List of cities in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Examples of major urban areas in the United Kingdom; Liverpool, Edinburgh, Newcastle upon Tyne; and London.

This is a list of cities in the United Kingdom that are officially designated such as of 12 November 2022.[1][2] It lists those places that have been granted city status by letters patent or royal charter.[3][4]

There are currently a total of 76 such cities in the United Kingdom: 55 in England, eight in Scotland, seven in Wales, and six in Northern Ireland.[3] Of these, 24 in England, two in Wales, and two in Northern Ireland have Lord Mayors; four in Scotland have Lord Provosts.[a] In some cases, the area holding city status does not coincide with the built up area or conurbation of which it forms part. In Greater London, for example, the City of London and that of Westminster each hold city status separately, but no other local authority in the London Region has been granted city status, nor has the Greater London Authority.

In other cases, such as the cities of Canterbury and Lancaster, the status applies to a local government district which extends over a number of towns and rural areas outside the main settlement proper.[5] In England, the status sometimes applies to civil parishes, such as the city of Ripon; though the status may not apply to the local government district which share their name. For example, the civil parishes of Lichfield and Chichester each hold city status, but the Lichfield District and the Chichester District, in which they are situated, respectively, do not.

The list does not include places like Luton or Northampton which, despite having populations of over 200,000, have not been awarded city status and thus formally remain as towns. As of 2022, there are currently 5 ceremonial counties which contain 3 cities - Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hampshire, West Midlands and West Yorkshire. In the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies, there are currently five cities. The number has increased as part of the Platinum Jubilee celebrations, as Gibraltar, Hamilton in Bermuda, Jamestown in St Helena and Stanley in the Falkland Islands has been joined by Douglas in the Isle of Man.

History[edit]

The initial cities (Latin: civitas) of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages later preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities" (Old Welsh: cair) which was mentioned by Gildas[7] and listed by Nennius.[8]

The title of city was initially informal and, into the 20th century, royal charters were considered to recognise city status rather than to grant it.[10] The usual criterion in early modern Britain was the presence of a cathedral, particularly after King Henry VIII granted letters patent establishing six new cities when he established a series of new dioceses in the 1540s as part of the English Reformation.[11] No new cities were created between the 16th and 19th centuries, but following the Industrial Revolution and the accompanying population boom and growth in urbanisation, new sees were established at Ripon (1836) and Manchester (1847); their councils began to style them cities immediately. Inverness in Scotland was even refused a charter at the time of the Jubilee honours of 1897, in part because it would have drawn more attention to the other traditional "cities" still not formally chartered as such.[5]

Beginning in the mid-19th century, however, the process became more formal. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1851 prompted Manchester to petition Parliament for recognition of its status. Ripon followed in the 1860s, and a series of hitherto informal "cities" were formally recognised in the 1880s and 1890s. On the basis of its size, importance, and regular government, Belfast was elevated in spite of its lack of a cathedral in 1888; other large municipalities followed, while smaller applicants began to be rejected. King Edward VII and the Home Office established three criteria for future applicants in 1907—a minimum population of 300,000, a good record of local government, and a "local metropolitan character"[5] – but these criteria were not made public, and following Leicester's successful elevation in 1919 a series of exceptions were made. The 1972 Local Government Act effectively eliminated all authorities holding city status outside Greater London on 1 April 1974; most of their replacements were confirmed in their predecessor's status—even in cases such as the 1974–2023 City of Carlisle district, where much of the local authority area was undeveloped countryside—but the Borough of Medway was not permitted to continue Rochester's title. In recent times there have been competitions for new grants of city status. Towns or councils that claim city status or add "city" to their name have been known to be rebuked by the Advertising Standards Authority.[12]

The cities of Scotland and Ireland were treated separately. Scottish towns irregularly applied the description to themselves, but were formally organised as royal burghs; the special rights of these were preserved by Article XXI of the Treaty of Union which established the single state of Great Britain in 1707.[13] Edinburgh and Glasgow were confirmed as cities "by ancient usage" in the 18th century,[5] as was Aberdeen,[14] and this was later reconfirmed in the Act enlarging the burgh in 1891. Dundee was granted letters patent in 1889 and Elgin and Perth were recognised as cities by the Home Office in 1972, before the privilege was removed by the Scottish Local Government Act of 1973.[15] In Ireland, only the seat of the primate at Armagh was accorded city status by ancient usage, and this status was abolished by the Irish Municipal Corporations Act of 1840. All other cities have been those explicitly recognised as such.

