List of cities in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of 2015.[1] It lists those places that have been granted city status by letters patent or royal charter. There are currently a total of 69 such cities in the United Kingdom: 51 in England, seven in Scotland, six in Wales, and five in Northern Ireland.[1] Of these, 23 in England, two in Wales, and one in Northern Ireland have Lord Mayors and four in Scotland have Lord Provosts. In some cases, the area holding city status does not coincide with the built up area or conurbation of which it forms part. In Greater London, for example, the City of London and that of Westminster each hold city status separately but no other neighbourhood has been granted city status, nor has Greater London as a whole. In other cases, such as the Cities of Canterbury and Lancaster, the status extends over a number of towns and rural areas outside the main settlement proper.[2]

History[edit]

The initial cities (Latin: civitas) of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages later preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities" (Old Welsh: cair) which was mentioned by Gildas[4] and listed by Nennius.[5]

The title of city was initially informal and, into the 20th century, royal charters were considered to recognise city status rather than to grant it.[7] The usual criterion in early modern Britain was the presence of a cathedral, particularly after King Henry VIII granted letters patent establishing six new cities when he established a series of new dioceses in the 1540s as part of the English Reformation.[8] No new cities were created between the 16th and 19th centuries, but following the Industrial Revolution and the accompanying population boom and growth in urbanisation, new sees were established at Ripon (1836) and Manchester (1847); their councils began to style them cities immediately. Inverness in Scotland was even refused a charter at the time of the Jubilee honours of 1897, in part because it would have drawn more attention to the other traditional "cities" still not formally chartered as such.[2]

Beginning in the mid-19th century, however, the process became more formal. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1851 prompted Manchester to petition Parliament for recognition of its status. Ripon followed in the 1860s, and a series of hitherto informal "cities" were formally recognised in the 1880s and 1890s. On the basis of its size, importance, and regular government, Belfast was elevated in spite of its lack of a cathedral in 1888; other large municipalities followed, while smaller applicants began to be rejected. King Edward VII and the Home Office established three criteria for future applicants in 1907—a minimum population of 300 000, a good record of local government, and a "local metropolitan character"[2]—but these criteria were not made public, and following Leicester's successful elevation in 1919 a series of exceptions were made. The 1972 Local Government Act effectively eliminated all authorities holding city status outside London on 1 April 1974; most of their replacements were confirmed in their predecessor's status—even in cases such as the City of Carlisle, where much of the local authority area is undeveloped countryside—but the Borough of Medway was not permitted to continue Rochester's title. In recent times there have been competitions for new grants of city status. Towns or councils that claim city status or add "city" to their name have been known to be rebuked by the Advertising Standards Authority.[9]

The cities of Scotland and Ireland were treated separately. Scottish towns irregularly applied the description to themselves, but were formally organised as royal burghs; the special rights of these were preserved by Article XXI of the Treaty of Union which established the single state of Great Britain in 1707.[10] Edinburgh and Glasgow were confirmed as cities "by ancient usage" in the 18th century,[11] as was Aberdeen, and this was later reconfirmed in the Act enlarging the burgh in 1891. Dundee was granted letters patent in 1889 and Elgin and Perth were recognised as cities by the Home Office in 1972, before the privilege was removed by the Scottish Local Government Act of 1973.[12]

In Ireland, only the seat of the primate at Armagh was accorded city status by ancient usage, and this status was abolished by the Irish Municipal Corporations Act of 1840. All other cities have been those explicitly recognised as such.

List of cities[edit]

In the Cathedral column in the table, only dioceses in England and Wales created up to 1888 had an effect on city status.

City[1] Year granted
or confirmed
Cathedral (pre-1889) City council Nation/Region Image Population
Aberdeen32
(Scots: Aiberdeen)
(Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain)

