). History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura, Ca. 150 BC-100 AD. Concept Publishing Company. p. 2. ISBN 978-90-04-15537-4. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-11.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  36. ^ Newspaper, From the (November 18, 2013). "Ruins of 2,000-year-old city found near Peshawar". DAWN.COM. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  37. ^ unknown author from Jōzjān (1937). Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World: A Persian Geography, 372 A.H. – 982 A.D. Translated by V. Minorsky. London: Oxford University Press.
  38. ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink
  39. ^ "Dawn Pakistan – The 'shroud' over Lahore's antiquity". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  40. ^ "Beijing". UNESCO. 2019-05-17. Archived from the original on 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  41. ^ a b Hellman, Jorgen; Thynell, Marie; Voorst, Roanne van (2018-02-19). Jakarta: Claiming spaces and rights in the city. Routledge. ISBN 9781351620444.
  42. ^ "History of Jakarta". BeritaJakarta. Archived from the original on 2011-08-20.
  43. ^ a b J. G. De Casparis (1978). Indonesian Chronology. BRILL Academic. pp. 15–24. ISBN 978-90-04-05752-4. Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  44. ^ a b Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  45. ^ "Angkor National Museum website". Archived from the original on 2011-09-25. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  46. ^ "The promise—and the pitfalls". The Economist. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  47. ^ According to a local act number 6 (1989)[not specific enough to verify]
  48. ^ History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Past. Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education. 2009. ISBN 978-99917-2-372-3.
  49. ^ "Timeline of history". Archived from the original on 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
  50. ^ Scott, William Prehispanic Source Materials: For the Study of Philippine History, p. 66
  51. ^ Bullough, Nigel (1995). Mujiyono PH (ed.). Historic East Java: Remains in Stone (Indonesian 50th independence day commemorative ed.). Jakarta: ADLine Communications. p. 19.
  52. ^ Founded during the reign of King Pontarika, per Charles James Forbes Smith-Forbes (1882). Legendary History of Burma and Arakan. The Government Press. p. 20. Archived from the original on 2009-02-06. Retrieved 2019-11-16.; the king's reign was 1028 to 1043 per Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. p. 368.
  53. ^ a b Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681. Archived from the original on 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  54. ^ Irwan Rouf & Shenia Ananda (2013-01-01). Rangkuman 100 Cerita Rakyat Indonesia dari Sabang sampai Merauke: Asal Usul Nama Kota Surabaya (in Indonesian). MediaKita. p. 60. ISBN 9786029003826. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  55. ^ Abdul Rahman, Haji Ismail; Abdullah Zakaria, Ghazali; Zulkanain, Abdul Rahman (2011), A New Date on the Establishment of Melaka Malay Sultanate Discovered (PDF), Institut Kajian Sejarah dan Patriotisme ( Institute of Historical Research and Patriotism ), retrieved 2012-11-04[permanent dead link]
  56. ^ a b "The Aginid -". Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  57. ^ a b "Early Cebu History". Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  58. ^ Ouano-Savellon, Romola (11 August 2018). ""Aginid Bayok Sa Atong Tawarik": Archaic Cebuano and Historicity in a Folk Narrative". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 42 (3/4): 189–220. JSTOR 44512020.
  59. ^ a b Henson, Mariano A (1955). The Province of Pampanga and its towns (A.D. 1300–1955) with the genealogy of the rulers of central Luzon. Manila: Villanueva Books.
  60. ^ The story is recorded in JMBRAS magazine, October 1935, Volume XIII Part 2, pp. 15–16.
  61. ^ Peace of Angkor Phnom Penh Archived 2007-04-16 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  62. ^ History for Malaysia (2010). Melaka from the Top. De Witt, Dennis. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  63. ^ Spencer Tucker, "Vietnam", University Press of Kentucky, 1999, ISBN 0-8131-0966-3, p. 22
  64. ^ [1] Archived 2017-10-27 at the Wayback Machine, Ancient City of Damascus – UNESCO
  65. ^ Burns, Ross (2007). Damascus: A History (New ed.). Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-41317-6.
  66. ^ a b Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 1-57607-919-8. Retrieved 2009-07-22. Archaeological excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.