Statistical role[edit]

City status has no significance in UK statistically because it is not a measure of a city's size and only holds a ceremonial status. Historic cities, such as St Davids (a cathedral city in Wales) can be quite small, however newer cities, such as those conferred in 2022, can range in size from anywhere between 50,000 to over 200,000. There are large populous settlements, such as Luton, Northampton and Reading, that still do not have city status.

Conurbations[edit]

The term "city" is sometimes loosely applied to conurbations in the UK. The government tends to recognise these as primary urban areas for statistical and economic purposes, though greater urban areas are what most determine to be a city region.[16] Large cities outside of London such as Manchester or Birmingham are often confused with these greater conurbations. According to the 2011 census, Manchester was significantly less populous than Birmingham, despite Greater Manchester having a larger urban population than the West Midlands conurbation.[17] This question of definition has provoked a second city debate in the United Kingdom.

Conversely, many official cities in the UK contain a substantial rural area encompassing settlements which are physically separated from the core urban area. This applies to settlements such as Milton Keynes and Colchester, whose local authorities received Letters Patent, despite the City of Milton Keynes and City of Colchester administrative units covering an area substantially larger than that of their respective core urban areas, meaning that extra-urban settlements such as Olney[18] and West Mersea fall within de jure cities.[19][20]

List of cities[edit]

Key

City[3][1] Year granted
or confirmed
City council status Nation/ region Population[b]
City of London6 TI LGD
(sui generis and ceremonial county)

Map

London, England 12,156 (2023)[21]
Westminster21 1540 LGD
(London borough)

Map

London, England 213,119 (2023)[21]
Birmingham2 188933 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

West Midlands, England 1,171,467 (2023)[21]
Leeds1 1893 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 829,417 (2023)[21]
Glasgow32
(Scots: Glesga)
(Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu)
18th century[5]
(Burgh: 1492)
LGD
(Council area)

Map

Scotland 620,700 (2022)[22]
Manchester1 185334 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

North West, England 585,057 (2023)[21]
Sheffield3 1893 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 579,082 (2023)[21]
Bradford1 1897 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 556,880 (2023)[17]
Edinburgh32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann)
18th century[14]
(Burgh: 1329)
LGD
(Council area)

Map

Scotland 512,700 (2022)[22]
Liverpool2 1880 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

North West, England 504,932 (2023)[21]
Bristol1 1542 LGD
(Unitary and county)

Map

South West, England 482,815 (2023)[21]
Cardiff9
(Welsh: Caerdydd)
190529 LGD
(Principal area)

Map

Wales 381,759 (2023)[21]
Leicester1 191922 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

East Midlands, England 379,963 (2023)[21]
Coventry1 TI LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

West Midlands, England 368,483 (2023)[21]
Wakefield3 1888 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 362,355 (2023)[21]
Belfast
(Irish: Béal Feirste)
(Ulster-Scots: Bilfawst)
1888 LGD

Map

Northern Ireland 345,418 (2021)[23]
Nottingham1 1897 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

East Midlands, England 330,949 (2023)[21]
Newcastle upon Tyne1 1882 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

North East, England 315,110 (2023)[21]
Doncaster 202247 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber,
England
314,252 (2023)[21]
Milton Keynes 202241 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

South East, England 297,180 (2023)[21]
Salford1 192624 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

North West, England 282,487 (2023)[21]
Sunderland18 1992 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

