List of climate scientists
This list of climate scientists contains famous or otherwise notable persons who have contributed to the study of climate science. The list is compiled manually so will not be complete or up to date. See also Category:Climatologists and List of authors of Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. The list includes scientists from several specialities or disciplines.
- Ernest Afiesimama, Nigerian weatherman, former senior associate of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Physics of Weather and Climate Group) and head of numerical weather prediction at Nigerian Meteorological Agency. Presently, Programme Manager, Offices for Africa and Least Developed Countries, World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)
- Myles Allen, head of the Climate Dynamics group at University of Oxford's Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics Department. Lead author, IPCC Third Assessment Report. Review editor, Fourth Assessment Report.
- Richard Alley (1957-), Penn State College of Earth and Mineral Science, American, Earth's cryosphere and global climate change.
- Kevin Anderson, Director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and is an adviser to the British Government on climate change.
- James Annan, British climatologist with Blue Skies Research, UK
- Julie Arblaster, Australian climatologist at The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in CSIRO
- David Archer, American professor of oceanography at University of Chicago
- Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927), Swedish, greenhouse effect.
- Sallie Baliunas, American, astrophysicist, solar variation.
- Robert Balling, American, former director of the Office of Climatology and is a professor of geography at Arizona State University, climatology, global climate change, and geographic information systems.
- Édouard Bard, French climate scientist, specialized in past climate reconstruction.
- Eric J. Barron (1944-), American geophysicist, President of Pennsylvania State University
- André Berger, (1942-), Belgian, modeling climatic changes at the geological and at the century time scales.
- Richard A. Betts, Head of the Climate Impacts strategic area at the Met Office Hadley Centre.
- Jacob Bjerknes, Norwegian-American meteorologist
- Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862-1951), Norwegian, forecasting, numerical models.
- Bert Bolin (1925-2007), Swedish meteorologist, first chair of the IPCC
- Gerard C. Bond (1940-2005) American geologist and paleoclimate researcher
- Jason Box, American professor of glaciology at Ohio State University
- Raymond S. Bradley, American, historical temperatures, paleoclimatology, and climate variability.
- Keith Briffa (1952-), United Kingdom, dendrochronology, temperature history.
- Wallace Smith Broecker (1931-), American, Pleistocene geochronology, radiocarbon dating, and chemical oceanography.
- Harold E. Brooks (1959-), American meteorologist, severe convective storm and tornado climatology as well as conducive atmospheric environments
- Keith Browning, British meteorologist; mesoscale meteorology, sparkles
- Ken Caldeira, American, climate engineering, ocean acidification, atmospheric chemistry.
- Guy Stewart Callendar, English,(February 1898-October 1964), steam engineer and inventor who proposed what eventually became known as the Callendar effect, the theory that linked rising carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere to global temperature.
- Mark Cane, American, modeling and prediction of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
- Anny Cazenave, French oceanographer specializing in satellite altimetry.
- Robert D. Cess, American atmospheric scientist, emeritus professor at Stony Brook University.
- Jule G. Charney (1917-1981) American meteorologist, pioneer in numerical weather modeling
- John Christy, director of the Earth System Science Center at The University of Alabama in Huntsville. Best known (with Dr. Roy Spencer) for developing the first version of the satellite temperature record.
- John A. Church (1951-), Australian oceanographer, chair of the [World Climate Research Programme]
- Ralph J. Cicerone (1943-), American atmospheric chemist, President of U.S. National Academy of Sciences
- Mat Collins, Joint Met Office Chair in Climate, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter. Quantifying uncertainty in climate projections, dynamics of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, global and regional hydrological cycle changes, Indian Monsoon across multiple time scales, stochastic parameterisation, Arctic predictability.
- Harmon Craig (1926-2003), pioneering American geochemist
- Paul J. Crutzen (1933-), Dutch, stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and their role in the biogeochemical cycles and climate.
- Heidi Cullen, American meteorologist, chief scientist for Climate Central
- Balfour Currie OC (1902-1981), Canadian climatologist at University of Saskatchewan
- Judith Curry American climatologist and chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology
- Willi Dansgaard, Danish climatologist
- Scott Denning, American atmospheric scientist and professor at Colorado State University
- Andrew Dessler, American atmospheric scientist and professor at Texas A&M University
- Robert E. Dickinson. American climatologist, professor at University of Texas at Austin
- Mark Dyurgerov (died 2009), Russian-American glaciologist
- Devara Panuganti, Indian Climatalogist and Profesor at Amity University
- Sylvia Earle (1935-), American marine biologist
- Arnt Eliassen dynamic meteorologist
- Kerry Emanuel (1955-), American, atmospheric dynamics specializing in hurricanes.