  67. ^ Ciasca, Antonia (2001). "Phoenicia". In Sabatino Moscati (ed.). The Phoenicians. I.B.Tauris. p. 170. ISBN 1-85043-533-2.
  68. ^ Lorenzo Nigro (2007). "Aside the spring: Byblos and Jericho from village to town". In Nigro, Lorenzo (ed.). Byblos and Jericho in the early bronze I : social dynamics and cultural interactions : proceedings of the international workshop held in Rome on March 6th 2007 by Rome "La Sapienza" University. Università di Roma "La Sapienza". p. 35. ISBN 978-88-88438-06-1. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  69. ^ Gates, Charles (2003). "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities". Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 0-415-01895-1. Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Palestine, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East.
  70. ^ Martell, Hazel Mary (2001). "The Fertile Crescent". The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome. Kingfisher Publications. p. 18. ISBN 0-7534-5397-5. People first settled there from around 9000 B.C., and by 8000 B.C., the community was organised enough to build a stone wall to defend the city.
  71. ^ Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4.
  72. ^ Ryan, Donald P. (1999). "Digging up the Bible". The Complete Idiot's Guide to Lost Civilizations. Alpha Books. p. [2]. ISBN 0-02-862954-X. The city was walled during much of its history and the evidence indicates that it was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times.
  73. ^ Kenneth Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Eerdmans 2003), pp. 187
  74. ^ a b "Rayy | ancient city, Iran". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2019-05-08. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  75. ^ "Under Beirut's Rubble, Remnants of 5,000 Years of Civilization". New York Times. 23 February 1997. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  76. ^ Freedman, David Noel (2000-01-01). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–695. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.
  77. ^ Nadav Na'aman, op.cit pp. 178–179.
  78. ^ Vaughn, Andrew G.; Ann E. Killebrew (1 August 2003). "Jerusalem at the Time of the United Monarchy". Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: the First Temple Period. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 32–33. ISBN 1-58983-066-0. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  79. ^ Shalem, Yisrael (3 March 1997). "History of Jerusalem from its Beginning to David". Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University, Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  80. ^ Nadav Naʼaman, Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p. 180.
  81. ^ Аli Кhadra. "Tyre (Sour) City, Lebanon". Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  82. ^ "for about years – Google". Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  83. ^ "for about years – ČÍË Googleţ". Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  84. ^ "Revitalization Project of Erbil Citadel". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
  85. ^ either The destruction of the Kirkuk Castle by the Iraqi regime. Archived 2006-05-04 at the Wayback Machine or History Channel[dead link] for the earlier date
  86. ^ Excavations at Ancient Jaffa (Joppa). Tel Aviv University.
  87. ^ Avraham Negev and Shimon Gibson (2001). "Akko (Tel)". Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8264-1316-1.
  88. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen (2000). "The concepts of city-state and city-state culture". In Hansen, Mogens Herman (ed.). A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation, Volume 21. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. p. 20. ISBN 978-8778761774. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  89. ^ Museum With No Frontiers (2004). Pilgrimage, sciences and Sufism: Islamic art in the West Bank and Gaza. Museum With No Frontiers. p. 253. ISBN 9789953360645.
  90. ^ The world's oldest cities Archived 2020-05-17 at the Wayback Machine,
  91. ^ "Gaziantep". Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  92. ^ Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 155. ISBN 9781576079195.
  93. ^ "Life at the Crossroads [New Edition]: A History of Gaza". Rimal Books. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  94. ^ International dictionary of historic places By Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger
  95. ^ a b Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture: Delhi to Mosque. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Retrieved 11 April 2013. Whatever the prehistoric antecedents of Istanbul, the continuous historical development of the site began with the foundation of a Greek colony from Megara in the mid-7th century BC.
  96. ^ Cecil Roth, Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1972, p. 619.
  97. ^ Fisher, William Bayne; Boyle, J. A. (1968), The Cambridge History of Iran: The Land of Iran (1 ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 14
  98. ^ a b "Yazd – Iran". Archived from the original on 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  99. ^ Bolender, Douglas J. (2010-09-17). Eventful Archaeologies: New Approaches to Social Transformation in the Archaeological Record. SUNY Press. pp. 124–129–. ISBN 978-1-4384-3423-0. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  100. ^ Exposition du Musée d'archéologie ligure, article en italien [3].
