List of English terms of venery, by animal

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A skein of geese

This is a list of English terms of venery (venery being an archaic word for hunting), comprising terms from a tradition that arose in the Late Middle Ages, at least partly from the Book of Saint Albans of 1486, a historic list of "company terms". The present list also includes more common collective terms (such as "herd" and "flock") for some animals.

Standard terms for particular groups are listed first in each group and shown in bold.

Subject Collective noun Notes Sources
A
antelopes herd [1]
ants army [2]
colony [2][3]
nest [2]
swarm [2]
apes shrewdness [1][4][5]
troop [2]
asses herd [2]
drove driven in a group [2]
pace or passe [2][3]
B
baboons troop [2][5]
badgers cete [2][3][5][6]
bats colony [3]
bears sleuth or sloth [2][3][5]
beavers colony [2]
family [2]
bees swarm [5]
drift [5]
erst [5]
grist [3]
birds flock [5]
flight [5]
pod [5]
bitterns sedge or sege [3][4][7][8]
boars sounder 12 or more [6]
buffalo herd [3][5]
bullfinches bellowing [5]
bullocks drove driven in a group [5]
butterflies swarm [9]
flutter [10]
kaleidoscope [11]
C
capercaillie tok [12]
capons mews [13]
caribou herd [13]
cats clowder [2][3]
pounce [3]
destruction feral cats [5][14]
cattle mob driven in a group [15]
chickens clutch [5]
cheetahs coalition males only [16]
choughs chattering or clattering [4][5][6][17][18]
colts rag [3][5][6]
rake [5]
cormorants gulp [3]
coots covert [4][5][8]
coyotes pack [citation needed]
cranes herd [4][5][8]
sedge or sege [3][7]
crocodiles bask [3]
crows murder or horde [3][5][6]
curlews herd [4][5][6][8]
D
deer herd [citation needed]
parcel [19]
dogs pack [citation needed]
dolphins pod [20][21]
dotterel trip [3][5][22]
doves dole or dule fanciful [3][4][5]
flight [8]
ducks badling or badelynge [3][8]
paddling on water [3][5]
plump [23][24]
raft on water [3][5]
dunlins fling [5]
E
eagles convocation [3]
eels bed [2]
elephants herd [3]
elk gang [5][6]
herd [5]
F
falcons cast [25]
ferrets business corruption over time of 'busyness' [3][6]
busyness [4]
besyness
fesynes
fesnyng
feamyng
ghost words arising from successive misspellings of "busyness" [26]
finches charm or chirm [3][5]
fish school [3]
shoal [3]
flamingoes stand [3]
flamboyance [27]
colony [27]
regiment [27]
flies business [3]
foxes leash [3]
skulk [3]
frogs army [3]
G
geese flock on land [3]
gaggle on land [3][5][8]
skein in flight [3][5]
giraffes herd [5]
tower [3]
gnats cloud [3][5]
horde [3]
goats flock [5]
trip [citation needed]
goldfinches charm [8]
gorillas band [3]
goshawks flight [4]
grasshoppers cloud [3]
grouse covey [5]
guineafowl rasp [28]
H
hawks boil two or more spiralling in flight [3]
cast [3][4]
kettle flying in large numbers [3]
lease [4]
hens brood [8]
herons sedge or sege [3][4][6][7][8]
siege [3][5]
hippopotamuses bloat [3]
hogs parcel See also boars, pigs, swine [29][30]
hornets nest [3]
horses team in harness [3]
haras or harrase [3]
herd [citation needed]
string [3]
stud [3]
hounds pack [citation needed]
hyenas cackle [3]
I
ibex herd [citation needed]
insects swarm [citation needed]
J
jackdaws clattering [31]
train [31][32]
jays party [3]
scold [3]
jellyfish fluther [5]
smack [3][5]
K
kangaroos mob [2]
troop [2][3]
kittens kindle [5]
litter [citation needed]
L
lapwings deceit or desert [3][4][5][6][33]
larks bevy [5]
exaltation [4][5][6][8]
leopards leap or lepe [2][3][5]
lions pride [2][3][5]
sawt [5]
locusts plague [3]
M
mackerel shoal [citation needed]
magpies charm [3]
gulp [3]
murder [3]
tiding [3][4][5]
mallards sord [3][5][8]
suit or sute [5][8]
mares stud [5][6]
martens richesse or richness [3][5]