North East, England 279,556 (2023)[21]
Brighton & Hove15 2001 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

South East, England 278,455 (2023)[21]
Wolverhampton16 2001 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

West Midlands, England 271,173 (2023)[21]
Kingston upon Hull12 1897 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 271,095 (2023)[21]
Plymouth1 192827 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

South West, England 267,888 (2023)[21]
Derby13 1977 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

East Midlands, England 265,082 (2023)[21]
Stoke-on-Trent3 192528 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

West Midlands, England 261,867 (2023)[21]
Southampton1 1964 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

South East, England 257,160 (2023)[21]
Swansea9
(Welsh: Abertawe)
196923 LGD
(Principal area)

Map

Wales 245,440 (2023)[21]
Aberdeen32
(Scots: Aiberdeen)
(Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain)
1,89131
(Burgh: 1179)
LGD
(Council area)

Map

Scotland 224,000 (2022)[22]
Peterborough2 1541 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

East, England 218,179 (2023)[21]
Portsmouth1 192624 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

South East, England 209,171 (2023)[21]
York1,8 TI LGD
(Unitary)

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 206,825 (2023)[21]
Colchester 202244 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

East, England 196,808 (2023)[21]
Chelmsford37 2012 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

East, England 185,288 (2023)[21]
Southend-on-Sea 202245 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

East, England 182,278 (2023)[21]
Oxford1 1542 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

South East, England 165,257 (2023)[21]
Newport14
(Welsh: Casnewydd)
2002 LGD
(Principal area)

Map

Wales 163,547 (2023)[21]
Canterbury3 TI LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

South East, England 160,351 (2023)[21]
Preston14 2002 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

North West, England 155,634 (2023)[21]
Dundee32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh)
1,88930
(Burgh: 1191)
LGD
(Council area)

Map

Scotland 148,100 (2022)[22]
Cambridge3 195125 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

East, England 147,797 (2023)[21]
St Albans7 187736 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

East, England 147,410 (2023)[21]
Lancaster1 193726 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

North West, England 145,346 (2023)[21]
Norwich1 1094 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

East, England 144,251 (2023)[21]
Chester3 1541 Charter trustees

Map

North West, England 138,873 (2021)[24]
Exeter1 TI LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

South West, England 137,462 (2023)[21]
Wrexham
(Welsh: Wrecsam)
202243 LGD
(Principal area)

Map

Wales 137,341 (2023)[21]
Gloucester1 1541 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

South West, England 133,998 (2023)[21]
Winchester1 TI LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

South East, England 132,341 (2023)[21]
Durham1 TI Charter trustees

Map

North East, England 126,486 (2021)[25]
Carlisle1 TI Charter trustees

Map

North West, England 107,524 (2011)[17]
Worcester3 TI LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

West Midlands, England 104,589 (2023)[21]
Lincoln3 TI LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

East Midlands, England 102,392 (2023)[21]
Bath1 TI Charter trustees

Map

South West, England 88,770 (2021)[26][27]
Derry39
(Irish: Doire)
(Ulster-Scots: Derrie)
1604[28] None. Represented on Derry City and Strabane District Council

Map

Northern Ireland 85,279 (2021)[23]
Bangor (County Down)
(Irish: Beannchar)
202248 None. Represented on Ards and North Down Borough Council

Map

Northern Ireland 64,596 (2021)[23]
Inverness
(Scots: Inerness)

(Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Nis)

2001 None

Map

Scotland 63,730 (2020)[29]
Dunfermline 202246 None

Map

Scotland 76,210 (2020)[29]
Hereford119 TI Civil parish

Map

West Midlands, England 53,113 (2021)[30]
Lisburn
(Irish: Lios na gCearrbhach)
2002 None. Represented on Lisburn and Castlereagh City Council

Map

Northern Ireland 51,447 (2021)[23]
Stirling
(Scots: Stirlin)
(Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea)
2002 None