- Matthew England (1966-), Australian, physical oceanographer and climate dynamicist.
- Ian G. Enting, Australian mathematical physicist at University of Melbourne
- Joe Farman, British, ozone hole above Antarctica
- Christopher Field, American climate scientist with the Carnegie Institution for Science
- Piers Forster, British professor of Physical Climate Change at University of Leeds
- Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), French, greenhouse effect.
- Jennifer Francis Climate change in the Arctic
- Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), first mapped the course of the Gulf Stream for use in sending mail from the United States to Europe
- Chris Freeman, Welsh professor of biogeochemistry
- Inez Fung American, climate modeling, biogeochemical cycles, and climate change.
- Yevgraf Yevgrafovich Fyodorov (1880-1965), Russian climatologist
- Francis Galton (1822-1911), coined the term anticyclone
- Filippo Giorgi (1959-), Italian atmospheric physicist, International Centre for Theoretical Physics
- Peter Gleick (1956-), American, hydroclimatologist, hydrologic impacts of climate change, snowfall/snowmelt responses, water adaptation strategies, consequences of sea-level rise
- Jonathan M. Gregory, climate modeler, British, professor at University of Reading
- Jean M. Grove (d. 1927-2001), British, glaciologist; the Little Ice Age
- Joanna Haigh, (1954- ) British, Co-Director of Grantham Institute at Imperial College London, solar variability
- Edmund Halley, published a map of the trade winds in 1686 after a voyage to the southern hemisphere.
- Gordon Hamilton, (1966-2016) Scottish, Associate Research Professor, Climatology Group, of the University of Maine. 
- James E. Hansen (1941- ), American, planetary atmospheres, remote sensing, numerical models, and global warming.
- Kenneth Hare OC FRSC (1919-2002), Canadian climatologist
- Stephan Harrison, Associate Professor of Quaternary Science, University of Exeter. Geomorphological responses to climate change
- Katharine Hayhoe, Canadian, Atmospheric science, global climate models.
- Gabriele C. Hegerl (1963 - ), Professor of Climate System Science at the University of Edinburgh School of GeoSciences.
- Isaac Held, German-American atmospheric physicist, researcher at GFDL
- Ann Henderson-Sellers (1952- ), Australian, climate change risk evaluation.
- Ellie Highwood, Professor of Climate Physics at the University of Reading
- David A. Hodell, (1958- ), British paleoclimatologist, professor at Cambridge University
- Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Australian oceanographer at University of Queensland
- Greg Holland Australian meteorology researcher at NCAR
- Brian Hoskins, British climatologist and professor at University of Reading
- John T. Houghton (1931- ), British, atmospheric physics, remote sensing.
- Malcolm K. Hughes, British meso-climatologist, professor at University of Arizona
- Mike Hulme (1960- ), British, climate impacts, climate modelling, climate and culture.
- Thomas Sterry Hunt (1826-1892), American, first scientist to connect carbon dioxide to climate change
- Eystein Jansen (1953- ), Norwegian professor of paleoceanography at University of Bergen
- Jonathan H. Jiang, American Scientist at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, satellite observation.
- Phil Jones (1952- ), British, instrumental climate change, palaeoclimatology, detection of climate change.
- Jean Jouzel, French, glaciologist and climatologist specializing in major climatic shifts
- Daniel Kammen, American professor of Energy at University of California, Berkeley
- Lewis D. Kaplan, early modeler of carbon-dioxide greenhouse effect
- Thomas R. Karl (1951-), American, climate extremes and variability.
- David Karoly, Australian professor of meteorology at University of Melbourne
- Charles David Keeling (1928-2005), American, atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements, Keeling Curve.