mice nest [2]
minnows shoal [citation needed]
moles labor or labour [2][3][5]
monkeys barrel [2][3]
troop [3][5]
wilderness [34]
moose herd [2]
mules barren [2][3][5][6]
span [2][3]
N
nightingales watch [4][5][8]
O
owls parliament [2][3][6]
oxen drove [2]
team [2][3]
yoke [2][3]
oysters bed [2][3]
P
parrots company [2][3]
pandemonium [2]
partridges covey [3][5][8]
peacocks muster [3][5][6][8]
ostentation [2][3]
pride [2]
pelicans pod [2]
penguins colony [2][3]
convent [2]
tuxedo [35]
pheasants bouquet [2][3]
head [5]
nest [3]
nide [3]
nye [2][3][5][6][8]
pigs drift See also boars, hogs, swine [2][3]
drove [2][3]
pigeons kit flying together [5]
plovers congregation [4][5][8]
stand [5]
wing [5]
Q
quail bevy [2][3][4][5][8]
covey [2][3]
drift [5]
R
rabbits colony [3]
nest [3]
herd domestic only [3]
litter young rabbits only [3]
raccoons gaze [2]
rats mischief [36]
ravens unkindness [4][5]
rhinoceroses crash [2][3][5]
rooks building [4][5][8]
parliament [5][6]
S
seals pod [citation needed]
sea urchins herd [37][38]
sheep flock [2][3]
drove when driven in a group [3]
herd [3]
hurtle [2]
pack [2]
sheldrake dopping [8][39]
snakes bed [2]
den [2]
knot [2]
nest [3]
pit [2]
snipes walk [5][6][8]
whisp or wisp [5]
sparrows host [2][3][4][5][8]
spiders cluster or clutter [2]
squirrels dray [2][3]
scurry [2][3]
starlings chattering [2][17]
murmuration [2][4][5][6][8]
storks mustering [2][3]
swallows flight [2][3][8]
swans bank on the ground [2]
bevy [2][3]
flight [2]
game [5]
herd [2][8]
wedge in flight [2][3][5]
swifts flock [citation needed]
scream [40]
swine drift [6]
T
teal spring [3][4][5][8]
tigers ambush [2]
streak [2][3]
toads knot [2][3]
nest [2]
trout hover [2][3]
turkeys gang [3]
rafter [2][3]
turtles bale [2][3]
dole or dule [2][8]
nest [3]
turtle doves dole or dule [4]
pitying [3]
V
vipers nest [3]
vultures kettle in flight [41]
committee while resting [41]
wake when feeding [41]
W
walruses herd [3]
pod [3]
waterfowl bunch [5]
knob fewer than 30 (fanciful) [42]
raft [5]
weasels colony [2]
pack [2]
whales gam [2][3]
herd [3]
mob [2]
pod [2][3]
wigeons company [3][5]
trip [5]
wildfowl bunch [5]
knob fewer than 30 (fanciful) [42]
plump [5]
trip [5]
wolves pack [2][3]
rout or route when in movement [2][3]
wombats wisdom [43]
woodcocks fall [3][4][5][8]
woodpeckers descent [2][3][5]
wrens herd [4][5]
Z
zebras herd [2]
dazzle [44]
zeal [2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pepper, Elizabeth (2003). Witches all (Revised, Illustrated ed.). Tiverton, Rhode Island: Witches' Almanac Limited. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-881098-26-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce "San Diego Zoo". archived copy of Animal group names. Zoological Society of San Diego. Archived from the original on July 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds "Common Questions: What Do You Call a Group of...?". archived copy of Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?. U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Berners, Dame Juliana (1881) [1486]. The Boke of Saint Albans. Introduction by William Blades. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2016-10-22. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Schott, Ben (2002). Schott's Original Miscellany. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 0-7475-6320-9. 
  7. ^ a b c "Sege" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Strutt, Joseph (1801). The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. London: J. White. p. 28. 
  9. ^ "Butterflies and Moths of North America – collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera". butterfliesandmoths.org. 
