List of cities in the European Union by Muslim population

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Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in Europe, primarily due to immigration.[1][2] Since the 1960s, immigrants from Muslim countries started to appear in numbers in Western Europe, especially in Germany, France and Belgium. Although large Muslim communities have existed on the continent since Ottoman conquests in the late Middle Ages, especially in the Balkans, this was the first major wave of immigration of Muslims to northwestern Europe.[3]

Muslims in Europe are not a homogeneous group. They are of various national, ethnic and racial identities. The top regions of origin of Muslims in Western Europe are Turkey, the Maghreb (including Morocco and Algeria), and South Asia (including Pakistan and Afghanistan).[4]

In Western Europe, Muslims generally live in major urban areas, often concentrated in poor neighborhoods of large cities.[5]

According to the Pew Research Center, as of 2016 the total number of Muslims in Europe is roughly 4.9%. The total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2010 was about 19 million (3.8%).[6] The French capital of Paris and its metropolitan area has the largest number (1.7 million in 2008 according to The Economist)[7] of Muslims out of any city in the European Union.

By 2030, people of Muslim faith or origin are predicted to form about 8% of the population of Europe.[6]

The table below lists large cities of the European Union with significant Muslim populations, some estimating the percentage of Muslims by using the percentage of Asians in those cities.

City Member state % Muslim (est.)
Amsterdam  Netherlands 12.1%[8][9]
Antwerp  Belgium 16.9%[10]
Barcelona  Spain 5.6%[11]
Berlin  Germany 9.5%[12]
Brussels  Belgium 25%,[13]
Cologne  Germany 12%[14][15][16]
Constanța  Romania 5.1%[17]
Copenhagen  Denmark 10%[4][5][18]
Dobrich  Bulgaria 7.2%[19]
Dublin  Ireland 2.11%[20]
Frankfurt  Germany 12.6%[21]
Haskovo  Bulgaria 18.2%[22]
Malmö  Sweden 16%[23][4][18]
Marseille  France 20%,[7][18] 25%,[4][5][24][25]
Medgidia  Romania 16.7%[26]
Offenbach  Germany 14%[27]
Paris  France 10%,[4] [5][18] (15% in metro area)[7][24]
Plovdiv  Bulgaria 5.0%[28]
Rotterdam  Netherlands 13.7%[29][7]
Roubaix  France 20%[30]
Ruse  Bulgaria 5.9%[31]
Shumen  Bulgaria 14.5%[32] (around 33.8%-35.5% in Shumen Province)
The Hague  Netherlands 14.7%[29][9]
Utrecht  Netherlands 9.9%[29][9]
Vienna  Austria 8%[7] 10%[4] 11.8%[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Nachmani, Amikam (2010). Europe and its Muslim minorities: aspects of conflict, attempts at accord. Brighton: Sussex Academic. p. 35. ISBN 9781845194000.
  2. ^ Cherribi, Sam (2010). In the house of war: Dutch Islam observed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780199734115.
  3. ^ Barrett, Darcy M. (2008). Concepts of Identity and the Islamitization of Europe: The Components of Growth and Radicalization of the Global Salafi Islamic Movement in Europe and Its Implications for the West. ProQuest. p. 60. ISBN 9780549970705.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Nydell, Margaret K. Understanding Arabs: a contemporary guide to Arab society. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780983955801. In 2011 they constituted 25 percent of Rotterdam andMarseilles; 20% of Malmo; 15 percent of Amsterdam, Brussels and Birmingham; 90% of Sarajevo; and 10 percent of London, Paris, Copenhagen, and Vienna.
    Muslims in Western Europe originate from both Arab and non-Arab countries. Those in the United Kingdom are primarily from South Asia, in France from North and West Africa, in Germany from Turkey, in Belgium from Morocco, and in the Netherlands from Morocco and Turkey.
  5. ^ a b c d Farmer, Brian R. (2010). Radical Islam in the West: ideology and challenge. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 8. ISBN 9780786459537. Muslims living in the West are also concentrated in urban area. Muslims are currently estimated to compose almost one-fifth of the population of Marseilles, and 15 percent of Paris, Brussels, and Birmingham. Muslims are currently make up approximately 10 percent of the populations in London and Copenhagen.
  6. ^ a b Pew Forum, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ a b c d e "When islam claims to be the victim". The Economist. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2013. see the chart [1]
  8. ^ Phelan, James, 1979- author. 1. ISBN 9781742831961. OCLC 896985116.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b c "Kerkelijkheid en kerkbezoek". Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  10. ^ "Moslims in Brussel 2010–2030". 13 February 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  11. ^ "Estademograf.pdf" (PDF). Observatorio.pdf. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  12. ^ "Ramadan in Refugee homes and Schools in Berlin". Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  13. ^ Erasmus (15 October 2017). "In Belgium, arguments about Islam grow louder". The Economist. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  14. ^ Der Spiegel: "Dialog mit Außerirdischen". 25 March 2008, retrieved 20 April 2013.
  15. ^ Die Welt: "Moschee für Mülheim". 1 February 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013
  16. ^ Berliner Zeitung: "Kulturkampf in Köln". 31 May 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ a b c d Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian (2009). God is back how the global revival of faith is changing the world. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781101032411. Muslims are highly concentrated—they make up 24 percent of the population in Amsterdam; 20 percent in Malmo and Marseille; 15 percent in Paris, Brussels, Bradford, and Birmingham; and 10 percent or more in London and Copenhagen.
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ Central Statistics Office - Population (Number) by Towns by Size, Sex, Religion and Census Year
  21. ^ "Muslime in Deutschland Landkreise". 5 April 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  22. ^ [4]
  23. ^ "Muslimska församlingar och föreningar i Malmö och Lund – en ögonblicksbild" (PDF). LUNDS UNIVERSITET (in Swedish). 2016.
  24. ^ a b "Being Muslim in France" (PDF). Brookings Institution. p. 22. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  25. ^ Erlanger, Steven (27 December 2009). "French Mosque's Symbolism Varies With Beholder".
  26. ^ [5]
  27. ^
  28. ^ [6]
  29. ^ a b c Statistiek, Centraal Bureau voor de. "Helft Nederlanders is kerkelijk of religieus". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  30. ^ "A French Town Bridges the Gap Between Muslims and Non-Muslims". New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  31. ^ [7]
  32. ^ [8]
  33. ^ "Vienna: share of Catholics halved since 1970s". August 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2017.

External links[edit]