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List of English terms of venery, by animal

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A skein of geese

This is a list of English terms of venery (venery being an archaic word for hunting), comprising terms from a tradition that arose in the Late Middle Ages, at least partly from the Book of Saint Albans of 1486. The list also includes more common collective terms (such as "herd" and "flock") for some animals.

Standard terms for particular groups are listed first in each group and shown in bold.

Subject Collective noun Notes Sources
A
antelopes herd [1]
ants army [2]
colony [2][3]
nest [2]
swarm [2]
apes shrewdness [1][4][5]
troop [2]
asses herd [2]
drove driven in a group [2]
pace or passe [2][3]
B
baboons troop [2][5]
badgers cete [2][3][5][6]
bats colony [3]
bears sleuth or sloth [2][3][5]
beavers colony [2]
family [2]
bees swarm [5]
drift [5]
erst [5]
grist [3]
birds flock [5]
flight [5]
pod [5]
bitterns sedge or sege [3][4][7][8]
boars (wild boars) sounder 12 or more [6]
buffalo herd [3][5]
bullfinches bellowing [5]
bullocks drove driven in a group [5]
butterflies swarm [9]
flutter [10]
C
capercaillie tok [11]
capons mews [12]
caribou herd [12]
cats clowder [2][3]
pounce [3]
wild cats (feral cats) destruction [5][13]
cattle mob driven in a group [14]
chickens clutch [5]
choughs chattering or clattering [4][5][6][15][16]
colts rag [3][5][6]
rake [5]
cormorants gulp [3]
coots covert [4][5][8]
coyotes pack
cranes herd [4][5][8]
sedge or sege [3][7]
crocodiles bask [3]
crows murder [3][5][6]
curlews herd [4][5][6][8]
D
deer herd [17]
parcel [18]
dogs pack [17]
dolphins pod [19][20]
dotterel trip [3][5][17][21]
doves dole or dule fanciful [3][4][5][17]
flight [8]
ducks badling or badelynge [3][8]
paddling on water [3][5][17]
plump [22][23]
raft on water [3][5][17]
dunlins fling [5]
E
eagles convocation [3]
eels bed [2]
elephants herd [3]
elk gang [5][6]
herd [5]
F
falcons cast [24]
ferrets business corruption over time of 'busyness' [3][6]
busyness [4]
besyness
fesynes
fesnyng
feamyng
ghost words arising from successive misspellings of "busyness" [25]
finches charm or chirm [3][5]
fish school [3]
shoal [3]
flamingoes stand [3]
flamboyance [26]
flies business [3]
foxes leash [3]
skulk [3]
frogs army [3]
G
geese flock on land [3][27]
gaggle on land [3][8][27]
skein in flight [3][27]
giraffes herd [27]
gnats cloud [3][5][27]
horde [3][27]
goats flock [27]
goldfinches charm [8][27]
goosanders dopping [27]
gorillas band [3][27]
goshawks flight [4][27]
grasshoppers cloud [3][27]
grouse covey [5][27]
guineafowl rasp [28]
H
hares down [29]
drove [29]
flick [29]
husk [29]
harts herd [29]
hawks boil two or more spiralling in flight [3]
cast [3][4][5]
kettle flying in large numbers [3]
lease [4]
hedgehogs array [29]
hens brood [8]
herons sedge or sege [3][4][6][7][8][29]
siege [3][5][29]
hippopotamuses bloat [3][29]
hogs parcel See also boars, pigs, swine [30][31]
hornets bike [29]
nest [3]
swarm [29]
horses team in harness [3][29]
haras or harrase [3][29]
herd [29]
stable [29]
string [3][29]
stud [3][29]
hounds pack [29]
cry [29]
hunt [29]
meet [29]
mute [29]
stable [29]
hyenas cackle [3]
I
ibex herd [32]
ibises colony [32]
iguanas mess [32]
insects flight [32]
horde [32]
plague [32]
rabble [32]
swarm [32]
J
jackdaws clattering [33]
train [33][34]
jays party [3]
scold [3]
jellyfish fluther [5]
smack [3][5]
K
kangaroos mob [2]
troop [2][3]
kittens kindle [5]
litter
L
lapwings deceit or desert [3][4][5][6][35]
larks bevy [5]
exaltation [4][5][6][8]
leopards leap or lepe [2][3][5]
lions pride [2][3][5]
sawt [5]
locusts plague [3]
M
mackerel shoal [36]
magpies charm [3]
congregation [36]
gulp [3]
murder [3]
tiding [3][4][5][36]
tittering [36]
mallards flush [36]
puddling [36]
sord [3][5][8][36]
suit or sute [5][8][36]
mares stud [5][6][36]
martens richesse or richness [3][5][36]
mice nest [2][36]
trip [36]
minnows shoal [36]
moles company [36]
labor or labour [2][3][5][36]
monkeys barrel [2][3]
cartload [36]