Map

Scotland 49,950 (2020)[29]
Perth
(Scots: Pairth)
(Scottish Gaelic: Peairt)
2012[31]
(Burgh: 12th century)[33]
None

Map

Scotland 47,350 (2020)[29]
Salisbury35 TI Civil parish

Map

South West, England 41,552 (2021)[34]
Lichfield17 TI Civil parish

Map

West Midlands, England 32,580 (2021)[35]
Chichester1 TI Civil parish

Map

South East, England 29,407 (2021)[36]
Newry
(Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá)
(Ulster-Scots: Newrie)
2002 None. Represented on Newry, Mourne and Down District Council

Map

Northern Ireland 28,530 (2021)[23]
Truro1
(Cornish: Truru)
1877 Civil parish

Map

South West, England 21,046 (2021)[37]
Ely1 TI Civil parish

Map

East, England 20,574 (2021)[38]
Ripon1 1865 Civil parish

Map

Yorkshire and the Humber, England 16,590 (2021[39]
Armagh11
(Irish: Ard Mhacha)
(Ulster-Scots: Airmagh)
1994 None. Represented on Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon Borough Council

Map

Northern Ireland 16,310 (2021)[23]
Bangor (Gwynedd)1 TI Community

Map

Wales 15,060 (2021)[40]
Wells1 TI Civil parish

Map

South West, England 111,145 (2021)[41]
St Asaph37
(Welsh: Llanelwy)
2012 Community

Map

Wales 3,485 (2021)[42]
St Davids20
(Welsh: Tyddewi)
1994 Community

Map

Wales 1,751 (2021)[43]

Map of the cities[edit]

Below is a map of the 76 cities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Also shown is the one city in a UK Crown Dependency, Douglas in the Isle of Man. (For cities in UK Overseas Territories, see below.)

32 cities have a Lord Provost (in Scotland) or a Lord Mayor (in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland), see List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom.

The six cities where the Lord Mayor or Lord Provost has the right to the style The Right Honourable are indicated in BOLD ITALICS: York, the City of London, Edinburgh, Glasgow (since 1912), Belfast (since 1923), and Cardiff (since 1956).

• Scalable map displaying local government city boundaries
Map Key
Map

Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies[edit]

The UK Overseas Territories and UK Crown Dependencies do not form part of the United Kingdom. Association of city status with cathedrals ended in 1865.[44] There are presently five cities in Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies.[45]

City Year granted
or confirmed
Cathedral
(pre-1865)
Territory/Dependency Status Population (Census)
Gibraltar 184242[46] Cathedral of the Holy Trinity Gibraltar, southwestern Europe

Map

British Overseas Territory 32,194 (2012)
Hamilton 1897 not applicable Bermuda,
North Atlantic Ocean

Map

British Overseas Territory 854 (2016)
Jamestown 1859 St Paul's St Helena,
Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
,
South Atlantic Ocean

Map

British Overseas Territory 629 (2016)
Stanley 202240 not applicable Falkland Islands,
South Atlantic Ocean

Map

British Overseas Territory 2,460 (2016)
Douglas
(Manx: Doolish)
202249 not applicable Isle of Man,
Irish Sea

Map

Crown Dependency 27,938 (2011)

Map of cities in Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies[edit]

Location of cities in Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies:
Cities in Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies

See also[edit]

Table notes[edit]