  10. ^ "Monarch Butterfly: Danaus plexippus". National Geographic. 
  11. ^ "What do you call a group of butterflies?". reference.com. 
  12. ^ "BTO BirdFacts – Capercaillie". bto.org. 
  13. ^ a b Faulkner, Mark; Lima Filho, Eduardo; Logan, Harriet; Mina, Miraphora (2013). A Compendium of Collective Nouns: From an Armory of Aardvarks to a Zeal of Zebras. Text by Jay Sacher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 37. ASIN B00CUSQNWO. ISBN 978-1-4521-2952-5. LCCN 2013-10190. OCLC 854853170. 
  14. ^ "destruction" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  15. ^ mob. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from Dictionary.com website http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mob
  16. ^ "What is a group of cheetahs called?". Reference. Retrieved 2017-10-26. 
  17. ^ a b "chattering" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  18. ^ "clattering" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  19. ^ Scrope, William (1883). Days of deer-stalking in the Scottish Highlands. London: Hamilton, Adams & Co. p. 83. He pressed forward rapidly, still out of sight of both parcels of deer 
  20. ^ "Battle to save NY pod of dolphins". BBC News. 17 January 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  21. ^ A Pod of Dolphins – NASA Mars Collection
  22. ^ "BTO BirdFacts – Dotterel". bto.org. 
  23. ^ "plump: meaning and definitions". infoplease.com. 
  24. ^ Plump[4] - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  25. ^ "cast". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. 
  26. ^ Borgmann, Dmitri A. (1967). Beyond Language: Adventures in Word and Thought. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 79–80, 146, 251–254. OCLC 655067975. 
  27. ^ a b c "Animal Groups". About.com. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  28. ^ Lynn-Allen, Lieut.-Colonel B. G. (1951). Shot-gun and Sunlight – The Game Birds of East Africa. London: Batchworth Press. 
  29. ^ Avery Craven (1957). The coming of the Civil War. University of Chicago Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-226-11894-0. 
  30. ^ Schoultz, Lars (1998). Beneath the United States. Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-674-92276-X. They are lazy, dirty, nasty, and in short I can compare them to nothing but a parcel of hogs. (John Quincy Adams, age 12) 
  31. ^ a b Skull, Amanda. "Bird Watch – Jackdaw" (PDF). Bird Watch. British Trust for Ornithology. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  32. ^ White, Gilbert (1833). The Natural History of Selborne. London, United Kingdom: N. Hailes. p. 163. 
  33. ^ "BTO BirdFacts – Lapwing". bto.org. 
  34. ^ Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, Act III, Scene i
  35. ^ Jouventin, Pierre (2017). Why Penguins Communicate. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press. p. 235. 
  36. ^ "ABC Creature Features - Rats". ABC. 
  37. ^ "Balancing Act: Otters, Urchins and Kelp". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  38. ^ "Blue Planet: The Deep". 
  39. ^ "Dopping" – via The Free Dictionary. 
  40. ^ "BTO BirdFacts – Swift". bto.org. 
  41. ^ a b c Galván, Javier (2014). They Do What? A Cultural Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the World. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 289. ISBN 1610693426. 
  42. ^ a b Ellery, Sue (November 11, 2012). Gallimaufry. Lulu.com. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-291-15774-1. 
  43. ^ "Animal Encounters – Nat Geo Wild". 
  44. ^ van der Post, Laurens (1958). The Lost World of the Kalahari. Harcourt Brace & Company. p. 196. 

Further reading[edit]