- Ralph Keeling, American professor of Atmospheric Chemistry at Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- David W. Keith, Canadian, Geoengineering and CO2 capture and storage research, University Professor at SEAS and Harvard Kennedy School
- Joseph B. Klemp, American atmospheric scientist at NCAR
- Kirill Y. Kondratyev (1920-2006), Russian atmospheric physicist
- Pancheti Koteswaram, Indian meteorologist and former vice-president of the World Meteorological Organization
- Thomas Knutson, American climate modeller, researcher at GFDL
- Shen Kuo (1031-1095), Chinese scientist who inferred that climates naturally shifted over an enormous span of time, after observing petrified bamboos found underground near Yanzhou (modern day Yan'an, Shaanxi province), a dry-climate area unsuitable for the growth of bamboo
- John E. Kutzbach, American climatologist, professor emeritus at University of Wisconsin–Madison
- Dmitry Lachinov (1842-1902), Russian climatologist and engineer
- Hubert Lamb (1913-1997), British climatologist, founder of the Climatic Research Unit at University of East Anglia
- Kurt Lambeck, Australian, cryosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere interactions, and sea level rise and its impact on human populations.
- Helmut Landsberg (1906-1985), German-American, fostered the use of statistical analysis in climatology, which led to its evolution into a physical science
- Mojib Latif (1954-), German, meteorology and oceanography, climate modelling
- Anders Levermann, German professor of climate dynamics at University of Potsdam
- Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Hydroclimatology
- Richard Lindzen (1940-), American, dynamic meteorology, especially planetary waves.
- Diana Liverman (1954-), American/British, climate impacts, vulnerability and policy
- Michael Lockwood, British professor of physics at Reading University
- Edward Norton Lorenz (1917-2008), American, discovery of the strange attractor notion and coined the term butterfly effect.
- Claude Lorius, French glaciologist, director emeritus of CNRS
- James Lovelock (1919-), British, Gaia hypothesis and biotic feedbacks.
- James R. Luyten, American, physical oceanographer, director emeritus of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; ocean dynamics
- Amanda Lynch, Australian Professor at Brown University bridging research between atmospheric and climate change science, and environmental policy and Indigenous knowledge
- Peter Lynch, Irish meteorologist and mathematician
- Michael MacCracken (1942- ), American, Chief Scientist at the Climate Institute in Washington, DC.
- Gordon J. F. MacDonald (1929-2002) American physicist who developed one of the first computational models of climate change, and was an early advocate for governmental action.
- Jerry D. Mahlman (1940-2012) was an American meteorologist and climatologist and a pioneer in the use of computational models of the atmosphere to examine the interactions between atmospheric chemistry and physics.
- Syukuro Manabe (1931-), Japanese, professor Princeton University, pioneered the use of computers to simulate global climate change and natural climate variations.
- Gordon Manley (1902-1980), English, Central England temperature (CET) series.
- Michael E. Mann (1965-), American, Distinguished Professor of Meteorology and Director, Earth System Science Center, Penn State U. Climate variability and paleoclimate reconstructions; see Hockey stick graph.
- David Marshall, British physical oceanographer at the University of Oxford.
- Gordon McBean, Canadian, boundary layer research, hydrometeorology and environmental impact research, and weather forecasting.
- James J. McCarthy, American professor of Biological Oceanography at Harvard University
- Christopher McKay, American planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center
- Marcia McNutt, American geophysicist, Editor-in-Chief of Science
- Carl Mears, American, Senior Scientist at Remote Sensing Systems
- Gerald A. Meehl (1951-), American climatologist at NCAR.
- Patrick Michaels (1950-), American climatologist.
- Milutin Milanković (1879-1958), Serbian, Milankovitch cycles.
- John F. B. Mitchell, British, climate modelling and detection and attribution of climate change
- Fritz Möller (1906-1983), German, early modeling of CO2 greenhouse effect
- Mario J. Molina (1943-), Mexican, atmospheric chemistry and ozone depletion.
- Philip Mote Director, Oregon Climate Change Research Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
- Richard A. Muller (1944-), American physicist, head of the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, formerly an outspoken critic of current climate change science.
- R. E. Munn FRSC (1919-2013), Canadian climatologist
- Atsumu Ohmura (1942- ), Japanese climatologist, professor emeritus at ETH Zurich
- Gerald North (1938- ) American atmospheric scientist at Texas A&M and author of the North Report.
- Hans Oeschger (1927-1998), German paleoclimatologist and isotope chemist
- Abraham H Oort
- Michael Oppenheimer, American professor of geosciences at Princeton University
- Timothy Osborn, British professor of Climate Science at University of East Anglia
- Tim Palmer CBE FRS (1952- ), British mathematical physicist, climate modeler at Oxford University
- David E. Parker, British, surface temperature trend.