tribe [36]
troop [3][5][36]
wilderness [37]
moorhens plump [36]
moose herd [2][36]
mosquitoes scourge [36]
mudhens fleet [36]
mules barren [2][3][5][6][36]
pack [3][36]
rake [36]
span [2][3][36]
N
nightingales watch [4][5][8]
O
owls parliament [2][3][6]
oxen drove [2]
team [2][3]
yoke [2][3]
oysters bed [2][3]
P
parrots company [2][3]
pandemonium [2]
partridges covey [3][5][8]
peacocks muster [3][5][6][8]
ostentation [2][3]
pride [2]
pelicans pod [2]
penguins colony [2][3]
convent [2]
pheasants bouquet [2][3]
head [5]
nest [3]
nide [3]
nye [2][3][5][6][8]
pigs drift See also boars, hogs, swine [2][3]
drove [2][3]
pigeons kit flying together [5]
plovers congregation [4][5][8]
stand [5]
wing [5]
Q
quail bevy [2][3][4][5][8]
covey [2][3]
drift [5]
R
rabbits colony [3]
nest [3]
herd domestic only [3]
litter young rabbits only [3]
raccoons gaze [2]
ravens unkindness [4][5]
rhinoceroses crash [2][3][5]
rooks building [4][5][8]
parliament [5][6]
S
salmon bind [38]
draught [38]
run [38]
sandpipers fling [38]
seals herd [38]
pod [38]
rookery [38]
sea urchins herd [39][40]
sheep flock [2][3][38]
down [38]
drift when driven in a group [38]
drove when driven in a group [3][38]
herd [3][38]
hurtle [2][38]
meinie [38]
mob [38]
pack [2]
parcel [38]
trip [38]
sheldrake dopping [8][38][41]
snails escargatoire [38]
rout [38]
walk [38]
snakes bed [2]
den [2]
knot [2]
nest [3]
pit [2]
snipes walk [5][6][8][38]
whisp or wisp [5][38]
sparrows host [2][3][4][5][8][38]
meinie [38]
tribe [38]
spiders cluster or clutter [2][38]
squirrels colony [38]
dray [2][3]
scurry [2][3]
starlings chattering [2][15][38]
clattering [38]
cloud [38]
congregation [38]
murmuration [2][4][5][6][8][38]
stoats pack [38]
trip [38]
storks flight [38]
mustering [2][3][38]
phalanx when migrating [38]
swallows flight [2][3][8][38]
gulp [38]
swans bank on the ground [2][38]
bevy [2][3][38]
drift [38]
eyrar [38]
flight [2]
game [5][38]
herd [2][8][38]
lamentation fanciful [38]
sownder [38]
team [38]
wedge in flight [2][3][5][38]
whiting [38]
swifts flock [38]
scream [42]
swine doylt See also boars, hogs, pigs [38]
drift [6][38]
trip [38]
T
teal spring [3][4][5][8]
tigers ambush [2]
streak [2][3]
toads knot [2][3]
nest [2]
trout hover [2][3]
turkeys gang [3]
rafter [2][3]
turtles bale [2][3]
dole or dule [2][8]
nest [3]
turtle doves dole or dule [4]
pitying [3]
U
V
vipers nest [3]
W
walruses herd [3]
pod [3]
waterfowl bunch [5]
knob fewer than 30 (fanciful) [43]
raft [5]
weasels colony [2]
pack [2]
whales gam [2][3]
herd [3]
mob [2]
pod [2][3]
wigeons company [3][5]
trip [5]
wildfowl bunch [5]
knob fewer than 30 (fanciful) [43]
plump [5]
trip [5]
wolves pack [2][3]
rout or route when in movement [2][3]
wombats wisdom [44]
woodcocks fall [3][4][5][8]
woodpeckers descent [2][3][5]
wrens herd [4][5]
X
Y
Z
zebras herd [2][45]
cohort [45]
dazzle [46]
zeal [2][45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pepper, Elizabeth (2003). Witches all (Revised, Illustrated ed.). Tiverton, Rhode Island: Witches' Almanac Limited. p. 41. ISBN 9781881098263. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce "San Diego Zoo". archived copy of Animal group names. Zoological Society of San Diego. Archived from the original on July 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds "Common Questions: What Do You Call a Group of...?". archived copy of Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?. U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-13. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Berners, Dame Juliana (1881) [1486]. The Boke of Saint Albans. Introduction by William Blades. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
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  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Schott, Ben (2002). Schott's Original Miscellany. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 0-7475-6320-9. 
  7. ^ a b c Definition of Sege by the Free Online Dictionary
