List of cities in the European Union by Muslim population

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Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in Europe, primarily due to immigration and higher fertility rates among Muslims.[1][2][3] Since the 1960s, immigrants from Muslim countries started to appear in numbers in Western Europe, especially in Germany, France and Belgium. Although large Muslim communities have existed on the continent since Ottoman conquests in the late Middle Ages, especially in the Balkans, this was the first major wave of immigration of Muslims to northwestern Europe.[4]

Muslims in Europe are not a homogeneous group. They are of various national, ethnic and racial identities. The top regions of origin of Muslims in Western Europe are Turkey, the Maghreb (including Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria), and South Asia (including Pakistan and Afghanistan).[5]

In Western Europe, Muslims generally live in major urban areas, often concentrated in neighborhoods of large cities.[6]

According to the Pew Research Center, as of 2016 the total number of Muslims in Europe is roughly 4.9%. The total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2010 was about 19 million (3.8%).[7] The French capital of Paris and its metropolitan area has the largest number (1.7 million in 2008 according to The Economist)[8] of Muslims out of any city in the European Union. By 2019 estimates, Paris and its its metropolitan area, has the largest number (2.8 million in 2019) of Muslims out of any city in Europe.[citation needed]

By 2030, people of Muslim faith or origin are predicted to form about 8% of the population of Europe.[7]

The table below lists large cities of the European Union with significant Muslim populations, some estimating the percentage of Muslims by using the percentage of Asians in those cities.