  101. ^ Michael Llewellyn Smith (January 2004). Athens: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books. p. xiv. ISBN 978-1-902669-81-6. Archived from the original on 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2016-07-10.
  102. ^ Tung, Anthony (2001). "The City the Gods Besieged". Preserving the World's Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York: Three Rivers Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
  103. ^ Immerwahr, Sara A. (1971). The Athenian Agora, Vol. XIII: The Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Gleuckstadt, DE: J.J. AUGUSTIN. p. Preface, vii. ISBN 978-0-87661-213-2. Retrieved 4 August 2020. The very quantity of material is a striking proof of the habitation of the Agora and the surrounding slopes of the Acropolis, Areopagus and the neighboring hills from at least the fourth millennium B.C.
  104. ^ Harding, pp. 20–22; Gantz, p. 234
  105. ^ Hogan, C Michael (January 23, 2008). "Cydonia". The Modern Antiquarian. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2012. The most powerful centre of western Crete, Cydonia produced Bronze Age pottery and Linear B writings circa 1700 to 1500 BC, and was one of the first cities of Europe to mint coinage. (Pashley, 1837)
  106. ^ Nigel Guy Wilson (2006). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Psychology Press. pp. 695–. ISBN 978-0-415-97334-2. Archived from the original on 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2016-07-10.
  107. ^ "The Oldest Cities in Europe". WorldAtlas. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  108. ^ Demand, Nancy H. (2011). The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 221. doi:10.1002/9781444342369. ISBN 9781405155519.
  109. ^ "COLCHIS, THE LAND OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE, REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA". Archived from the original on 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
  110. ^ "Vani". Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2017-03-18.
  111. ^ Manuel Jesús Roldán Salgueiro (2007). Historia de Sevilla. Almuzara. ISBN 978-84-88586-24-7. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  112. ^ Semmler, María Eugenia Aubet; Aubet, Maria Eugenia (2001-09-06). The Phoenicians and the West. ISBN 9780521795432. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  113. ^ Cassar, Carmel (2000). A Concise History of Malta. Msida: Mireva Publications. ISBN 1870579526
  114. ^ Domenico Spanò Bolani (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria ... sino all'anno ... 1797 (in Italian). Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  115. ^ Domenico Spanò Bolani (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria ... sino all'anno ... 1797 (in Italian). Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  116. ^ Domenico Spanò Bolani (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria ... sino all'anno ... 1797 (in Italian). Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  117. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Volterra: Historical City and Cultural Landscape". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  118. ^ "Greek Naples". 8 January 2008. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011.
  119. ^ "Sobre els orígens de la colònia fenícia d'Eivissa" (PDF). Institut d'Estudis Eivissencs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-31. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  120. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 330,"Epidamnos was founded in either 627 or 625 (Hieron. Chron)"
  121. ^ Gela Gamkrelidze. RESEARCHES IN IBERIA-COLCHOLOGY. Edited by David Braiind (Prof, of University of Exeter (UK)) // Olar LORDKIPANIDZE CENTRE OF ARCHAEOLOGY OF GEORGIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM. P. 43 "According to the data on archaeological excavations on the Gabashvili, Dateshidze and Ukimerioni hills in Kutaisi, an urban-type settlement of the 6-5 cent. BC was found to be concentrated"
  122. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 936,
  123. ^ Ботушарова, Л. Стратиграфски проучвания на Небет тепе, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 66–70.
  124. ^ Детев, П. Разкопки на Небет тепе в Пловдив, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 27–30
  125. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin."
  126. ^ a b "6.2 Revisiting History: Ancient Gabala". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  127. ^ a b Neritan Ceka (2001). "Straboni – Argjendi ilir". In Nigro (ed.). Ilirët (in Albanian). Toena. p. 80. ISBN 9789992700983. Retrieved April 26, 2020. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  128. ^ De Angelis, Daniela, ed. (2014). "Scutari". Oppo e 3 ricerche su Pomezia. Gangemi. ISBN 9788849228823. Scutari fu fondata intorno al V-IV secolo a.C. Dagli scavi archeologici eseguiti al castello di Rozafa, si dedusse che il centro era già abitato dall’età del bronzo
  129. ^ Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations by Sandra Rae Joshel, Sheila Murnaghan, 1998, page 214, "Philip II founded cities at Beroe, Kabyle, and Philippopolis in 342/1, and Aegean-style urban life began to penetrate Thrace."