- Fyodor Panayev (1856-1933), Russian climatologist
- Graeme Pearman OA FAAS (1941- ), Australian climatologist
- William Richard Peltier (1943- ), Canadian, global geodynamic modeling and ice sheet reconstructions; atmospheric and oceanic waves and turbulence.
- Jean Robert Petit, French paleoclimatologist, emeritus director of research at Centre national de la recherche scientifique
- David Phillips OC (1944- ), Canadian climatologist and meteorologist
- Roger A. Pielke, Sr. (1946-), American, climate change, environmental vulnerability, numerical modeling, and atmospheric dynamics.
- Raymond Pierrehumbert, idealized climate modeling, Faint young sun paradox.
- Andrew Pitman (1964- ), British, terrestrial processes in global and regional climate modelling, model evaluation and earth systems approaches to understanding climate change.
- Gilbert Plass (1920-2004), Canadian. CO2 greenhouse effect and AGW.
- Henry Pollack, American emeritus professor of geophysics at University of Michigan.
- Vicky Pope, British, Head of the Climate Prediction Programme at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research.
- Detlef Quadfasel, German professor of Geophysics at Niels Bohr Institute
- Corinne Le Quéré,Canadian/UK, Director of Tyndall Center for Climate Change
- Stefan Rahmstorf (1960-), German, the role of ocean currents in climate change.
- Veerabhadran Ramanathan, Indian, general circulation models, atmospheric chemistry, and radiative transfer.
- Ichtiaque S. Rasool, (1930-), former Chief Scientist for Global Change at NASA
- Michael Raupach (1950-2015), Australian climatologist, formerly of CSIRO and was director of the Climate Change program at Australian National University
- Maureen Raymo, American, paleoclimatologist.
- Roger Revelle (1909-1991), American, global warming and chemical oceanography.
- Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) English mathematician and meteorologist
- Eric Rignot, American professor of Earth System Science at University of California, Irvine
- Alan Robock (1941-), American climatologist, professor at Rutgers University
- Joseph J. Romm (1960-), American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert.
- Carl-Gustaf Rossby (1898-1957), Swedish-American climatologist
- Frank Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012), American atmospheric chemist at University of California, Irvine
- William Ruddiman, American, palaeoclimatologist, Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis
- Steve Running, American global ecologist at University of Montana
- Jim Salinger, New Zealand climatologist
- Dork Sahagian Armenian-American, Lehigh University
- Ben Santer (1955-), climatologist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
- Hans Joachim Schellnhuber (1950-), German climatologist, was an author for the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
- David Schindler, Canadian-American environmental chemist, professor of Ecology at University of Alberta
- Michael Schlesinger, American professor of Atmospheric Sciences at UIUC
- William H. Schlesinger (1950-), American biogeochemist, former Dean of the Nicholas School at Duke University
- Gavin A. Schmidt, American climatologist and climate modeler at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).
- Stephen H. Schneider (1945-2010), American, Professor of Environmental Biology and Global Change at Stanford University.
- Justin Schoof, American, ice-sheet dynamics
- Stephen E. Schwartz (1941-), American, chemistry of air pollutants, radiative forcing of aerosols on climate.
- Wolfgang Seiler (1940-), German climatologist, Director of the Institute of Meteorology and Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
- John H. Seinfeld, American atmosperic chemist at California Institute of Technology
- Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006), British paleoclimatologist at Cambridge University
- J. Marshall Shepherd American professor of meteorology at University of Georgia
- Steven Sherwood, Director, Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales
- Drew Shindell, American atmospheric chemist, professor of Climate Sciences at Duke University
- Keith Shine, Regius Professor of Meteorology and Climate Science at the University of Reading
- Jagdish Shukla (1944-), Indian-American climatologist, Distinguished University Professor at George Mason University
- Joanne Simpson (1923-2010), American meteorologist
- Julia Slingo (1950-), Chief Scientist at the Met Office since 2009 and former Director of Climate Research in NERC's National Centre for Atmospheric Science, at the University of Reading
- Joseph Smagorinsky (1924-2005), American meteorologist; first head of NOAA GFDL
- Susan Solomon (1956-), American, chlorofluorocarbons and ozone depletion.
- Richard C. J. Somerville (1941-), American climatologist, Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Kozma Spassky-Avtonomov (1807-1890), Russian climatologist
- Roy Spencer (scientist), climatologist, Principal Research Scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville
- Konrad Steffen (1952-), Swiss-American glaciologist at University of Colorado Boulder
- Will Steffen (1947-), Australian climatologist, science advisor to Australian government.