189131
(Burgh: 1179)

not applicable Local government district
(Council area)
Scotland Aberdeen, Old Aberdeen, 3 College Bounds.jpg 189,12038
Armagh11
(Irish: Ard Mhacha)
(Ulster-Scots: Airmagh)
1994 not applicable None. Represented on Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon Borough Council Northern Ireland Cathedrale d Armagh.jpg 14,777 (2011)[13]
Bangor1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of St Deiniol Community Wales Panorama Bangor 03 977.png 18,808 (2011)[14]
Bath1 1090 Abbey Church of SS Peter & Paul4 Charter trustees South West, England Bath, Somerset Panorama - April 2011.jpg 88,859 (2011)[15]
97,311 (urban area, 2010)[16]
Belfast
(Irish: Béal Feirste)
(Ulster-Scots: Bilfawst)
1888 not applicable Local government district Northern Ireland Belfast City Hall 2.jpg 333,871 (2011)[17]
Birmingham2 188933 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
West Midlands, England Birmingham Skyline from Edgbaston Cricket Ground crop.jpg 1,092,330 (2013)[18]
Bradford1 1897 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Yorkshire and the Humber, England Bradford City Hall from National Media Museum.jpg 522,452 (2011)[19]
Brighton & Hove15 2000 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
South East, England Brighton.UK.JPG 273,369 (2011)[19]
Bristol1 1542 Cathedral Church of the Holy & Undivided Trinity Local government district
(Unitary and county)
South West, England The Cabot Tower, Bristol - geograph.org.uk - 904859.jpg 428,234 (2011)[19]
Cambridge3 195125 not applicable Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
East, England KingsCollegeChapelWest.jpg 123,867 (2011)[19]
Canterbury3 time immemorial Cathedral & Metropolitical Church of
Christ
Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
South East, England Canterbury cathedral.jpg 151,145 (2011)[19]
Cardiff9
(Welsh: Caerdydd)
190529 not applicable Local government district
(Principal area)
Wales Cardiff City Hall cropped.jpg 346,090 (2011)[19]
Carlisle1 1133 Cathedral Church of the Holy & Undivided Trinity Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
North West, England Tullie House.jpg 107,524 (2011)[19]
Chelmsford37 2012 not applicable Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
East, England Chelmsford, The Shire Hall.jpg 168,310 (2011)[19]
Chester3 1541 Cathedral Church of Christ & the Blessed Virgin Mary Charter trustees North West, England Bridge Street, Chester.jpg 91,733 (urban area, 2010)[16]
Chichester1 1075 Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity Civil parish South East, England Chichester Cathedral epodkopaev.jpg 26,795 (2011)[20]
Coventry1 1102 St Michael's Cathedral5 Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
West Midlands, England Skyline of Coventry as seen from Baginton 3g06.JPG 316,915 (2011)[19]
Derby13 1977 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
East Midlands, England Iron Gate, Derby - geograph.org.uk - 587015.jpg 248,752 (2011)[19]
Derry39
(Irish: Doire)
(Ulster-Scots: Derrie)
1604[21] not applicable None. Represented on Derry City and Strabane District Council Northern Ireland St Eugene's Cathedral, August 2009.JPG 107,877 (2011)[13]
Dundee32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh)
188930
(Burgh: 1191)
not applicable Local government district
(Council area)
Scotland Moragn Academy Dundee.jpg 153,99038
Durham1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of Christ, St Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert Charter trustees North East, England Durham Millburngate Bridge.jpg 94,375 (2011)[22]
Edinburgh32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann)
18th century[11]
(Burgh: 1329)
not applicable Local government district
(Council area)
Scotland Edinburgh from Calton Hill with Dugald Stewart Monument 3.JPG 468,72038
Ely1 1109 Cathedral Church of the Holy & Undivided Trinity Civil parish East, England Ely Oliver Cromwell House.jpg 20,256 (2011)[23]
Exeter1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of St Peter Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
South West, England Exeter from Haldon.jpg 117,773 (2011)[19]
Glasgow32
(Scots: Glesga)
(Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu)
18th century[11]
(Burgh: 1492)
not applicable Local government district
(Council area)
Scotland Glasgow University Tower - geograph.org.uk - 289598.jpg 603,08038
Gloucester1 1541 Cathedral Church of St Peter & the Holy and Indivisible Trinity Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
South West, England Gloucester Cathedral exterior front.jpg 121,688 (2011)[19]
Hereford119 time immemorial Cathedral Church of SS Mary the Virgin & Ethelbert the King Civil parish West Midlands, England Hereford cathedral 002.JPG 58,896 (2011)[24]
Inverness
(Scots: Inerness)(Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Nis)
2000 not applicable none Scotland Inverness Castle from Bishops Road Inverness Scotland.jpg 79,415[25]
Kingston upon Hull12 1897 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Yorkshire and the Humber, England Hull City Hall - geograph.org.uk - 952519.jpg 256,406 (2011)[19]
Lancaster1 193726 not applicable Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
North West, England City of Lancaster (2).jpg 138,375 (2011)[19]
Leeds1 1893 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Yorkshire and the Humber, England Leeds CBD at night.jpg 751,485 (2011)[19]
Leicester1 191922 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
East Midlands, England Leicester City Skyline - geograph.org.uk - 514032.jpg 329,839 (2011)[19]
Lichfield17 time immemorial Cathedral Church of SS Mary & Chad Civil parish West Midlands, England Lichfield City View.tif 32,219 (2011)[26]