  130. ^ Late Roman villas in the Danube-Balkan region by Lynda Mulvin, 2002, page 19, "Other roads went through Beroe (founded by Philip II of Macedon)",
  131. ^ Philip of Macedon by Louïza D. Loukopoulou, 1980, page 98, "Upriver in the valley between the Rhodope and Haimos Philip founded Beroe (Stara Zagora) and Philippolis (Plovdiv)."
  132. ^ The cities in Thrace and Dacia in late antiquity: (studies and materials) by Velizar Iv Velkov,1977, page 128, "Founded by Philipp 11 on the site of an old Thracian settlement, it has existed without interruption from that time."
  133. ^ Epirus: the geography, the ancient remains, the history and topography of ... by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, "founded Antipatreia in Illyria at c. 314 BC"
  134. ^ Durman, Aleksandar; Obelić, Bogomil (1989). "Radiocarbon Dating of the Vučedol Culture Complex". Radiocarbon. 31 (3): 1003–1009. doi:10.1017/S0033822200012649.
  135. ^ "Историја Београдске тврђаве" (in Serbian). June 2016. Archived from the original on 2011-09-05.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  136. ^ Domenico, Roy Palmer (2002). The Regions of Italy: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 9780313307331. Retrieved 22 April 2019. Settlement in Matera dates from the Paleolithic age. The Roman consul Metellus established the town of Matera in 251 B.c:. and called it Matheola.
  137. ^ "Chronologie". Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  138. ^ Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, book 7
  139. ^ "". Archived from the original on December 12, 2008.
  140. ^ Classical Antiquities, by Johann Joachim Eschenburg, 1860, p 6
  141. ^ "Du Paléolithique au Néolithique". Musées de la ville de Strasbourg. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  142. ^ Macey, Richard (2007). "Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  143. ^ "Aboriginal people and place". Sydney Barani. 2013. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  144. ^ Attenbrow, Val (2010). Sydney's Aboriginal Past: Investigating the Archaeological and Historical Records. Sydney: UNSW Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-1-74223-116-7. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 11 Nov 2013.
  145. ^ Stockton, Eugene D.; Nanson, Gerald C. (April 2004). "Cranebrook Terrace Revisited". Archaeology in Oceania. 39 (1): 59–60. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.2004.tb00560.x. JSTOR 40387277.
  146. ^ Geoffrey Blainey; A Very Short History of the World; Penguin Books; 2004; ISBN 978-0-14-300559-9
  147. ^ Mulvaney, D J and White, Peter, 1987, Australians to 1788, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, Sydney
  148. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica – History of Tasmania". Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  149. ^ The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia. (ed.) David Horton. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1994 [2 vols] (see: Vol. 2, pp. 1008–10 [with map]; individual tribal entries; and the 'Further Reading' section on pp. 1245–72).
  150. ^ Sandra Bowdler. "The Pleistocene Pacific". University of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008. Published in 'Human settlement', D. Denoon, ed. (1997). The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–50.
  151. ^ Gary Presland, The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region, (revised edition), Harriland Press, 1997. ISBN 0-646-33150-7. Presland says on page 1: "There is some evidence to show that people were living in the Maribyrnong River valley, near present day Keilor, about 40,000 years ago."
  152. ^ Gary Presland, Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost Land of the Kulin People, Harriland Press (1985), Second edition 1994, ISBN 0-9577004-2-3. This book describes in some detail the archaeological evidence regarding aboriginal life, culture, food gathering and land management, particularly the period from the flooding of Bass Strait and Port Phillip from about 7–10,000 years ago, up to the European colonisation in the nineteenth century.
  153. ^ Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7
  154. ^ Flood, J. M.; David, B.; Magee, J.; English, B. (1987), "Birrigai: a Pleistocene site in the south eastern highlands", Archaeology in Oceania, 22: 9–22, doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.1987.tb00159.x

External links[edit]