- Thomas Stocker, Swiss, climate dynamics and paleoclimate modeling and reconstruction.
- Hans von Storch (1949-), German, meteorology - Director of the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany
- Peter A. Stott, British, climate scientist .
- Ronald J. Stouffer, American, senior research climatologist and group head of the Climate and Ecosystems Group at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
- Hans E. Suess (1909-1993), Austrian, radiocarbon dating, Suess effect.
- Henrik Svensmark, Professor in the Division of Solar System Physics at the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space) in Copenhagen.
- Simon Tett, British, detection and attribution of climate change, model initialization, and validation.
- Peter Thejll (1956- ), Danish, Northern Hemisphere land air temperature, solar variation and greenhouse effect
- Peter Thorne, British climatologist with the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen, Norway
- Lonnie Thompson (1948- ), American, paleoclimatology, ice cores.
- Micha Tomkiewicz (1939- ), American, democratizing climate change, facilitating required energy transition, professor at Brooklyn College, City University of New York.
- Owen Toon, American professor of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences at University of Colorado Boulder
- Kevin E. Trenberth, decadal variability, El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
- John Tyndall (1820-1893), British, measured radiative effect of greenhouse gases, postulated greenhouse effect hypothesis of climate change
- David Vaughan, ice sheets, British Antarctic Survey.
- Pier Vellinga (1950-), Dutch climatologist, professor at Wageningen University
- Ricardo Villalba, Argentine paleoclimatologist.
- Peter Wadhams ScD (1948- ), is professor of Ocean Physics, and Head of the Polar Ocean Physics Group in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. He is best known for his work on sea ice.
- Warren M. Washington (1936- ), American, climate modelling.
- John Michael Wallace, North Atlantic oscillation, Arctic oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
- Andrew Watson (1952-), British, marine and atmospheric sciences.
- Sir Robert Watson, British scientist and Chief Scientist for the World Bank
- Andrew J. Weaver, Canadian, climate modeling and analysis.
- Harry Wexler (1911-1962), American meteorologist
- Penny Whetton, Australian, regional climate change projections for Australia. A lead author of the IPCC third and fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change.
- Tom Wigley, Australian climatologist at University of Adelaide
- Josh Willis, American oceanographer at NASA's JPL
- David Wratt, new Zeelander, Chief Scientist at NIWA
- Carl Wunsch (1941- ), Physical oceanography and ocean acoustic tomography.
- Olga Zolina (1975- ), Russian climatologist
- Eduardo Zorita (1961- ), Spanish paleoclimatologist, Senior Scientist at GKSS
- List of authors from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
- List of scientists opposing the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming
- Women in climate change
- "Citation for Richard Alley" (PDF). Penn State College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
Through the interpretation of paleoclimatic records from ice cores, Prof. Alley has examined [the stability of the ice sheets and glaciers of Antarctica and Greenland] response to past and future climate change. He has provided evidence that large, abrupt global climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the Earth’s history and has contributed to our understanding of the driving mechanisms of these changes.
- Prof. Kevin Anderson, about. .
- The Royal Society (March 2007). "Fellow of the month - Arrhenius". Retrieved 11 March 2009.
Building on the idea by the French scientist Joseph Fourier that the Earth's atmosphere acted like the glass of a greenhouse, Arrhenius calculated the capacity of the Earth's surface at different latitudes and seasons to absorb and reflect solar radiation. From this he produced a series of temperature predictions, reasoning that large changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations would trigger feedback mechanisms causing glacial formation and retreat.
- Professor Robert C. Balling, Jr. at Arizona State University; Balling, R.C. and Sen Roy, S. (2005), Analysis of spatial patterns underlying the linkage between solar irradiance and near-surface air temperatures, Geophysical Research Letters 32 (11): art. no. L11702 June 8, 2005; Emanuel K.A.; Idso S.B.; Balling R.C. ; Cerveny R.S. Comment on: Carbon dioxide and hurricanes: implications of Northern hemispheric warming for Atlantic-Caribbean storms. Author's reply, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 1991, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 83-86, ISSN 0177-7971.
- Paul N. Edwards. "Before 1955: Numerical models and the prehistory of AGCMs". Atmospheric general circulation modeling: A participatory history. The American Institute of Physics.