  • ^‡ The status bearers of these cities changed on 1 April 2009 due to local government reforms. Salisbury became a civil parish, while charter trustees were formed for the former district council areas of Chester and Durham in the new unitary authorities of Cheshire West and Chester and County Durham respectively.[47][48]
  • ^1 City status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 1 April 1974.[49]
  • ^2 City status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 25 June 1974.[50]
  • ^3 City status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 28 May 1974.[51]
  • ^4 Bath Abbey and Westminster Abbey are no longer cathedrals.
  • ^5 Coventry has had three cathedrals: the first, St Mary's, from 1043 to 1539 (it became a cathedral in 1102); the second, St Michael's, from 1918 to 1940, when it was destroyed by German bombardment; and its replacement, also St Michael's, built alongside the old cathedral, consecrated in 1962.
  • ^6 Note that the City of London covers only the "square mile", and is usually just referred to as "the City". The larger conurbation of Greater London has no city charter, and consists of the City of London, the City of Westminster and 31 other London boroughs. This can be compared to the City of Brussels, within Brussels.
  • ^7 City status was confirmed by Letters Patent dated 9 July 1974.[52] The city status extends to the entire district, although the district council calls itself "St Albans District Council" or "St Albans City and District".
  • ^8 Letters Patent under the Great Seal conferring City Status were issued to the unitary authority of York on 1 April 1996, confirming the right of the Lord Mayor to be styled "Right Honourable", in continuation to those granted to the previous City Council abolished 31 March 1996.[53]
  • ^9 Letters Patent under the Great Seal were issued on 29 March 1996 ordaining that the counties of Swansea and Cardiff should have the status of cities from 1 April 1996. The counties replaced the previous district councils which had enjoyed city status.[53]
  • ^10 According to the Municipal Year Book, 1972 the royal burghs of Perth and Elgin officially enjoyed city status. The royal burghs of Brechin, Dunfermline and Kirkwall had also been officially described as "cities". As all burghs were abolished in 1975, these areas are now often called "former cities". Although Brechin does not have city status, the community council formed for the area uses the title "City of Brechin and District".
  • ^11 Armagh had previously enjoyed city status, with St Patrick's Cathedral the seat of the metropolitan primate of all Ireland. The city status was lost in 1840 when the city corporation was abolished. However, the successor urban district council and district council frequently used the title of city without official sanction prior to 1994.
  • ^12 City Status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 18 March 1975.[54]
  • ^13 City status granted by Letters Patent dated 7 June 1977.[55]
  • ^14 City status granted to the "Town of Newport in the County Borough of Newport" and the "Town of Preston" by Letters Patent dated 15 May 2002.[56]
  • ^15 Letters Patent dated 31 January 2001 ordained that "the Towns of Brighton and Hove shall have the status of a City".[57]
  • ^16 Letters Patent dated 31 January 2001 ordained that "the Town of Wolverhampton shall have the status of a City".[57]
  • ^17 Letters Patent dated 4 November 1980 ordained that the "Town of Lichfield shall have the status of a City". A town council had been constituted in 1980 leading to the dissolution of the Charter Trustees of the City of Lichfield.[58][59]
  • ^18 City status granted by Letters Patent dated 23 March 1992.[60]
  • ^19 City status was conferred on Hereford Town Council 11 October 2000.[61] The status had previously been confirmed to the district council formed in 1974. When that council was abolished in 1996 charter trustees were formed for the City of Hereford. On the formation of a town council for Hereford in April 2000 the charter trustees were dissolved, and the city status temporarily lapsed.