Lincoln3 1072 Cathedral Church of St Mary Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
East Midlands, England Lincoln Cathedral viewed from Lincoln Castle.jpg 93,541 (2011)[19]
Lisburn
(Irish: Lios na gCearrbhach)
2002 not applicable None. Represented on Lisburn and Castlereagh City Council Northern Ireland Irish Linen Centre Lisburn Museum.jpg 120,165 (2011)[13]
Liverpool2 1880 Cathedral Church of Christ Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
North West, England Pier Head and Mersey Ferry Liverpool.jpg 466,415 (2011)[19]
London6 time immemorial St Paul's Cathedral Local government district
(sui generis and county)
London London November 2013-26.jpg 7,375 (2011)[19]
Manchester1 185334 Manchester Cathedral Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
North West, England Manchester Skyline.jpg 503,127 (2011)[19]
Newcastle upon Tyne1 1882 Cathedral Church of St Nicholas Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
North East, England Bridges opening up - geograph.org.uk - 178375.jpg 280,177 (2011)[19]
Newport14
(Welsh: Casnewydd)
2002 not applicable Local government district
(Principal area)
Wales Newportciviccentre.jpg 145,736 (2011)[19]
Newry
(Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá)
(Ulster-Scots: Newrie)
2002 not applicable None. Represented on Newry, Mourne and Down District Council Northern Ireland NewrySkyline.jpg 29,946 (2008, settlement population)[27]
Norwich1 1094 Cathedral Church of the Holy & Undivided Trinity Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
East, England Shops at Elm Hill (geograph 5821191).jpg 132,512 (2011)[19]
Nottingham1 1897 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
East Midlands, England Council-House-Nottingham 305,680 (2011)[19]
Oxford1 1542 Cathedral Church of Christ Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
South East, England Radcliffe Camera by Fenlio.jpg 151,906 (2011)[19]
Perth
(Scots: Pairth)
(Scottish Gaelic: Peairt)
2012[28]
(Burgh: 12th century)[30]
not applicable none Scotland PerthScotland.jpg 45,77038
Peterborough2 1541 Cathedral Church of
St Peter, St Paul, & St Andrew
Local government district
(Unitary)
East, England Peterborough Cathedral oblique view.jpg 183,631 (2011)[19]
Plymouth1 192827 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
South West, England Plymouth Hoe.jpg 256,384 (2011)[19]
Portsmouth1 192624 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
South East, England Plymouth Barbican and harbour.jpg 205,056 (2011)[19]
Preston14 2002 not applicable Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
North West, England Moor Park, Preston - geograph.org.uk - 557547.jpg 140,202 (2011)[19]
Ripon1 1836 Cathedral Church of SS Peter & Wilfrid Civil parish Yorkshire and the Humber, England Thorpe Prebend House.jpg 16,702 (2011)[31]
St Albans7 187736 Cathedral & Abbey Church of St Alban Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
East, England Cathedral.png 140,644 (2011)[19]
St Asaph37
(Welsh: Llanelwy)
2012 not applicable Community Wales Aerial View of St Asaph Cathedral.jpg 3,355 (2011)[32]
St Davids20
(Welsh: Tyddewi)
1994 St Davids Community Wales St.Davids, Wales, UK.jpg 1,841 (2011)[33]
Salford1 192624 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
North West, England Mariners Canal from Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays.jpg 233,933 (2011)[19]
Salisbury35 1227 Cathedral Church of St Mary Civil parish South West, England Salisbury Cathedral from Old George Mall.jpg 40,302 (2011)[34]
Sheffield3 1893 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Yorkshire and the Humber, England PeaceGdnsSheffd.jpg 552,698 (2011)[19]
Southampton1 1964 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
South East, England Southampton - Maison Tudor 02.JPG 236,882 (2011)[19]
Stirling
(Scots: Stirlin)
(Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea)
2002 not applicable none Scotland Stirlingcastle.jpg 34,79038
Stoke-on-Trent3 192528 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
West Midlands, England Tunstall tower square.jpg 249,008 (2011)[19]
Sunderland18 1992 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
North East, England SunderlandBridges.jpg 275,506 (2011)[19]
Swansea9
(Welsh: Abertawe)
196923 not applicable Local government district
(Principal area)
Wales Swansea Railway Station - geograph.org.uk - 1484946.jpg 239,023 (2011)[19]
Truro1
(Cornish: Truru)
1877 Cathedral Church of St Mary Civil parish South West, England Truro rooftops.jpg 18,766 (2011)[35]
Wakefield3 1888 Cathedral Church of All Saints Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Yorkshire and the Humber, England Wakefield County Hall.jpg 325,837 (2011)[19]
Wells1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of St Andrew Civil parish South West, England Wells-Vicars Close (geograph 3671991).jpg 10,536 (2011)[36]
Westminster21 1540 Westminster Abbey4 (Although this was only a cathedral for 10 years until 1550, the city did not lose its status) Local government district
(London borough)
London Hdr parliament.jpg, 219,396 (2011)[19]
Winchester1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
South East, England Winchester-alfred-wyrdlight.jpg 116,595 (2011)[19]
Wolverhampton16 2000 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
West Midlands, England Prince Albert Wolverhampton.jpg 249,470 (2011)[19]
Worcester3 time immemorial Cathedral Church of Christ & St Mary Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
West Midlands, England River Severn, Worcester - geograph.org.uk - 894221.jpg 98,768 (2011)[19]
York18 time immemorial Cathedral & Metropolitical Church of St Peter Local government district
(Unitary)
Yorkshire and the Humber, England York (Aerial view).jpg 198,051 (2011)[19]