[Bjerknes] developed a set of seven equations whose solution would, in principle, predict large-scale atmospheric motions.
- Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (2006). "The Crafoordprize: Geosciences". Archived from the original on 28 January 2009.
The Crafoord Prize in Geosciences 2006 is awarded to Wallace Broecker. With his innovative research on the interaction between atmosphere, oceans, ice and living organisms, he has contributed greatly to our knowledge of climate change and its mechanisms.
- Naeun Choi (10 November 2008). "Nobel Prize Winner Paul Crutzen Appointed as SNU Professor". SNU News. Seoul National University. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
Professor Paul Crutzen won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1995 for demonstrating destruction of stratospheric ozone which protects the Earth from Sun's ultraviolet radiation. He was one of the first scientists to identify the causes of the hole in the ozone layer, and has been actively engaging in environmental efforts.
- Elizabeth A. Thomson (1 May 2007). "Five from MIT elected to National Academy of Sciences". Massachusetts Institute of Technology News Office. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
- Spencer Weart (June 2008). "The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect". The Discovery of Global Warming. American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
Beginning with work by Joseph Fourier in the 1820s, scientists had understood that gases in the atmosphere might trap the heat received from the Sun. As Fourier put it, energy in the form of visible light from the Sun easily penetrates the atmosphere to reach the surface and heat it up, but heat cannot so easily escape back into space. For the air absorbs invisible heat rays ("infrared radiation") rising from the surface. The warmed air radiates some of the energy back down to the surface, helping it stay warm. This was the effect that would later be called, by an inaccurate analogy, the 'greenhouse effect.'
- University of Maine. "GPS Measurements of fast flow in East Greenland". Unknown parameter
- NASA (14 January 2009). "NASA Climate Scientist Honored by American Meteorological Society". Retrieved 5 February 2009.
Hansen earned the Rossby Medal for 'outstanding contributions to climate modeling, understanding climate change forcings and sensitivity, and for clear communication of climate science in the public arena.'
- "Dr Stephan Harrison". University of Exeter. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "Professor Gabriele C. Hegerl". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- The Royal Society (1 March 2007). "The science of climate change". Retrieved 7 March 2009.
Ann Henderson-Sellers [is]... a leader in describing and predicting the influence of land-cover and land-use change on climate and human systems.
- John Houghton (28 July 2003). "Global warming is now a weapon of mass destruction". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
As a climate scientist who has worked on this issue for several decades, first as head of the Met Office, and then as co-chair of scientific assessment for the UN intergovernmental panel on climate change, the impacts of global warming are such that I have no hesitation in describing it as a 'weapon of mass destruction'.
- Helen Briggs (2 December 2007). "50 years on: The Keeling Curve legacy". BBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
His very precise measurements produced a remarkable data set, which first sounded alarm bells over the build-up of the gas in the atmosphere, and eventually led to the tracking of greenhouse gases worldwide.
- A. J. Bowden; Cynthia V. Burek; C. V. Burek; Richard Wilding (2005). History of palaeobotany: selected essays. Geological Society. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-86239-174-1. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Australian Academy of Science (9 May 2006). "Earth Scientist Elected New President of Science Academy". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
Kurt Lambeck, 64, was elected to the Academy in 1984. He has been at the [Australian National University] since 1977, including 10 years as Director of the Research School of Earth Sciences. His principal research areas have included climate and environmental sciences, geophysics and space science.
- "Dennis P. Lettenmaier". University of Washington. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- William K. Stevens (18 June 1996). "Scientist at Work: Richard S. Lindzen". New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
His opinions attacking the formal consensus about climate change have made the 56-year-old Dr. Lindzen a bete noir [sic] to environmentalists who trumpet the dangers of global warming ... But everyone takes him with the utmost seriousness because of a reputation for brilliance that got him elected to the National Academy of Sciences at age 37.
- MIT News Office (26 June 1991). "Lorenz Receives 1991 Kyoto Prize". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
Professor Lorenz 'made his boldest scientific achievement in discovering deterministic chaos, a principle which has profoundly influenced a wide range of basic sciences and brought about one of the most dramatic changes in mankind's view of nature since Sir Isaac Newton.'
- Michael McCarthy (28 September 2000). "James Lovelock: The man who changed the world". The Independent. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
In Gaia he had conceived more than a radical idea: suddenly he had created a new persona, a reinvented Mother Earth able to inspire reverence and awe besides scientific curiosity.