  • ^20 St David's historically had city status because of the presence of St David's Cathedral. In 1849 it was noted that the city had no municipal corporation: There was however a recognised "city" in which a mayor had limited jurisdiction.[62] A Royal Commission appointed in 1876 reported that the corporation had long been extinct, and the city was formally abolished in 1886 under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act 1883.[63] Letters Patent dated 16 September 1994 ordained that the "Town of St. David's shall have the status of a City".[64]
  • ^21 The title of City was used "by courtesy" after 1550 when Westminster ceased to be the see of a bishop. By Letters Patent dated 27 October 1900 city status was conferred on the newly created Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1 November.[65] This status was continued on the creation of the City of Westminster as a London borough in 1965.
  • ^22 A letter from the Home Secretary to the Mayor of Leicester dated 14 June 1919, confirming that the city status would be bestowed, noted that this was a "restoration to your ancient town of its former status of a city".[66][67][68]
  • ^23 Letters Patent dated 10 December 1969.[69]
  • ^24 Letters Patent dated 21 April 1926.[70]
  • ^25 Letters Patent dated 21 March 1951.[71]
  • ^26 Letters Patent dated 14 May 1937.[72]
  • ^27 Letters Patent dated 18 October 1928.[73]
  • ^28 Letters Patent dated 5 June 1925.[74]
  • ^29 Letters Patent dated 28 October 1905, which also granted the title of Lord Mayor.[75]
  • ^30 Warrant issued 28 January 1889 that Letters Patent be issued under the Seal appointed by the treaty of union to be used in place of the Great Seal of Scotland, ordaining and declaring that the Burgh of Dundee shall be a City, and shall be called and styled "The City of Dundee".[76]
  • ^31 Burghs of Old Aberdeen and Woodside and the district of Torry incorporated as the City and Royal Burgh of Aberdeen by the Aberdeen Corporation Act 1891 (54 & 55 Vict. c. cxxiv).
  • ^32 The present council areas are designated "cities" by virtue of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, which also reserves the post of Lord Provost for the convener of the four councils. The previous local government districts and district councils created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 enjoyed the same privileges.
  • ^33 Letters Patent dated 14 January 1889.[77]
  • ^34 Letters Patent dated 29 March 1853.[78]
  • ^35 Letters Patent dated 1 April 2009.[79] City status had been held prior to this date (and since 1974) by the Charter Trustees of the City of New Sarum. The city of Salisbury's formal name was New Sarum (see also: Old Sarum) from 1227 until 2009.
  • ^36 Letters Patent dated 28 August 1877.[80]
  • ^37 Letters Patent dated 1 June 2012 "to ordain that the Town of Chelmsford in the County of Essex and the Town of St Asaph in the County of Denbighshire shall have the status of a City".[81]
  • ^38 [2015] Localities (Glasgow)[82]
  • ^39 Legally, the city and county are called "Londonderry", while the local government district is called "Derry". See Derry/Londonderry name dispute.[83]
  • ^40 Letters Patent dated 14 June 2022.[84]
  • ^41 Letters Patent dated 15 August 2022.[85]
  • ^42 Letters Patent dated 30 September 1842[86]
  • ^43 Letters Patent dated 1 September 2022[87]
  • ^44 Letters Patent dated 5 September 2022[88]
  • ^45 Letters Patent dated 26 January 2022[89]
  • ^46 Letters Patent dated 28 July 2022[90]
  • ^47 Letters Patent dated 7 September 2022, with effect from 1 November 2022[91]
  • ^48 Letters Patent dated 22 November 2022[92]
  • ^49 Letters Patent dated 7 September 2022, with effect from 1 November 2022[93]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom.
  2. ^ Of the local authority area not just the urban area, since the award is made to the authority