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Strutt, Joseph (1801). The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. London: J. White. p. 28. 
  9. ^ http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/
  10. ^ http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/bugs/monarch-butterfly/
  11. ^ British Trust for Ornithology - BirdFacts - Capercaillie
  12. ^ a b Faulkner, Mark; Lima Filho, Eduardo; Logan, Harriet; Mina, Miraphora (2013). A Compendium of Collective Nouns: From an Armory of Aardvarks to a Zeal of Zebras. Text by Jay Sacher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 37. ASIN B00CUSQNWO. ISBN 978-1-4521-2952-5. LCCN 2013-10190. OCLC 854853170. 
  13. ^ Definition of Destruction by the Free Online Dictionary
  14. ^ mob. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from Dictionary.com website http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mob
  15. ^ a b Definition of Chattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  16. ^ Definition of Clattering by the Free Online Dictionary
  17. ^ a b c d e f "AskOxford: D". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  18. ^ Full text of "Days of deer-stalking in the Scottish Highlands; including an account of the nature and habits of the red deer, a description of the Scottish forests, and histor...
  19. ^ "Battle to save NY pod of dolphins". BBC News. 17 January 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  20. ^ A Pod of Dolphins - NASA Mars Collection
  21. ^ British Trust for Ornithology - BirdFacts - Dotterel
  22. ^ http://dictionary.infoplease.com/plump
  23. ^ Plump[4] - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  24. ^ "cast". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. 
  25. ^ Borgmann, Dmitri A. (1967). Beyond Language: Adventures in Word and Thought. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 79–80, 146, 251–254. OCLC 655067975. 
  26. ^ "Animal Groups". About.com. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
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  28. ^ Lynn-Allen, Lieut.-Colonel B. G. (1951). Shot-gun and Sunlight - The Game Birds of East Africa. London: Batchworth Press. 
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  30. ^ Avery Craven (1957). The coming of the Civil War. University of Chicago Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-226-11894-0. 
  31. ^ Schoultz, Lars (1998). Beneath the United States. Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-674-92276-X. They are lazy, dirty, nasty, and in short I can compare them to nothing but a parcel of hogs. (John Quincy Adams, age 12) 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h "AskOxford: I". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  33. ^ a b Skull, Amanda. "Bird Watch - Jackdaw" (PDF). Bird Watch. British Trust for Ornithology. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  34. ^ White, Gilbert (1833). The Natural History of Selborne. London, United Kingdom: N. Hailes. p. 163. 
  35. ^ British Trust for Ornithology - BirdFacts - Lapwing
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "AskOxford: M". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved 2011-09-23. 
  37. ^ Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, Act III, Scene i
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc "AskOxford: S". archived copy of Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  39. ^ "Balancing Act: Otters, Urchins and Kelp". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  40. ^ "Blue Planet: The Deep". 
  41. ^ Definition of Dopping by the Free Online Dictionary
  42. ^ British Trust for Ornithology - BirdFacts - Swift
  43. ^ a b Ellery, Sue (November 11, 2012). Gallimaufry. Lulu.com. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-291-15774-1. 
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  45. ^ a b c "AskOxford: Z". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  46. ^ van der Post, Laurens (1958). The Lost World of the Kalahari. Harcourt Brace & Company. p. 196. 

Further reading[edit]