- Walter Munk, Naomi Oreskes, and Richard Muller (2004) Gordon James Fraser MacDonald, Biographical Memoirs of the NAS, vol. 84, p. 225.
- Lynn Dicks (27 January 2007). "Warming up to a career in climate change". New Scientist. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
Manabe developed the first mathematical models of the atmosphere to predict the effects of adding carbon dioxide.
- BBC News (16 August 2004). "Climate legacy of 'hockey stick'". Retrieved 7 March 2009.
There are few more provocative symbols in the debate over global warming than the "hockey stick".
- CFCAS website
- Spotts, Peter N. (18 March 2005). "How to prepare a planet for global warming". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- Pearce, Fred, The Climate Files: The Battle for the Truth about Global Warming, (2010) Guardian Books, ISBN 978-0-85265-229-9, p. X.
- Steve Graham (24 March 2000). "Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)". Earth Observatory. NASA. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
The Serbian astrophysicist Milutin Milankovitch is best known for developing one of the most significant theories relating Earth motions and long-term climate change... Milankovitch dedicated his career to developing a mathematical theory of climate based on the seasonal and latitudinal variations of solar radiation received by the Earth.
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (11 October 1995). "MIT's Mario Molina wins Nobel Prize in chemistry for discovery of ozone depletion". Retrieved 7 March 2009.
The 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded... to MIT Professor Mario Molina for discovering the depletion of the ozone layer.
- "About OCCRI". OCCRI. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "Profile: Dr Gerald R. North". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2014-09-24.
- Anthony Mitchell (10 November 2006). "Expert Says Oceans Are Turning Acidic". The Associated Press. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
Rahmstorf, the head of Germany's Potsdam Institute for Research into Climatic Effects, says more research is urgently needed to assess the impact of ocean acidification.
- Nuzzo, Regina (2005). "Biography of Veerabhadran Ramanathan" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102 (15): 5323–5325. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.5323N. doi:10.1073/pnas.0501756102. PMC . PMID 15811938.
Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2002, Ramanathan is a distinguished professor of atmospheric sciences and the director of the Center for Atmospheric Sciences at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
- Spencer Weart (June 2007). "Roger Revelle's Discovery". The Discovery of Global Warming. American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
It seemed certain that the immense mass of the oceans would quickly absorb whatever excess carbon dioxide might come from human activities. Roger Revelle discovered that the peculiar chemistry of sea water prevents that from happening. His 1957 paper with Hans Suess is now widely regarded as the opening shot in the global warming debates.
- Begley, Sharon. "Climate Pessimists Were Right", The Wall Street Journal, February 9, 2007
- Garber, Kent. "Joe Romm, Influential Liberal Climate Change Expert and Blogger", U.S. News & World Report, March 31, 2009; and Lloyd Robin. "Geoengineering wars: Another scientist teases out a surprising effect of global deforestation". Scientific American, October 19, 2009
- "Professor Steven Sherwood". Climate Change Research Centre. University of New South Wales. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- NOAA (5 January 2007). "Susan Solomon: Pioneering Atmospheric Scientist". Celebrating 200 Years of Science, Service, and Stewardship. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
Susan Solomon has altered the course of atmospheric research through her pioneering role in the international scientific community's efforts to discover the cause of depleted atmospheric ozone in the Antarctic, known as the ozone 'hole'.
- Geisel Library (1875–1989). "Hans Suess Papers". Mandeville Special Collections Library. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
Hans Suess... pioneered radiocarbon dating techniques... [He] worked with Hans Jensen on the development of the nuclear shell model, a project for which Jensen was later honored with the Nobel Prize... Suess was responsible for developing carbon-14 dating theories and has contributed to knowledge of the origin of the elements and the evolution of the solar system.
- "Henrik Svensmark". Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). Retrieved 2012-07-14.
- Vancouver Sun, August 9, 2009, Opinion, Andrew Weaver, last accessed 20091207
- Marotzke, J., L.L. Fu, and E. Tziperman (2007). "Carl Wunsch Special Issue". Journal of Physical Oceanography. doi:10.1175/JPO9030.1.
Through the power of his vision, the rigor of his approach, and the generosity with which he has shared his ideas and resources, Carl has shaped the landscape of physical oceanography. Most scientists would be proud if they had effected one revolution in their field. Carl created four.