City Member state % Muslim (est.)
Amsterdam  Netherlands 12.1%[9][10]
Antwerp  Belgium 16.9%[11]
Almeria  Spain 12%[12]
Augsburg  Germany 8.8%[citation needed]
Barcelona  Spain 5.6%[13]
Berlin  Germany 11%[14]
Mulhouse  France 25.7%[citation needed]
Brussels  Belgium 25%,[15]
Colombes  France 27.4%[citation needed]
Cologne  Germany 12%[16][17][18]
Strasbourg  France 16.3%[citation needed]
Constanța  Romania 5.1%[19]
Copenhagen  Denmark 10%[5][6][20]
Le Blanc-Mesnil  France 29.8%[citation needed]
Créteil  France 23.3%[citation needed]
Dobrich  Bulgaria 7.2%[21]
Dublin  Ireland 2.11%[22]
Saint-Etienne  France 22%[citation needed]
Espoo  Finland 6.7%[23][24]
Frankfurt  Germany 12.6%[citation needed]
Aubervilliers  France 44.52%[citation needed]
Hamburg  Germany 8.4%<[citation needed]
Saint-Denis  France 44.43%[citation needed]
Haskovo  Bulgaria 18.2%[21]
Helsinki  Finland 5.5%[23][24]
Nice  France 19.6%[citation needed]
Kardzhali  Bulgaria 52.8%[25]
Nanterre  France 29.3%[citation needed]
Evry  France 26.5%[citation needed]
Komotini  Greece 54.77% (metro area)[26]
Vénissieux  France 41.8%[citation needed]
Malmö  Sweden 25.4%[27][5][20][28]
Marseille  France 20%,[8][20] 25%[5][6][29][30]
Medgidia  Romania 16.7%[19]
Nimes  France 24.8%[citation needed]
Melilla  Spain 51.98%[31][32]
Bondy  France 39.1%[citation needed]
Offenbach  Germany 14%[33]
Avignon  France 29.8%[citation needed]
Oslo  Norway 9.53%[34]
Paris  France 10%[5][6][20] (15% in metro area)[8][29]
Plovdiv  Bulgaria 5.0%[21]
Montpellier  France 26.6%[citation needed]
Razgrad  Bulgaria 29.3%[25]
Argenteuil  France 34.8%[citation needed]
Rotterdam  Netherlands 13.7%[35][8]
Roubaix  France 32.4%[citation needed]
Ruse  Bulgaria 5.9%[21]
Shumen  Bulgaria 14.5%[21] (around 33.8%-35.5% in Shumen Province)
Toulouse  France 16%[citation needed]
Stuttgart  Germany 10%[36]
The Hague  Netherlands 14.7%[35][10]
Aulnay-sous-Bois  France 30.2%[citation needed]
Turku  Finland 5.7%[23][24]
Pantin  France 32.4%[citation needed]ref>
Utrecht  Netherlands 9.9%[35][10]
Sarcelles  France 31.4%[citation needed]
Vantaa  Finland 7.6%[23][24]
Lille  France 15.9%[citation needed]022}}</ref>
Vienna  Austria 8%,[8] 10%,[5] 11.8%[37]
Lyon  France 13.6%[citation needed]
Xanthi  Greece 42.19% (metro area)[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nachmani, Amikam (2010). Europe and its Muslim minorities: aspects of conflict, attempts at accord. Brighton: Sussex Academic. p. 35. ISBN 9781845194000.
  2. ^ Cherribi, Sam (2010). In the house of war: Dutch Islam observed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780199734115.
  3. ^ "Europe's Growing Muslim Population". pewforum.org. November 2017. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  4. ^ Barrett, Darcy M. (2008). Concepts of Identity and the Islamitization of Europe: The Components of Growth and Radicalization of the Global Salafi Islamic Movement in Europe and Its Implications for the West. p. 60. ISBN 9780549970705.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Nydell, Margaret K. (23 March 2012). Understanding Arabs: a contemporary guide to Arab society. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780983955801. In 2011 they constituted 25 percent of Rotterdam and Marseilles; 20% of Malmo; 15 percent of Amsterdam, Brussels and Birmingham; 90% of Sarajevo; and 10 percent of London, Paris, Copenhagen, and Vienna.
    Muslims in Western Europe originate from both Arab and non-Arab countries. Those in the United Kingdom are primarily from South Asia, in France from North and West Africa, in Germany from Turkey, in Belgium from Morocco, and in the Netherlands from Morocco and Turkey.
  6. ^ a b c d Farmer, Brian R. (2010). Radical Islam in the West: ideology and challenge. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 8. ISBN 9780786459537. Muslims living in the West are also concentrated in urban area. Muslims are currently estimated to compose almost one-fifth of the population of Marseilles, and 15 percent of Paris, Brussels, and Birmingham. Muslims are currently make up approximately 10 percent of the populations in London and Copenhagen.
  7. ^ a b Pew Forum, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, "The Future of the Global Muslim Population - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012., "The Future of the Global Muslim Population - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011., "The Future of the Global Muslim Population - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e "When islam claims to be the victim". The Economist. 4 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013. see the chart [1] {{cite news}}: External link in |quote= (help)
  9. ^ Phelan, James, 1979- author. (2014). 1. ISBN 9781742831961. OCLC 896985116. {{cite book}}: |last= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c "Kerkelijkheid en kerkbezoek". Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  11. ^ "Moslims in Brussel 2010–2030". npdata.be. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  12. ^ "12 de cada cien habitantes de Almeria es musulmana". npdata.be. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  13. ^ "Estademograf.pdf" (PDF). hispanomuslim.es. Observatorio.pdf. 31 December 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  14. ^ Berger, Melanie (6 June 2016). "Ramadan in Refugee homes and Schools in Berlin". Der Tagesspiegel Online. tagesspiegel.de. Archived from the original on 12 December 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  15. ^ Erasmus (15 October 2017). "In Belgium, arguments about Islam grow louder". The Economist. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  16. ^ Der Spiegel: "Dialog mit Außerirdischen" Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. 25 March 2008, retrieved 20 April 2013.
  17. ^ Die Welt: "Moschee für Mülheim" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013
  18. ^ Berliner Zeitung: "Kulturkampf in Köln" Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013
  19. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ a b c d Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian (2009). God is back how the global revival of faith is changing the world. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781101032411. Muslims are highly concentrated—they make up 24 percent of the population in Amsterdam; 20 percent in Malmo and Marseille; 15 percent in Paris, Brussels, Bradford, and Birmingham; and 10 percent or more in London and Copenhagen.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Religious composition of Bulgaria 2011". Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Central Statistics Office - Population (Number) by Towns by Size, Sex, Religion and Census Year". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d "Befolkning 31.12. Efter Område, Språk, Kön, År och Uppgifter".
  24. ^ a b c d Persons who speak a majority Muslim language.
  25. ^ a b "Religious composition of Bulgaria". Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  26. ^ a b "ΜΟΥΣΟΥΛΜΑΝΙΚΗ ΜΕΙΟΝΟΤΗΤΑ ΘΡΑΚΗΣ". www.hri.org. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  27. ^ "Muslimska församlingar och föreningar i Malmö och Lund – en ögonblicksbild" (PDF). Lunds Universitet (in Swedish). 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  28. ^ "Inrikes och utrikes födda efter region, ålder och kön. År 2000 - 2020". Statistikdatabasen. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  29. ^ a b "Being Muslim in France" (PDF). Brookings Institution. p. 22. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  30. ^ Erlanger, Steven (27 December 2009). "French Mosque's Symbolism Varies With Beholder". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  31. ^ Observatorio Andalusí (2020). "Estudio demográfico de la población musulmana Explotación estadística del censo de ciudadanos musulmanes en España referido a fecha 31/12/2019" (PDF). Unión de Comunidades Islámicas de España (UCIDE). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  32. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE. "Demografía y población". Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  33. ^ "Rund 14 Prozent der Offenbacher sind Muslime". 17 January 2015. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  34. ^ "Table - Members of congregations in religious and philosophical communities outside the Church of Norway, by religion/philosophy and county". www.ssb.no. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  35. ^ a b c Statistiek, Centraal Bureau voor de. "Helft Nederlanders is kerkelijk of religieus". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  36. ^ "Muslime in Stuttgart 2017" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Vienna: share of Catholics halved since 1970s". diepresse.com. August 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2017.

External links[edit]