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Weaver, Matthew (1 March 2022). "'I will tell my grandchildren': Southend celebrates city status". The Guardian.
  2. ^ West, Robby; McMenemy, Rachael (1 March 2022). "Southend ready to celebrate city status granted by Queen". BBC News.
  3. ^ a b c "UK Government Web Archive". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  4. ^ McClatchey, Caroline (22 June 2011). "Why do towns want to become cities?". BBC News. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Beckett (2005).
  6. ^ "JTK". "Civitas" in Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, p. 451. ABC-CLIO (Sta. Barbara), 2006.
  7. ^ De Excidio Britanniae, §3. (in Latin) Cited in the "Civitas" entry of Celtic Culture.[6]
  8. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  9. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. 1911.
  10. ^ The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, listed St Asaph and Southwell as cities on the basis of their cathedrals despite their lack of charters or, in Southwell's case, local government.[9]
  11. ^ Beckett (2005), p. 22.
  12. ^ "ASA Adjudication on Medway Council". Asa.org.uk. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  13. ^ Kingdoms of England and Scotland. "Act of Union", §XXI Archived 26 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. 16 January 1707.
  14. ^ a b Beckett (2005), p. 16.
  15. ^ Clark, M. Lynda & al. "Committee on Privileges Second Report", Appendix 3, ss58. Parliament of the United Kingdom (London), 1999.
  16. ^ Swinney, Paul (12 July 2021). "Does how we define cities change our understanding of them?". The Centre for Cities.
  17. ^ a b c "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  18. ^ "Milton Keynes celebrates City status". The Royal Family. 23 February 2023.
  19. ^ Milton Keynes City Council (December 2021). "Milton Keynes city status application" (PDF).
  20. ^ Colchester City Council (November 2022). "Colchester City Status".
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  22. ^ a b c d "Scotland's Census 2022 - Rounded population estimates - data". Scotland's Census. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Census 2021 main statistics demography tables – age and sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  24. ^ "City of Chester Charter Trustees - City status extends to the area of the wards for the trustees". The Lord Mayor of Chester. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  25. ^ "Charter Trust and Mayor for Durham City - Durham County Council - City status extends to the area of the electoral divisions for the trustees". durham.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  26. ^ "BANES 2021 Census Ward Profiles - (Combined populations of the 14 wards that make-up the city.)". app.powerbi.com. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  27. ^ "City Map showing Ward Boundaries" (PDF).
  28. ^ City commemorates the 400th Anniversary of the City's first charter, Derry City Council press release dated 7 July 2004, (accessed 15 December 2007) Archived 2 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ a b c d Team, National Records of Scotland Web (31 March 2022). "National Records of Scotland - Mid-2020 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  30. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Hereford parish (E04000921)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  31. ^ Letters Patent dated 21 May 2012 "News: The National Records of Scotland seals Perth's city status". National Archives of Scotland. 6 July 2012. "'We really feel part of history being made' — Letters Patent makes Perth's city status official". The Courier (Dundee). 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  32. ^ A A M Duncan (24 March 1973). "Perth. The First Century of the Burgh" (PDF). Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013.
  33. ^ Created a royal burgh at some point under King David I (1124–53) although the earliest surviving charters date to 1209 or 1210; the status was abolished in 1975.[5][32]
  34. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Salisbury parish (E04013046)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  35. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Lichfield civil parish (E04008932)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  36. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Chichester civil parish (E04009888)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  37. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Truro civil parish (E04013097)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  38. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Ely (East Cambridgeshire) civil parish (E04012829)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  39. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Ripon civil parish (E04007409)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  40. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Bangor community (W04000046)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  41. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Wells civil parish (E04008595)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  42. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – St. Asaph community (W04000175)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  43. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – St. David's and the Cathedral Close community (W04000466)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  44. ^ Beckett (2005), p. 24.