Map of the cities[edit]

British Overseas Territories[edit]

There are a number of cities in the British Overseas Territories, such as the City of James Town on Saint Helena.[37]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Department for Culture, Media and Sport. "Civic Honours Competition: UK Cities". The National Archives (United Kingdom), 18 January 2011. Accessed 17 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Beckett (2005).
  3. ^ "JTK". "Civitas" in Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, p. 451. ABC-CLIO (Sta. Barbara), 2006.
  4. ^ De Excidio Britanniae, §3. (in Latin) Cited in the "Civitas" entry of Celtic Culture.[3]
  5. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. 1911.
  7. ^ The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, listed St Asaph and Southwell as cities on the basis of their cathedrals despite their lack of charters or, in Southwell's case, local government.[6]
  8. ^ Beckett (2005), p. 22.
  9. ^ "ASA Adjudication on Medway Council". Asa.org.uk. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  10. ^ Kingdoms of England and Scotland. "Act of Union", §XXI. 16 January 1707.
  11. ^ a b c d Beckett, J.V. City Status in the British Isles, 1830–2002, pp. 16 ff. Ashgate Publishing, 2005.
  12. ^ Clark, M. Lynda & al. "Committee on Privileges Second Report", Appendix 3, ss58. Parliament of the United Kingdom (London), 1999.
  13. ^ a b c "Usual Resident Population: KS101NI (administrative geographies)". Census 2011. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  14. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Bangor C
  15. ^ "Bath". BANES 2011 Census Ward Profiles. Retrieved 13 March 2015. (Combined populations of the 16 wards that make-up the city.)
  16. ^ a b "Mid 2010 Urban Area Estimates England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  17. ^ "Usual Resident Population: KS101NI (administrative geographies)". Census 2011. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  18. ^ "UK Population Estimates". (ONS). Retrieved 28 June 2014
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  20. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Chichester CP
  21. ^ City commemorates the 400th Anniversary of the City’s first charter, Derry City Council press release dated 7 July 2004, (accessed 15 December 2007) Archived 2 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ City status extends to the area of the former District of Durham "Charter trust and Mayor for Durham City". Durham County Council. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2013. "2011 Census Statistical Profile". Durham County Council. Retrieved 2 February 2013.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Ely (Cambs) CP
  24. ^ "2011 Census: Usual resident population estimates by broad age group for Wards & Market Towns in Herefordshire". Herefordshire Council. Retrieved 8 January 2013.[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ "Highland Profile". Highland Council.
  26. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Lichfield CP
  27. ^ "Home".
  28. ^ Letters Patent dated 21 May 2012 "News: The National Records of Scotland seals Perth's city status". National Archives of Scotland. 6 July 2012. "'We really feel part of history being made' — Letters Patent makes Perth's city status official". The Courier (Dundee). 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  29. ^ A A M Duncan (24 March 1973). "Perth. The First Century of the Burgh" (PDF). Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013.
  30. ^ Created a royal burgh at some point under King David I (1124–53) although the earliest surviving charters date to 1209 or 1210; the status was abolished in 1975.[11][29]
  31. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Ripon CP
  32. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – St. Asaph C
  33. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – St. David's and the Cathedral Close C
  34. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Salisbury CP
  35. ^ Office for National Statistics 2011 census – Truro CP
  36. ^ "Wells CP – Usual Resident Population, 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  37. ^ The Government of the United Kingdom. "The St Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009". The National Archives of the United Kingdom (London), 2009.
  38. ^ "Local Government (Structural Changes) (Miscellaneous Amendments and Other Provision) Order 2009". Tow. Office of Public Sector Information. 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
  39. ^ "New Parish Council for the City of Salisbury". Towards One Council. Wiltshire County Council. Retrieved 27 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ "No. 46255". The London Gazette. 4 April 1974. p. 4400.
  41. ^ "No. 46303". The London Gazette. 28 June 1974. pp. 6485–6486.
  42. ^ "No. 46334". The London Gazette. 31 May 1974. p. 7419.
  43. ^ "No. 46352". The London Gazette. 24 September 1974. p. 7920.
  44. ^ a b "No. 54363". The London Gazette. 4 April 1996. p. 4925.
  45. ^ "No. 46522". The London Gazette. 20 March 1975. p. 3729.
  46. ^ "No. 47246". The London Gazette. 14 June 1977. p. 7656.
  47. ^ "No. 56573". The London Gazette. 21 May 2002. p. 6160.
  48. ^ a b "No. 56109". The London Gazette. 2 May 2001. p. 1431.
  49. ^ "No. 48364". The London Gazette. 7 November 1980. p. 15451.
  50. ^ "Lichfield City Council website". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
  51. ^ "No. 52874". The London Gazette. 26 March 1992. p. 5413.
  52. ^ Charters of Hereford City Council Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ "Dale - St. David's | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk.
  54. ^ Municipal Corporations Act 1883 (c.19), S.3 and Sch II, part I
  55. ^ "No. 53798". The London Gazette. 23 September 1994. p. 13403.
  56. ^ "No. 27242". The London Gazette. 30 October 1900. p. 6613.
  57. ^ The Times: Leicester, a City: Sequel to the Recent Royal Visit, 17 June 1919
  58. ^ "Civic history: The making of a City, (Leicester City Council), accessed 14 February 2008". Archived from the original on 23 March 2008.
  59. ^ Leicester: The Dignity of a City 655–1926, Leicester's city status, its loss and its regaining over thirteen centuries by Daniel Williams
  60. ^ "No. 44986". The London Gazette. 12 December 1969. p. 12450.
  61. ^ "No. 33154". The London Gazette. 23 April 1926. pp. 2776–2777.
  62. ^ London Gazette, issue no.39201, 13 April 1951
  63. ^ London Gazette, issue no.34400, 21 May 1937
  64. ^ London Gazette, issue no.33433, 26 October 1928
  65. ^ London Gazette, issue no.33063, 3 July 1925
  66. ^ "No. 27849". The London Gazette. 31 October 1905. p. 7249.
  67. ^ London Gazette, 29 January 1889
  68. ^ From the London Gazette, 18 January 1889, The Times, 19 January 1889
  69. ^ London Gazette Issue 21426, p.950, 1 April 1853
  70. ^ "No. 59250". The London Gazette. 24 November 2009. p. 20329.
  71. ^ "No. 24502". The London Gazette. 11 September 1877. p. 5185. to ordain and declare that the Borough of Saint Albans, in the county of Hertford, shall be a City, and shall be called and styled 'The City of Saint Albans, in the county of Hertford.'
  72. ^ "No. 60167". The London Gazette. 11 June 2012. p. 11125.
  73. ^ "Scotland (United Kingdom): Council Areas & Localities – Population Statistics, Charts and Map". citypopulation.de.
  74. ^ Application by Derry City Council for judicial review [2007] NIQB 5 Ref WEAF5707