  45. ^ O'Connor, Mary (20 May 2022). "Platinum Jubilee: Eight new cities created in Queen's honour". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  46. ^ "Government re-affirms city status of Gibraltar".
  47. ^ "Local Government (Structural Changes) (Miscellaneous Amendments and Other Provision) Order 2009". Tow. Office of Public Sector Information. 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
  48. ^ "New Parish Council for the City of Salisbury". Towards One Council. Wiltshire County Council. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  49. ^ "No. 46255". The London Gazette. 4 April 1974. p. 4400.
  50. ^ "No. 46303". The London Gazette. 28 June 1974. pp. 6485–6486.
  51. ^ "No. 46303". The London Gazette. 31 May 1974. p. 6485.
  52. ^ "No. 46352". The London Gazette. 24 September 1974. p. 7920.
  53. ^ a b "No. 54363". The London Gazette. 4 April 1996. p. 4925.
  54. ^ "No. 46522". The London Gazette. 20 March 1975. p. 3729.
  55. ^ "No. 47246". The London Gazette. 14 June 1977. p. 7656.
  56. ^ "No. 56573". The London Gazette. 21 May 2002. p. 6160.
  57. ^ a b "No. 56109". The London Gazette. 2 May 2001. p. 1431.
  58. ^ "No. 48364". The London Gazette. 7 November 1980. p. 15451.
  59. ^ "Lichfield City Council website". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
  60. ^ "No. 52874". The London Gazette. 26 March 1992. p. 5413.
  61. ^ Charters of Hereford City Council Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ Lewis, Samuel (1849). ""Dale – St. David's"". A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. London: British History Online. pp. 278–288. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  63. ^ 46 & 47 Vict. c. 18, s.3 and Sch. II (Part I)
  64. ^ "No. 53798". The London Gazette. 23 September 1994. p. 13403.
  65. ^ "No. 27242". The London Gazette. 30 October 1900. p. 6613.
  66. ^ The Times: Leicester, a City: Sequel to the Recent Royal Visit, 17 June 1919
  67. ^ "Civic history: The making of a City, (Leicester City Council), accessed 14 February 2008". Archived from the original on 23 March 2008.
  68. ^ Leicester: The Dignity of a City 655–1926, Leicester's city status, its loss and its regaining over thirteen centuries by Daniel Williams
  69. ^ "No. 44986". The London Gazette. 12 December 1969. p. 12450.
  70. ^ "No. 33154". The London Gazette. 23 April 1926. pp. 2776–2777.
  71. ^ "No. 39201". The London Gazette. 13 April 1951. p. 2067.
  72. ^ "No. 34400". The London Gazette. 21 May 1937. p. 3296.
  73. ^ "No. 33433". The London Gazette. 26 October 1928. p. 6850.
  74. ^ "No. 33063". The London Gazette. 3 July 1925. p. 4449.
  75. ^ "No. 27849". The London Gazette. 31 October 1905. p. 7249.
  76. ^ London Gazette, 29 January 1889
  77. ^ From the London Gazette, 18 January 1889, The Times, 19 January 1889
  78. ^ "No. 21426". The London Gazette. 1 April 1853. p. 950.
  79. ^ "No. 59250". The London Gazette. 24 November 2009. p. 20329.
  80. ^ "No. 24502". The London Gazette. 11 September 1877. p. 5185. to ordain and declare that the Borough of Saint Albans, in the county of Hertford, shall be a City, and shall be called and styled 'The City of Saint Albans, in the county of Hertford.'
  81. ^ "No. 60167". The London Gazette. 11 June 2012. p. 11125.
  82. ^ "Scotland (United Kingdom): Council Areas & Localities – Population Statistics, Charts and Map". citypopulation.de.
  83. ^ Application by Derry City Council for judicial review [2007] NIQB 5 Ref WEAF5707
  84. ^ "No. 63732". The London Gazette. 17 June 2022. p. 11466.
  85. ^ "No. 63791". The London Gazette. 18 August 2022. p. 15822. "THE QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 15 August 2022 to ordain that the Borough of Milton Keynes shall have the status of a City."
  86. ^ "No. 20146". The London Gazette. 30 September 1842. p. 2632.
  87. ^ "Crown Office". 5 September 2022. "THE QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 1 September 2022 to ordain that the County Borough of Wrexham shall have the status of a City."
  88. ^ "Crown Office - The Gazette". 29 September 2022. The Late QUEEN was pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 5 September 2022 to ordain that the Borough of Colchester shall have the status of a City.
  89. ^ @RoyalFamily (1 March 2022). "Today The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall were in Southend to celebrate its new city status, which was made official after the formal presentation of 'Letters Patent' on behalf of The Queen" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  90. ^ @RoyalFamily (3 October 2022). "'We gather to celebrate this great occasion but also to commemorate the life of Her late Majesty , whose deep love for Scotland was one of the foundations of her life.'" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  91. ^ @LieutenancySY (9 November 2022). "'Honoured to host Their Majesties King Charles III and The Queen Consort Camilla in #Doncaster today for the letters patent ceremony to grant City status.'" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  92. ^ "Bangor receives city status in Princess Anne visit". BBC News. 2 December 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  93. ^ "Douglas Letters Patent" (PDF). Ministry of Justice. 27 June 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.

Sources[edit]

  • Beckett, J. V. (2005). City Status in the British Isles, 1830–2002. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5067-7.